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The Empire of Romania[2] (Latin: Imperium Romaniae), more commonly known in historiography as the Latin
Latin
Empire or Latin
Latin
Empire of Constantinople, and known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia
Frankokratia
or the Latin
Latin
Occupation,[3] was a feudal Crusader state
Crusader state
founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
on lands captured from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. It was established after the capture of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1204 and lasted until 1261. The Latin
Latin
Empire was intended to supplant the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
as the titular Roman Empire in the east, with a Western Roman Catholic emperor enthroned in place of the Eastern Orthodox Roman emperors. Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders, was crowned the first Latin
Latin
emperor as Baldwin I on 16 May 1204. The Latin
Latin
Empire failed to attain political or economic dominance over the other Latin
Latin
powers that had been established in former Byzantine territories in the wake of the Fourth Crusade, especially Venice, and after a short initial period of military successes it went into a steady decline. Weakened by constant warfare with the Bulgarians and the unconquered sections of the empire, it eventually fell when Byzantines recaptured Constantinople under Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos
Michael VIII Palaiologos
in 1261. The last Latin emperor, Baldwin II, went into exile, but the imperial title survived, with several pretenders to it, until the 14th century.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Origins 2.2 In Asia Minor 2.3 In Europe 2.4 Decline and fall 2.5 Titular claimants

3 Organization and society

3.1 Administration 3.2 Economy 3.3 Society 3.4 Church

4 List of emperors 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External links

Name[edit] The original name of this state in the Latin
Latin
language was Imperium Romaniae ("Empire of Romania"). This name was used based on the fact that the common name for the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire in this period had been Romania
Romania
(Ῥωμανία, "Land of the Romans"). The names Byzantine and Latin
Latin
were not contemporaneous terms. They were invented much later by historians seeking to differentiate between the classical period of the Roman Empire, the medieval period of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the late medieval Latin
Latin
Empire, all of which called themselves "Roman." The term Latin
Latin
has been used because the crusaders (Franks, Venetians, and other westerners) were Roman Catholic and used Latin
Latin
as their liturgical and scholarly language. It is used in contrast to the Eastern Orthodox locals who used Greek in both liturgy and common speech. History[edit] Origins[edit] See also: Frankokratia After the fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
in the Fourth Crusade, the crusaders agreed to divide up Byzantine territory. In the Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae, signed on 1 October 1204, three eighths of the empire — including Crete
Crete
and other islands — went to the Republic of Venice. The Latin
Latin
Empire claimed the remainder and exerted control over:

areas of Greece, divided into vassal fiefs:

the Kingdom of Thessalonica the Principality of Achaea the Duchy of Athens the Duchy of the Archipelago

the short-lived Duchy of Philippopolis
Duchy of Philippopolis
in north Thrace two further duchies were projected for Nicaea
Nicaea
and Philadelphia in Asia Minor, but they were forestalled by the establishment of the Empire of Nicaea.

The Doge of Venice
Doge of Venice
did not rank as a vassal to the Latin
Latin
Empire, but his position in control of three-eighths of its territory and of parts of Constantinople
Constantinople
itself ensured Venice's influence in the Empire's affairs. However, much of the former Byzantine territory remained in the hands of rival successor states led by Byzantine Greek aristocrats, such as the Despotate of Epirus, the Empire of Nicaea, and the Empire of Trebizond, each bent on reconquest from the Latins. The crowning of Baldwin I (16 May 1204) and the establishment of the Latin
Latin
Empire had the curious effect of creating three simultaneously existing entities claiming to be successors of the Roman Empire: the Latin
Latin
Empire, the Holy Roman Empire, and the remnants of the Byzantine Empire (the direct successor of the ancient Roman Empire). None of these polities actually controlled the city of Rome, which remained under the temporal authority of the Pope. In Asia Minor[edit]

Capture of Constantinople
Constantinople
during the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
in 1204.

The initial campaigns of the crusaders in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
resulted in the capture of most of Bithynia
Bithynia
by 1205, with the defeat of the forces of Theodore I Laskaris
Theodore I Laskaris
at Poemanenum and Prusa. Latin
Latin
successes continued, and in 1207 a truce was signed with Theodore, newly proclaimed Emperor of Nicaea. The Latins inflicted a further defeat on Nicaean forces at the Rhyndakos river in October 1211, and three years later the Treaty of Nymphaeum (1214)
Treaty of Nymphaeum (1214)
recognized their control of most of Bithynia
Bithynia
and Mysia. The peace was maintained until 1222, when the resurgent power of Nicaea
Nicaea
felt sufficiently strong to challenge the Latin
Latin
Empire, by that time weakened by constant warfare in its European provinces. At the battle of Poimanenon in 1224, the Latin
Latin
army was defeated, and by the next year Emperor Robert of Courtenay
Robert of Courtenay
was forced to cede all his Asian possessions to Nicaea, except for Nicomedia
Nicomedia
and the territories directly across from Constantinople. Nicaea
Nicaea
turned also to the Aegean, capturing the islands awarded to the empire. In 1235, finally, the last Latin
Latin
possessions fell to Nicaea. In Europe[edit] Unlike in Asia, where the Latin
Latin
Empire faced only an initially weak Nicaea, in Europe it was immediately confronted with a powerful enemy: the Bulgarian tsar Kaloyan. When Baldwin campaigned against the Byzantine lords of Thrace, they called upon Kaloyan for help. At the Battle of Adrianople on 14 April 1205, the Latin
Latin
heavy cavalry and knights were crushed by Kaloyan's troops and Cuman allies, and Emperor Baldwin was captured. He was imprisoned in the Bulgarian capital Tarnovo until his death later in 1205. Kaloyan was murdered a couple of years later (1207) during a siege of Thessalonica, and the Bulgarian threat conclusively defeated with a victory the following year, which allowed Baldwin's successor, Henry of Flanders, to reclaim most of the lost territories in Thrace
Thrace
until 1210, when peace was concluded with the marriage of Henry to Maria of Bulgaria, tsar Kaloyan's daughter. At the same time, another Greek successor state, the Despotate of Epirus, under Michael I Komnenos Doukas, posed a threat to the empire's vassals in Thessalonica and Athens. Henry demanded his submission, which Michael provided, giving off his daughter to Henry's brother Eustace in the summer of 1209. This alliance allowed Henry to launch a campaign in Macedonia, Thessaly
Thessaly
and Central Greece
Greece
against the rebellious Lombard lords of Thessalonica. However, Michael's attack on the Kingdom of Thessalonica
Kingdom of Thessalonica
in 1210 forced him to return north to relieve the city and to force Michael back into submission. In 1214 however, Michael died, and was succeeded by Theodore Komnenos Doukas, who was determined to capture Thessalonica. On 11 June 1216, while supervising repairs to the walls of Thessalonica, Henry died, and was succeeded by Peter of Courtenay, who himself was captured and executed by Theodore the following year. A regency was set up in Constantinople, headed by Peter's widow, Yolanda of Flanders, until her death in 1219. Her son Robert of Courtenay
Robert of Courtenay
being absent in France, the regency passed first to Conon de Béthune, and after his death shortly after, to Cardinal Giovanni Colonna, until 1221, when Robert of Courtenay arrived in Constantinople. Distracted by the renewed war with Nicaea, and waiting in vain for assistance from Pope Honorius III and the King of France Philip II, the Latin
Latin
Empire was unable to prevent the final fall of Thessalonica to Epirus in 1224. Epirote armies then conquered Thrace
Thrace
in 1225–26, appearing before Constantinople
Constantinople
itself. The Latin
Latin
Empire was saved for a time by the threat posed to Theodore by the Bulgarian tsar Ivan II Asen, and a truce was concluded in 1228. Decline and fall[edit] After Robert of Courtenay
Robert of Courtenay
died in 1228, a new regency under John of Brienne was set up. After the disastrous Epirote defeat by the Bulgarians at the Battle of Klokotnitsa, the Epirote threat to the Latin
Latin
Empire was removed, only to be replaced by Nicaea, which started acquiring territories in Greece. Emperor John III Doukas Vatatzes
John III Doukas Vatatzes
of Nicaea
Nicaea
concluded an alliance with Bulgaria, which in 1235 resulted in a joint campaign against the Latin
Latin
Empire, and an unsuccessful siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
the same year. In 1237, Baldwin II attained majority and took over the reins of a much-diminished state. The empire's precarious situation forced him to travel often to Western Europe seeking aid, but largely without success. In order to gain money, he was forced to resort to desperate means, from removing the lead roofs of the Great Palace and selling them, to handing over his only son, Philip, to Venetian merchants as a guarantee for a loan. By 1247, the Nicaeans had effectively surrounded Constantinople, with only the city's strong walls holding them at bay, and the Battle of Pelagonia in 1258 signaled the beginning of the end of Latin predominance in Greece. Thus, on 25 July 1261, with most of the Latin troops away on campaign,[vague][where?] the Nicaean general Alexios Strategopoulos found an unguarded entrance to the city, and entered it with 800 troops only, restoring the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
for his master, Michael VIII Palaiologos. The remaining Latin
Latin
states ruled the territory of present Greece, some of them until the 18th century, and are known as Latinokratia
Latinokratia
states. Titular claimants[edit] For about a century thereafter, the heirs of Baldwin II continued to use the title of Emperor of Constantinople, and were seen as the overlords of the various remaining Latin
Latin
states in the Aegean. They exercised effective authority in Greece
Greece
only when actually ruling as princes of Achaea, as in 1333–83. Organization and society[edit] Administration[edit] The empire was formed and administered on Western European feudal principles, incorporating some elements of the Byzantine bureaucracy. The emperor was assisted by a council, composed of the various barons, the Venetian podestà and his six-member council. This council had a major voice in the governance of the realm, especially in periods of regency, when the Regent (moderator imperii) was dependent on their consent to rule. The podesta, likewise, was an extremely influential member, being practically independent of the emperor. He exercised authority over the Venetian quarters of Constantinople
Constantinople
and Pera and the Venetian dominions within the empire, assisted by a separate set of officials. His role was more that of an ambassador and vicegerent of Venice than a vassal to the empire. Economy[edit] The Latins did not trust the professional Greek bureaucracy, and in the immediate aftermath of the conquest completely dismantled the Greek economic administration of the areas they controlled. The result was disastrous, disrupting all forms of production and trade. Almost from its inception the Latin
Latin
Empire was sending requests back to the papacy for aid. For a few years, the major commodities it exported from the surrounding region of Thrace
Thrace
were wheat and furs; it also profited from Constantinople's strategic location on major trade routes. While the empire showed some moderate vitality while Henry was alive, after his death in 1216 there was a major deficit in leadership. By the 1230s, Constantinople
Constantinople
- even with its drastically reduced population - was facing a major shortage of basic foodstuffs. In several senses, the only significant export on which the economy of the Latin
Latin
Empire had any real basis was the sale of relics back to Western Europe which had been looted from Greek churches. For example, Emperor Baldwin II sold the relic of the Crown of Thorns
Crown of Thorns
while in France trying to raise new funds. Society[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2008)

The elite of the empire were the Frankish and Venetian lords, headed by the emperor, the barons and the lower-ranking vassals and liege lords, including many former Byzantine aristocrats. The bulk of the people were Orthodox Greeks, still divided according to the Byzantine system in income classes based on land ownership. Church[edit] Main article: Latin
Latin
Patriarch of Constantinople As with all Latin
Latin
states, the Orthodox hierarchy was replaced by Roman Catholic prelates, but not suppressed.[citation needed] An expansive Catholic hierarchy was established, under the dual supervision of the Latin
Latin
archbishop of Constantinople
Constantinople
and the Papal legate, until the two offices were merged in 1231. Western Catholic monastic orders, such as the Cistercians, the Dominicans and the Franciscans
Franciscans
were established in the empire. The Orthodox clergy retained its rites and customs, including its right to marriage, but was demoted to a subordinate position, subject to the local Latin
Latin
bishops.[citation needed] List of emperors[edit] Further information: Latin
Latin
Emperor References[edit]

^ Arms used by Philip of Courtenay, who held the title of Latin Emperor of Constantinople
Constantinople
from 1273–1283 (even though Constantinople had been reinstated to the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in 1261). This design was sometimes presented as the "arms of the emperors of Constantinople" in early modern heraldry. Hubert de Vries, Byzantium: Arms and Emblems (hubert-herald.nl) (2011). ^ On the long history of "Romania" as a territorial name for the Roman and (later) Byzantine empires, see R.L. Wolff, "Romania: The Latin Empire of Constantinople". In: Speculum, 23 (1948), pp. 1-34. ^ Jacobi, David (1999), "The Latin
Latin
empire of Constantinople
Constantinople
and the Frankish states in Greece", in Abulafia, David, The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume V: c. 1198–c. 1300, Cambridge University Press, pp. 525–542, ISBN 0-521-36289-X 

Bibliography[edit]

Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994), The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 978-0-472-08260-5  Geanakoplos, Deno John (1959), Emperor Michael Palaeologus and the West, 1258–1282: A Study in Byzantine- Latin
Latin
Relations, Harvard University Press  Jacobi, David (1999), "The Latin
Latin
Empire of Constantinople
Constantinople
and the Frankish States in Greece", in Abulafia, David, The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume V: c. 1198–c. 1300, Cambridge University Press, pp. 525–542, ISBN 0-521-36289-X  Miller, William (1908), The Latins in the Levant, a History of Frankish Greece
Greece
(1204–1566), New York: E.P. Dutton and Company  Nicol, Donald MacGillivray (1993), The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453, Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-43991-4  Setton, Kenneth M. (1976), The Papacy and the Levant, 1204–1571: Volume I, The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries, DIANE Publishing, ISBN 0-87169-114-0 

External links[edit]

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