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Latgale
Latgale
(Latgalian: Latgola; Russian: Латгалия; Latin: Lettgallia) is one of the four historical and cultural regions of Latvia
Latvia
recognised in the Constitution of the Latvian Republic. It is the easternmost region north of the Daugava River. While most of Latvia
Latvia
is historically Lutheran, Latgale
Latgale
is predominantly Roman Catholic, in fact, according to a 2011 survey, the 65.8% of the total population is Catholic. There is also a strong Eastern Orthodox minority, comprising the 23.8%, divided in 13.8% Russian Orthodox Christians and 10.0% Old Believers.[1]

Religion in Latgale
Latgale
(2011)[1]    Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(65.8%)   Eastern Orthodoxy (13.8%)    Old Believers
Old Believers
(10.0%)    Lutheranism
Lutheranism
(5.0%)   No religion (5.8%)   Other religions (0.1%)

The region has a large population of ethnic Russians, especially in Daugavpils, the largest city in the region. Many of the Russians who lived in Latgale
Latgale
before the Soviet occupation are Old Believers. Rēzekne, often called the heart of Latgale, Krāslava, and Ludza
Ludza
are other large towns in the region, which also has a Belarusian minority. There is also a significant Polish minority. As part of the Polotsk and Vitebsk
Vitebsk
guberniyas, the region was part of the Pale of Settlement and had a very large Jewish population – but most of the Jews perished in the Holocaust and much of the remainder has emigrated. The region has a smaller average wage than rest of regions.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Name 1.2 Early history 1.3 Medieval Livonia, Duchy of Livonia
Duchy of Livonia
and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1.4 Latgale
Latgale
during and after World War I 1.5 Latgale
Latgale
as part of interbellum Latvia 1.6 Latgale
Latgale
during and after World War II

2 References 3 See also 4 Latgale
Latgale
in foreign languages 5 External links

History[edit] Name[edit] Due to its history several different names are historically used for Latgale.

Other names for the region include Lettigallia, Latgallia, and Latgola. The people are called latgalieši in Latvian (as distinct from latgaļi, which refers to the ancient tribe, though some modern Latgalians
Latgalians
prefer latgaļi) – latgalīši in Latgalian, sometimes latgali – Latgalians, Latgallians, or Lettigalls in English, and are sometimes referred to as čangaļi (sometimes derogatory – the reference is to a novel, and Latgalians
Latgalians
often call other Latvians "čiuļi"). The term latgalieši dates only to the early 20th century, and before that Latgalians
Latgalians
were long referred to as Vitebsk
Vitebsk
Latvians or Inflantians
Inflantians
(Latgalian: vitebskīši, inflantīši).

From 2004 on, the Latgalian language
Latgalian language
is the subject of the biggest sociolinguistic/ethnolinguistic poll in Europe, held by the Rēzekne Augstskola and the Centre d'Étude Linguistiques Pour l'Europe.

Historical regions of Latvia, together with Latvian cultural groups; Latgale
Latgale
in green

As of 2011 97,600 people in the region spoke Latgalian language,[2] which is a standardised form of local varieties of High Latvian dialect. Early history[edit] Originally the territory of what is now Latgale
Latgale
was populated by Eastern Baltic Latgalian tribe. During the 10th–12th centuries two principalities, Jersika
Jersika
and Atzele, existed on the territory of modern Latgale
Latgale
and Eastern Vidzeme. In addition Latgalians
Latgalians
inhabited parts of modern Pskov Oblast
Pskov Oblast
in Russia
Russia
and Vitsebsk Voblast
Vitsebsk Voblast
in Belarus. Medieval Livonia, Duchy of Livonia
Duchy of Livonia
and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth[edit] ‹ The template below (Infobox coat of arms) is being considered for merging. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

Coat of Arms of Latgale
Latgale
(historical)

Details

Adopted 1566

In the first decade of the 13th century the principality of Jersika, also known as Lettia, was allied with the Principality of Polotsk
Polotsk
and Lithuanian dukes against the Bishopric of Livonia, but was defeated in 1209. Part of it was divided between the Bishopric and the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, the remainder became a vassal country. In 1239, after the death of King Visvaldis, the latter was incorporated into the territory of the Livonian Order. In 1242, after defeat in the Battle of the Ice, Eastern Latgale (Lotigola) temporarily passed to the Novgorod Republic. In 1263 Livonian knights started to build the Volkenberg castle near to the Rāzna lake (today within the Rāzna National Park). In 1277 Grand duke Traidenis
Traidenis
of Lithuania
Lithuania
unsuccessfully besieged the newly built castle of Daugavpils
Daugavpils
. In 1481–1493 Grand Prince Ivan III of Russia
Russia
temporarily occupied Latgale. During the Livonian War
Livonian War
Latgale
Latgale
was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
(1559–1562), which in 1569 was incorporated into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Ivan IV of Russia
Russia
annexed Latgale
Latgale
in 1577, but renounced his claims to Livonia in Truce of Jam Zapolski (1582).[citation needed] In 1621 most of the Duchy of Livonia
Duchy of Livonia
was ceded to the Swedish Empire, but part of the Duchy including Latgale
Latgale
remained under Polish-Lithuanian control. This became known as the Inflanty Voivodeship.[3] The creation of Polish Inflanty is the birth of the region we now know of as Latgale. During this period the Latgalian dialect was influenced by Polish and developed separately from the Latvian spoken in other parts of Latvia. Latgale
Latgale
during and after World War I[edit] In 1772, Latgale
Latgale
was annexed by the Russian Empire, and in 1865, as part of Russia's anti-Polish policies, a period of Russification
Russification
was begun, during which the Latgalian language
Latgalian language
(written in Latin script) was forbidden. This ban was lifted in 1904, and a period of Latgalian reawakening began. Many Latgalian public figures sought reunification with the rest of Latvia
Latvia
at the Congress of Rēzekne
Rēzekne
in 1917, while some preferred autonomy or incorporation in Russia. The decisions of the 1917 Congress and the declaration of independence on 18 November 1918, claiming Latgale
Latgale
as part of the Latvian state, moved both Latvian armed forces as well as local partisans to fight for the liberation of Latgale: a difficult task, given the territorial interests of both Bolshevik Russia
Russia
and Poland.[citation needed] Latgale
Latgale
as part of interbellum Latvia[edit] In 1920 Latgale
Latgale
was incorporated into Latvia. By the peace treaty of 1920 with Soviet Russia, parts of the Vitebsk
Vitebsk
Governorate and Pskov Governorate were incorporated into the new Republic of Latvia. United with other ethnic Latvian territories, as claimed by the declaration of independence (ethnic borders as national borders), they formed the districts of Daugavpils, Ludza, Rēzekne
Rēzekne
and Jaunlatgale, later Abrene district. Latgale
Latgale
during and after World War II[edit] In 1944, at the beginning of the second occupation of Latvia
Latvia
by the USSR, the eastern municipalities of the Abrene district including Abrene were incorporated into the Russian Federation.[citation needed] Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Latgale
Latgale
became one of the cultural regions of the Republic of Latvia. Some Russians favour the re-integration of Latgale
Latgale
into Russia, as evidenced by a small demonstration at the Latvian Embassy in Moscow in April 2014.[4] References[edit]

^ a b Iannaccaro, Gabriele (2011). "Sociolinguistica: language and Religion": 102.  ^ Tautas skaitīšana: Latgalē trešā daļa iedzīvotāju ikdienā lieto latgaliešu valodu ^ O'Connor, Kevin. Culture and Customs of the Baltic States.  ^ Rally at Latvian Embassy in Russia
Russia
propagates Latgale
Latgale
as part of Russia, LETA, 2014-04-17 

See also[edit]

Latgalians
Latgalians
(modern) Latgalians
Latgalians
(ancient) Latgalian language

Latgale
Latgale
in foreign languages[edit]

German: Lettgallen Lithuanian: Latgala Polish: Łatgalia Russian: Латгалия

External links[edit]

Latgale
Latgale
Daily Photo[permanent dead link] lt:Latgala overview in Lithuanian Latgale
Latgale
/ Latgola overview in Latvian, English, and Russian Latgale
Latgale
research center [1] a Latgalian site with an online Latgalian–Latvian dictionary. Latgalian folk song (in Russian) News from Latgale, Pro-Russian point of view (in Russian) Latgalian news portal, Pro-Russian point of view

Coordinates: 56°31′21″N 27°01′57″E / 56.5225°N 27.0324°E

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