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Coordinates: 31°17′9″N 45°51′13″E / 31.28583°N 45.85361°E / 31.28583; 45.85361

Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the time of Hammurabi

"The Worshipper of Larsa", a votive statuette dedicated to the god Amurru for Hammurabi's life, early 2nd millennium BC, Louvre

Larsa
Larsa
(Sumerian logogram: UD.UNUGKI,[1] read Larsamki[2]) was an important city of ancient Sumer, the center of the cult of the sun god Utu. It lies some 25 km southeast of Uruk
Uruk
in Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate, near the east bank of the Shatt-en-Nil canal at the site of the modern settlement Tell as-Senkereh or Sankarah.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Kings of Larsa

2 Archaeology 3 Notes 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] The historical "Larsa" was already in existence as early as the reign of Eannatum
Eannatum
of Lagash, who annexed it to his empire. The city became a political force during the Isin- Larsa
Larsa
period. After the Third Dynasty of Ur
Third Dynasty of Ur
collapsed c. 2000 BC, Ishbi-Erra, an official of Ibbi-Sin, the last king of the Ur III
Ur III
Dynasty, relocated to Isin and set up a government which purported to be the successor to the Ur III dynasty. From there, Ishbi-Erra
Ishbi-Erra
recaptured Ur as well as the cities of Uruk
Uruk
and Lagash, which Larsa
Larsa
was subject to. Subsequent Isin rulers appointed governors to rule over Lagash; one such governor was an Amorite
Amorite
named Gungunum. He eventually broke with Isin
Isin
and established an independent dynasty in Larsa. To legitimize his rule and deliver a blow to Isin, Gungunum
Gungunum
captured the city of Ur. As the region of Larsa
Larsa
was the main center of trade via the Persian Gulf, Isin
Isin
lost an enormously profitable trade route, as well as a city with much cultic significance. Gungunum's two successors, Abisare (c. 1841–1830 BC) and Sumuel (c. 1830–1801 BC), both took steps to cut Isin
Isin
completely off from access to canals. After this period, Isin
Isin
quickly lost political and economic force. Larsa
Larsa
grew powerful, but it never accumulated a large territory. At its peak under king Rim-Sin I (c. 1758–1699 BC), Larsa
Larsa
controlled only about 10-15 other city-states — nowhere near the territory controlled by other dynasties in Mesopotamian history. Nevertheless, huge building projects and agricultural undertakings can be detected archaeologically. After the defeat of Rim-Sin I by Hammurabi
Hammurabi
of Babylon, Larsa
Larsa
became a minor site, though it has been suggested that it was the home of the 1st Sealand Dynasty of Babylon.[3] Larsa
Larsa
is thought to be the source of a number of tablets involving Babylonian mathematics, including the Plimpton 322
Plimpton 322
tablet that contains patterns of Pythagorean triples.[4] Kings of Larsa[edit]

Ruler Reigned (short chronology) Comments

Naplanum c. 1961–1940 BC Contemporary of Ibbi-Suen
Ibbi-Suen
of Ur III

Emisum c. 1940–1912 BC

Samium c. 1912–1877 BC

Zabaia c. 1877–1868 BC Son of Samium, First royal inscription

Gungunum c. 1868–1841 BC Gained independence from Lipit-Eshtar
Lipit-Eshtar
of Isin

Abisare c. 1841–1830 BC

Sumuel c. 1830–1801 BC

Nur-Adad c. 1801–1785 BC Contemporary of Sumu-la-El of Babylon

Sin-Iddinam c. 1785–1778 BC Son of Nur-Adad

Sin-Eribam c. 1778–1776 BC

Sin-Iqisham c. 1776–1771 BC Contemporary of Zambiya of Isin, Son of Sin-Eribam

Silli-Adad c. 1771–1770 BC

Warad-Sin c. 1770–1758 BC Possible co-regency with Kudur-Mabuk his father

Rim-Sin I c. 1758–1699 BC Contemporary of Irdanene of Uruk, Defeated by Hammurabi
Hammurabi
of Babylon, Brother of Warad-Sin

Hammurabi
Hammurabi
of Babylon c. 1699–1686 BC Official Babylonian rule

Samsu-iluna
Samsu-iluna
of Babylon c. 1686–1678 BC Official Babylonian rule

Rim-Sin II c. 1678–1674 BC Killed in revolt against Babylon

Archaeology[edit]

List of the kings of Larsa, 39th year of Hammurabi's reign, Louvre

The remains of Larsa
Larsa
cover an oval about 4.5 miles in circumference. The highest point is around 70 feet in height.

Detail of a terracotta cylinder of Nabonidus, recording the restoration work on the temple of Shamash
Shamash
at Larsa. 555-539 BCE. Probably from Larsa, Iraq, housed in the British Museum

The site of Tell es-Senkereh, then known as Sinkara, was first excavated by William Loftus
William Loftus
in 1850 for less than a month.[5] In those early days of archaeology, the effort was more focused on obtaining museum specimens than scientific data and niceties like site drawings and findspots were not yet in common usage. Loftus recovered building bricks of Nebuchadnezzar II
Nebuchadnezzar II
of the Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
which enabled the sites identification as the ancient city of Larsa. Much of the effort by Loftus was on the temple of Shamash, rebuilt by Nebuchadnezzar II. Inscriptions of Burna-Buriash II
Burna-Buriash II
of the Kassite dynasty of Babylon
Babylon
and Hammurabi
Hammurabi
of the First Babylonian Dynasty
First Babylonian Dynasty
were also found. Larsa
Larsa
was also briefly worked by Walter Andrae
Walter Andrae
in 1903. The site was inspected by Edgar James Banks
Edgar James Banks
in 1905. He found that widespread looting by the local population was occurring there.[6] The first modern, scientific, excavation of Senkereh occurred in 1933, with the work of Andre Parrot.[7][8] Parrot worked at the location again in 1967.[9] In 1969 and 1970, Larsa
Larsa
was excavated by Jean-Claude Margueron.[10][11] Between 1976 and 1991, an expedition of the Delegation Archaeologic Francaise en Irak led by J-L. Huot excavated at Tell es-Senereh for 13 seasons.[12][13][14][15] Notes[edit]

^ ETCSL. The Lament for Nibru. Accessed 19 Dec 2010. ^ ETCSL. The Temple Hymns. Accessed 19 Dec 2010. ^ W. G. Lambert, The Home of the First Sealand Dynasty, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 208-210, 1974 ^ Robson, Eleanor (2002). "Words and pictures: new light on Plimpton 322" (PDF). American Mathematical Monthly. Mathematical Association of America. pp. 105–120. doi:10.2307/2695324. JSTOR 2695324. MR 1903149. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-12. . ^ [1] WIlliam Loftus, Travels and researches in Chaldæa and Susiana; with an account of excavations at Warka, the Erech of Nimrod, and Shúsh, Shushan the Palace of Esther, in 1849-52, J. Nisbet and Co., 1857 ^ Edgar James Banks, Senkereh, the Ruins of Ancient Larsa, The Biblical World, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 389-392, 1905 ^ Andre Parrot, Villes enfouies. Trois campagnes de fouilles en Mésopotamie, 1935 ^ A. Parrot, Les fouilles de Tello et de. Senkereh-Larsa, campagne 1932-1933, Revue d'Assyriologie, vol. 30, pp.169-182, 1933 ^ André Parrot, Les fouilles de Larsa, Syria, vol. 45, iss. 3-4, pp. 205-239, 1968 ^ Jean-Claude Margueron, Larsa, rapport preliminaire sur la quatrieme campagne, Syria, vol. 47, pp. 271-287, 1970 ^ Jean-Claude Margueron, Larsa, rapport preliminaire sur la cinquieme campagne, Syria, vol. 48, pp. 271-287, 1971 ^ J-L. Huot, Larsa, rapport preliminaire sur la septieme campagne Larsa
Larsa
et la premiere campagne Tell el 'Oueili (1976), Syria, vol. 55, pp. 183-223, 1978 ^ J-L. Huot, Larsa
Larsa
et 'Oueili, travaux de 1978-1981. Vol. 26, Memoire, Editions Recherche sur les civilisations, 1983, ISBN 2-86538-066-1 ^ J.-L. Huot, Larsa
Larsa
(10e campagne, 1983) et Oueili: Rapport preliminaire, Editions Recherche sur les civilisations, 1987, ISBN 2-86538-174-9 ^ J-L. Huot, Larsa, Travaux de 1985, Editions Recherche sur les civilisations, 1989, ISBN 2-86538-198-6

See also[edit]

Ancient Near East portal

Cities of the ancient Near East Short chronology timeline

References[edit]

Ettalene M. Grice, Clarence E. Keiser, Morris Jastrow, Chronology of the Larsa
Larsa
Dynasty, AMS Press, 1979, ISBN 0-404-60274-6 The Rulers of Larsa, M. Fitzgerald, Yale University Dissertation, 2002 Larsa
Larsa
Year Names, Marcel Segrist, Andrews University Press, 1990, ISBN 0-943872-54-5 Judith K. Bjorkman, The Larsa
Larsa
Goldsmith's Hoards-New Interpretations, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 1–23, 1993 T. Breckwoldt, Management of grain storage in Old Babylonian Larsa, Archiv für Orientforschung, no. 42-43, pp. 64–88, 1995–1996 D. Arnaud, French Archaeological Mission in Iraq. A Catalogue of the Cuneiform Tablets and Inscribed Objects Found during the 6th Season in Tell Senkereh/Larsa, Sumer, vol. 34, no. 1-2, pp. 165–176, 1978 EJ Brill, Legal and economic records from the Kingdom of Larsa, Leemans, 1954, ISBN 90-6258-120-X

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Larsa.

 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Larsa". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  External links[edit]

Yearnames of Larsa
Larsa
rulers at CDLI On-line digital images of Larsa
Larsa
Tablets at CDLI

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