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Landsat 5
Landsat 5
was a low Earth
Earth
orbit satellite launched on March 1, 1984 to collect imagery of the surface of Earth. A continuation of the Landsat Program, Landsat 5
Landsat 5
was jointly managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(NASA). Data from Landsat 5
Landsat 5
was collected and distributed from the USGS's Center for Earth
Earth
Resources Observation and Science (EROS). After 29 years in space, Landsat 5
Landsat 5
was officially decommissioned on June 5, 2013.[2] Near the end of its mission, Landsat 5's use was hampered by equipment failures, and it was largely superseded by Landsat 7
Landsat 7
and Landsat 8.[2] Mission scientists anticipated the satellite will re-enter Earth's atmosphere and disintegrate around 2034.[2] Recognized by Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records
as the longest-operating Earth-observing satellite mission in history, Landsat 5
Landsat 5
orbited the planet more than 150,000 times while transmitting more than 2.5 million images of land surface conditions around the world, greatly outliving its original three-year design life.[3]

Contents

1 Specifications 2 Mission history 3 Longevity 4 End of mission 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Specifications[edit] Landsat 5
Landsat 5
had a maximum transmission bandwidth of 85 Mbit/s. It was deployed at an altitude of 705.3 km (438.3 mi), and it took about 16 days to scan the entire Earth. The satellite was an identical copy of Landsat 4
Landsat 4
and was originally intended as a backup. Therefore, Landsat 5
Landsat 5
carried the same instruments, including the Thematic Mapper and Multi-Spectral Scanner. The Multi-Spectral Scanner was powered down in 1995,[4] but reactivated again in 2012.[5] Mission history[edit] Landsat 5
Landsat 5
was launched by NASA
NASA
from Vandenberg Air Force Base
Vandenberg Air Force Base
on March 1, 1984.[3] Landsat 5
Landsat 5
recorded many significant events. It was the first satellite to capture the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in 1986. Landsat 5
Landsat 5
also documented deforestation occurring in tropical regions, and captured the devastating 2004 tsunami in southeast Asia.[3] On November 26, 2005, the back-up solar array drive on Landsat 5
Landsat 5
began exhibiting unusual behavior. The solar array drive maintains the proper pointing angle between the solar array and the Sun. The rotation of the solar array drive became sporadic, and the solar array was not able to provide the power needed to charge the batteries. Maintaining power to the batteries is critical to sustain proper operation of the spacecraft. The primary solar array drive failed under similar circumstances in January 2006. As a result of this situation, imaging operations were suspended.[6] After a month-long investigation in December 2005 and testing in January 2006, new operating procedures were developed that would allow Landsat 5
Landsat 5
to continue normal operations.[7] On December 18, 2009, the transmitter on Landsat 5
Landsat 5
experienced technical difficulties.[8] Data downlink was restored on January 7, 2010 after a test successfully managed to retrieve a picture over North America. This test exercised the only remaining Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier (TWTA). The remaining TWTA
TWTA
is in fact the primary TWTA that was in operation when Landsat 5
Landsat 5
launched in 1984. After several issues in late 1986 and 1987, the primary TWTA
TWTA
was turned off and the secondary redundant TWTA
TWTA
was used. The USGS Flight Operations Team applied lessons learned while operating the redundant TWTA
TWTA
to the primary TWTA
TWTA
for its first successful transmission in over 22 years.[9] On November 18, 2011, image acquisitions were suspended for a period of 90 days, due to fluctuations in the performance of a critical amplifier in the satellite's transmission system. USGS indicated the satellite was nearing the end of its life, after more than 27 years in space.[10] Longevity[edit]

Delta rocket launching Landsat 5
Landsat 5
out of Vandenberg Air Force Base

Landsat 5
Landsat 5
significantly exceeded its designed life expectancy, lasting several decades beyond its original three-year mission. Contributing to Landsat 5's longevity was the presence of extra fuel for possible future retrieval by the Space Shuttle.[11] If the need arose, Landsat 5 could use the extra fuel to move into a lower orbit. Instead, the extra fuel was used to maintain its existing orbit as long as practicable.[11] On February 10, 2013, NASA
NASA
announced that the Guinness World Records had awarded Landsat 5
Landsat 5
the world record for "longest-operating Earth observation satellite" at 28 years, 10 months and counting.[12] End of mission[edit] In mid-2012, with the satellite suffering multiple mechanical failures, the USGS Landsat team began planning a complex series of steps to ensure that the satellite's decommissioning would meet the requirements set under international agreements.[3] When planning began, a date for decommissioning had not yet been set. However, in November 2012, one of Landsat 5's redundant gyroscopes failed, leaving only two operational.[2] If one more failed, the satellite would be left derelict in its valued orbital band.[2] Considering these circumstances, USGS announced on December 21, 2012 that Landsat 5 would be permanently decommissioned as soon as practicable.[13] Landsat 5
Landsat 5
transmitted its last image on January 6, 2013. Nine days later, USGS Mission Operations began the process of maneuvering the satellite from its 438-mile-high (705 km) operational orbit into a lower disposal orbit. On June 5, 2013, with Landsat 5's fuel reserve completely depleted, the USGS Flight Operations Team issued commands to shut off all moving mechanisms and hobble the spacecraft’s ability to generate and store power from its solar arrays. The final command shut down Landsat 5’s transmitter, silencing the mission permanently and effectively terminating the mission 29 years, 3 months and 4 days after its launch.[3] At the time of Landsat 5's decommissioning, Landsat 7
Landsat 7
(launched in 1999) and Landsat 8
Landsat 8
(launched in 2013) remained in orbit. Landsat 8 came online only a few weeks prior to Landsat 5's decommissioning.[3] See also[edit]

Spaceflight portal

NASA
NASA
World Wind (uses Geocover 1990 layer made from Landsat 4
Landsat 4
& 5 data)

References[edit]

^ McDowell, Jonathan. " Satellite
Satellite
Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 16 June 2013.  ^ a b c d e Historic Landsat 5
Landsat 5
Mission Ends ^ a b c d e f "Historic Landsat 5
Landsat 5
Mission Ends". NASA. June 24, 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2018.  ^ "History of Landsat 5". NASA. Archived from the original on 2009-04-02.  ^ "Landsat 2012 Headlines". USGS. Retrieved March 8, 2018.  ^ " Landsat 5
Landsat 5
Solar Array Drive Anomaly". USGS. Archived from the original on 2007-12-13. Retrieved 2008-09-12.  ^ Stephen Clark (28 January 2006). " Landsat 5
Landsat 5
Satellite
Satellite
Recovers From Latest Glitch". SPACE.com. Retrieved 2008-09-12.  ^ "Technical Announcement: Landsat 5
Landsat 5
Anomaly". USGS. January 7, 2010.  ^ " Landsat 5
Landsat 5
Transmits Data". USGS. January 7, 2010.  ^ "Veteran Landsat 5
Landsat 5
satellite on the brink of failure". Spaceflight Now.  ^ a b "Earth-Observing Landsat 5
Landsat 5
Turns 25". NASA.  ^ " Landsat 5
Landsat 5
Sets Guinness World Record For 'Longest Operating Earth Observation Satellite'". NASA. February 10, 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2018.  ^ http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=3485#.UNShOm_7J8E

External links[edit]

Landsat NASA
NASA
website Landsat USGS website

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Landsat program

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STS-41-B
(Westar 6 · Palapa B2 · IRT · SPAS-1A) OPS 8737 · OPS 8737 SSU-1 · OPS 8737 SSU-2 · OPS 8737 SSU-3 Kosmos 1536 Soyuz T-10
Soyuz T-10
Ōzora Gran' No.25L Kosmos 1537 Progress 19 Kosmos 1538 Kosmos 1539 Landsat 5 · UoSAT-2 Kosmos 1540 Intelsat V F-8 Kosmos 1541 Kosmos 1542 Kosmos 1543 Kosmos 1544 Ekran No.26L Molniya-1 No.51 Kosmos 1545 Kosmos 1546 Soyuz T-11 Kosmos 1547 STS-41-C
STS-41-C
(LDEF) Shiyan Tongbu Tongxing Weixing 2 Kosmos 1548 OPS 7641 Progress 20 OPS 8424 Kosmos 1549 Gorizont No.19L Progress 21 Kosmos 1550 Kosmos 1551 Kosmos 1552 Kosmos 1553 Kosmos 1554 · Kosmos 1555 · Kosmos 1556 Kosmos 1557 Spacenet 1 Kosmos 1558 Progress 22 Kosmos 1559 · Kosmos 1560 · Kosmos 1561 · Kosmos 1562 · Kosmos 1563 · Kosmos 1564 · Kosmos 1565 · Kosmos 1566 Kosmos 1567 Kosmos 1568 Kosmos 1569 Kosmos 1570 Intelsat V F-9 Kosmos 1571 USA-1 Kosmos 1572 Kosmos 1573 Kosmos 1574 Gran' No.27L Kosmos 1575 USA-2 · USA-3 Kosmos 1576 Kosmos 1577 Kosmos 1578 Kosmos 1579 Kosmos 1580 Kosmos 1581 Meteor-2 No.16 Soyuz T-12
Soyuz T-12
Kosmos 1582 Kosmos 1583 Kosmos 1584 Kosmos 1585 Gorizont No.20L Kosmos 1586 Himawari 3 ECS-2 · Telecom 1A Kosmos 1587 Kosmos 1588 Kosmos 1589 Molniya-1 No.53 Progress 23 Kosmos 1590 CCE · IRM · UKS · SCE Molniya-1 No.54 Ekran No.27L USA-4 Kosmos 1591 STS-41-D
STS-41-D
(SBS-4 · Leasat 2 · Telstar 3C) Kosmos 1592 Kosmos 1593 · Kosmos 1594 · Kosmos 1595 Kosmos 1596 USA-5 Fanhui Shi Weixing 7 Kosmos 1597 Kosmos 1598 Galaxy 3
Galaxy 3
Kosmos 1599 Kosmos 1600 Kosmos 1601 Kosmos 1602 Kosmos 1603 Kosmos 1604 STS-41-G (ERBS · OSTA-3) Kosmos 1605 Nova 3 Kosmos 1606 Kosmos 1607 STS-51-A
STS-51-A
(Anik D2 · Leasat 1) Spacenet 2 · MARECS-2 NATO 3D Kosmos 1608 Kosmos 1609 Kosmos 1610 Kosmos 1611 Kosmos 1612 Kosmos 1613 USA-6 NOAA-9 Molniya-1 No.55 Vega 1
Vega 1
Kosmos 1614
Kosmos 1614
Kosmos 1615 Vega 2
Vega 2
USA-7

Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are deno

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