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Philippine Hokkien
Hokkien
(Chinese: 咱儂話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Lán-lâng-ōe; literally: "our people's language"), is the variant of Hokkien
Hokkien
as spoken by about 98.7% of the ethnic Chinese population of the Philippines. A mixed version that involves this language with Tagalog and English is Hokaglish.

Contents

1 Terminology 2 Classification 3 Geographic spread 4 Sociolinguistics 5 Education

5.1 Curriculum

6 History and formation 7 Orthography 8 Phonology

8.1 Consonants 8.2 Vowels 8.3 Code endings 8.4 Tones

9 Differences from other Hokkien
Hokkien
variants 10 Sample phrases 11 See also 12 Notes

Terminology[edit] The term Philippine Hokkien
Hokkien
is used when differentiating the variety of Hokkien
Hokkien
spoken in the Philippines
Philippines
from those spoken in Taiwan, China, and other Southeast Asian countries.

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There are various terms that native to the speaker itself used:

咱人話 (Hokkien: lán-lâng-ōe [lán-lâng-uē]; Mandarin: zánrénhuà) -- literally means "our own people's speech", it mostly refers to Philippine Hokkien. 閩南語 (Hokkien: bân-lâm-gí; Mandarin: mǐnnányǔ) -- literally means " Southern Min
Southern Min
language" or "Ban Lam Gi" or "Minnan language", this refers to the variant spoken in Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, Xiamen
Xiamen
and Taiwan
Taiwan
(in Taiwan
Taiwan
and Mainland China). 台語 (Hokkien: tâi-gí; Mandarin: tái-yǔ) and 台灣話 (Hokkien: tâi-oân-ōe [tâi-uân-uē]; Mandarin: táiwanhuà) -- literally means "Taiwanese language", this refers to Taiwanese Hokkien. 厦門話 (Hokkien: ē-mn̂g-ōe [ē-mn̂g-uē]; Mandarin: xiamenhua)--literally means Xiamen
Xiamen
Speech refers to Min Nan
Min Nan
spoken in Xiamen
Xiamen
City in Fujian, Mainland China. 泉州話 (Hokkien: choân-chiu-ōe [tsuân-chiu-uē] ; Mandarin: quánzhōuhuà)--literally means Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Speech refers to Min Nan spoken in Quanzhou
Quanzhou
City and other City Like Shishi City, Nan-an City,An-xi City Jinjiang City, Hui-an City, Ying-chun City, Dehua City and Tong-an City in Fujian, Mainland China. 漳州話 (Hokkien: chiang-chiu-ōe [tsiang-chiu-uē]; Mandarin: zhāngzhōuhuà)--literally means Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
Speech refers to Min Nan spoken in Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
City and other City Like Longyan City, Zhangping City, and Dongshan City in Fujian, Mainland China. 福建話 (Hokkien: hok-kiàn-ōe [hok-kiàn-uē]; Mandarin: fújiànhuà) -- literally means "Fujianese language", this refers to all Fujianese varieties in Taiwan
Taiwan
and Mainland China, however this term is a misnomer because in Fujian, China
China
there are many other languages like Min Dong and Min Zhong.

In the Philippines, all terms are used interchangeably to refer to Philippine Hokkien. Classification[edit] Philippine Hokkien
Hokkien
is generally similar to the Hokkien
Hokkien
dialect spoken in Quanzhou, however, the Hokkien
Hokkien
dialect spoken in Xiamen, also known as Amoy
Amoy
(Chinese: 廈門話), is considered the standard and prestigious form of Hokkien. Minor differences with other Hokkien dialects in Taiwan, China, or throughout Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
only occur in terms of vocabulary. Geographic spread[edit] Hokkien
Hokkien
is spoken by ethnic Chinese throughout the Philippines. Major metropolitan areas that have a significant number of Chinese include Metro Manila, Metro Cebu
Cebu
and Metro Davao. Other cities which also substantial Chinese populations in Angeles City, Bacolod City, Cagayan de Oro, Dagupan City, Dumaguete City, Ilagan, Iloilo
Iloilo
City, Legaspi, Naga City, Tacloban City, Vigan
Vigan
and Zamboanga City. Provinces with a large Chinese population include Albay, Bataan, Batangas, Bohol, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Cavite, Cebu, Compostela Valley, Davao, Davao del Sur, Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte
and Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Isabela, Laguna, La Union, Leyte, Misamis Occidental
Misamis Occidental
and Misamis Oriental, Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental
and Negros Oriental, Palawan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, South Cotabato, Surigao del Norte, Tarlac and Zamboanga del Sur. Sociolinguistics[edit]

Languages spoken by Chinese Filipinos at home

Only 12.2% of all ethnic Chinese have a varieties of Chinese as their mother tongue. Nevertheless, the vast majority (77%) still retain the ability to understand and speak Hokkien
Hokkien
as a second or third language.[2] Prior to the emergence of China
China
as a regional power in the late 1990s, speaking Hokkien, Mandarin, Cantonese
Cantonese
and other Chinese varieties was seen as old-fashioned and awkward, with the younger generation of Chinese Filipinos opting to use either English, Filipino or various other regional languages as their first languages. Recent developments showing the rise of a politically and economically stronger China
China
eventually led to the newly found elegance and style now associated with speaking Hokkien
Hokkien
and other Chinese varieties. Hence, there is a stronger clamour for instructors who can produce students fluent in Hokkien
Hokkien
and Mandarin. Many young parents are also shifting to using Hokkien
Hokkien
at home as their children's first language. Education[edit] Around 120 Chinese Filipino
Chinese Filipino
educational institutions exist throughout the Philippines, with the vast majority being concentrated in Metro Manila. These schools primarily differ from others in the Philippines with the presence of Chinese-language subjects. These schools were previously under direct supervision of the Republic of China
China
(Taiwan) Ministry of Education until 1976 when Presidential Decree 176 of 1973 (sometimes called the "Filipinization" decree) of former President Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
placed all foreign schools under the authority of the Department of Education. The decree effectively halved the time allotted for Chinese subjects, while Tagalog became a required subject, and the medium of instruction shifted from Mandarin Chinese to English. Curriculum[edit] Chinese Filipino
Chinese Filipino
primary and secondary schools typically feature Chinese subjects added to the standard curriculum prescribed by the Department of Education. The three core Chinese subjects are Chinese Grammar (Chinese: 華語; pinyin: huáyǔ; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: hoâ-gí; literally: "Mandarin"), Chinese Composition (Chinese: 綜合; pinyin: zònghé; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: chong-ha̍p), and Chinese Mathematics (Chinese: 數學; pinyin: shùxué; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: sò͘-ha̍k). Other schools may offer additional subjects such as Chinese calligraphy (Chinese: 毛筆; pinyin: máobǐ; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: mô͘-pit), history, geography, and culture, all integrated in all the three core Chinese subjects in accordance with PD № 176. All Chinese subjects are taught in Mandarin Chinese, and in some schools, students are prohibited from speaking English, Filipino, or even Hokkien
Hokkien
during these classes. Presently, the Ateneo de Manila
Manila
University, under their Chinese Studies Programme offers Hokkien
Hokkien
1 (Chn 8) and Hokkien
Hokkien
2 (Chn 9) as electives. On the other hand, Chiang Kai Shek College offers Hokkien
Hokkien
Proficiency Course in their CKS College Language Center. History and formation[edit] Philippine Hokkien
Hokkien
developed during successive centuries of the Chinese Filipinos being in the Philippines. Starting from the early 19th century, Chinese migrants from Fujian province, specifically from Quanzhou
Quanzhou
eventually eclipsed those from Guangdong
Guangdong
province, establishing Hokkien
Hokkien
as the primary variety of Chinese spoken in the Philippines. As ethnic Chinese began to associate with Filipinos and learn Tagalog and English, they began to use native terms used to refer to items that are found only in the Philippine milieu. Also, since most Chinese migrants from Fujian
Fujian
are businessmen and merchants, many have been using colloquialisms and slang words, rather than grammatically correct scholarly jargon. Both result to the current preponderance of English, Tagalog, and Fujian
Fujian
colloquialisms in Philippine Hokkien. Orthography[edit] In some situations, Philippine Hokkien
Hokkien
is written in the Latin alphabet. The Chinese Congress on World Evangelization–Philippines, an international organization of Overseas Chinese
Overseas Chinese
Christian churches around the world, use a romanization based predominantly on the Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
system or "POJ". The origins of this system and its extensive use in the Christian community have led to it being known by some modern writers as "Church Romanization" (教會羅馬字; Jiàohuì Luōmǎzì; Kàu-hōe Lô-má-jī) and is often abbreviated in POJ itself to Kàu-lô (教羅; Jiàoluō). There is some debate on whether "pe̍h-ōe-jī" or "Church Romanization" is the more appropriate name. During the 19th century, all the Chinese Filipinos Christian community are Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
literate and use this system extensively in their churches. Later, Chinese Filipinos and ethnic Filipinos alike who formally study the language also use the version of the Taiwanese Romanization
Romanization
System or "TL" (Chinese: 台灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案; pinyin: Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-ôan Bân-lâm-gí Lô-má-jī Peng-im Hong-àn), often referred to as Tâi-lô) because many Chinese Filipinos use Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
in writing and it is seen in school textbooks from Taiwan
Taiwan
or based on Taiwanese materials. It too is derived from Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
and since 2006 has been officially promoted by Taiwan's Ministry of Education. Phonology[edit] Consonants[edit]

Initials

Bilabial Alveolar Alveolo-palatal Velar Glottal

Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless

Nasal

m [m] ㄇ 毛(mo͘ [moo])

n [n] ㄋ 耐(nāi)

ng [ŋ] ㄫ 雅(ngá)

Plosive Unaspirated p [p] ㄅ 邊(pian) b [b] ㆠ 文(bûn) t [t] ㄉ 地(tē)

k [k] ㄍ 求(kiû) g [g] ㆣ 語(gí)

Aspirated ph [pʰ] ㄆ 波(pho)

th [tʰ] ㄊ 他(thaⁿ [thann])

kh [kʰ] ㄎ 去(khì)

Affricate Unaspirated

ch [ts] [ts] ㄗ 曾(chan [tsan]) j [dz] ㆡ 熱(joa̍h[jua̍h]) chi [tsi] [tɕ] ㄐ 尖(chiam [tsiam]) ji [dʑ] ㆢ 入(ji̍p)

Aspirated

chh [tsh] [tsʰ] ㄘ 出(chhut [tshut])

chhi [tshi] [tɕʰ] ㄑ 手(chhiú [tshiú])

Fricative

s [s] ㄙ 衫(saⁿ [sann])

si [ɕ] ㄒ 寫(siá)

h [h] ㄏ 喜(hí)

Lateral

l [l] ㄌ 柳(liú)

Finals

Bilabial Alveolar Velar Glottal

Nasal consonant -m [m] ㆬ -n [n] ㄣ -ng [ŋ] ㆭ

Stop consonant -p [p̚] ㆴ -t [t̚] ㆵ -k [k̚] ㆶ -h [ʔ] ㆷ

Syllabic consonant

Bilabial Velar

Nasal m [m̩] ㆬ 姆(ḿ) ng [ŋ̍] ㆭ 酸(sng)

Vowels[edit] [3]

Monophthongs

Front Central Back

Simple Nasal Simple Simple Nasal

Close i [i] ㄧ 衣(i) iⁿ [inn] [ĩ] ㆪ 圓(îⁿ [înn])

u [u] ㄨ 污(u) uⁿ [unn] [ũ] ㆫ 張(tiuⁿ [tiunn])

Mid e [e] ㆤ 禮(lé) eⁿ [enn] [ẽ] ㆥ 生(seⁿ [senn]) o [ə] ㄜ 高(ko) o͘ [oo] [ɔ] ㆦ 烏(o͘ [oo]) oⁿ [onn] [ɔ̃] ㆧ 翁(oⁿ [onn])

Open a [a] ㄚ 查(cha [tsa]) aⁿ [ann] [ã] ㆩ 衫(saⁿ [sann])

Diphthongs & Triphthongs

Diphthongs ai [aɪ] ㄞ au [aʊ] ㄠ ia [ɪa] ㄧㄚ io [ɪo] ㄧㄜ

iu [iu] ㄧㄨ oa [ua] [ua] ㄨㄚ oe [ue] [ue] ㄨㆤ ui [ui] ㄨㄧ

Triphthongs iau [ɪaʊ] ㄧㄠ oai [uai] [uai] ㄨㄞ

Code endings[edit]

Bilabial Alveolar Velar Glottal

Nasal consonant -m [m] ㆬ -n [n] ㄣ -ng [ŋ] ㆭ

Stop consonant -p [p̚] ㆴ -t [t̚] ㆵ -k [k̚] ㆶ -h [ʔ] ㆷ

Syllabic consonant

Bilabial Velar

Nasal m [m̩] ㆬ 姆(ḿ) ng [ŋ̍] ㆭ 酸(sng)

Tones[edit]

Tones 平 上 去 入

陰平 陽平 陰上 陽上 陰去 陽去 陰入 陽入

Tone Number 1 5 2 6 3 7 4 8

調值 Xiamen, Fujian 44 24 53 - 21 22 32 4

-

Taipei, Taiwan 44 24 53 - 11 33 32 4

-

Tainan, Taiwan 44 23 41 - 21 33 32 44

-

Zhangzhou, Fujian 34 13 53 - 21 22 32 121

-

Quanzhou, Fujian Manila, Philippines 33 24 554 22 41 5 24

東 taŋ1 銅 taŋ5 董 taŋ2 重 taŋ6 凍 taŋ3 動 taŋ7 觸 tak4 逐 tak8

In general, Min Nan
Min Nan
has 7 to 9 tones, and tone sandhi is extensive. There are minor variations between the Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
tone systems. Taiwanese tones follow the schemes of Amoy
Amoy
or Quanzhou, depending on the area of Taiwan. Both Amoy
Amoy
and Taiwanese Min Nan typically has 7 tones; the 9th tone is used only in special or foreign loan words. Quanzhou
Quanzhou
is the only Min Nan
Min Nan
dialect with 8 tones, of which the 6th tone is present. The Philippine Min Nan
Min Nan
dialect follows the 8 tones and tone sandhi of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
because many of the Chinese Filipino who speak Min Nan
Min Nan
in the Philippines
Philippines
have ancestors from Quanzhou
Quanzhou
(Fujian) in China. Differences from other Hokkien
Hokkien
variants[edit] Philippine Hokkien
Hokkien
is largely derived from the Hokkien
Hokkien
dialect spoken in Quanzhou. However, it gradually absorbed influences from both Standard Amoy
Amoy
and Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
variants. Although Philippine Hokkien
Hokkien
is generally mutually comprehensible with any Hokkien
Hokkien
variant, including Taiwanese Hokkien, the numerous English and Filipino loanwords as well as the extensive use of colloquialisms (even those which are now unused in China) can result in confusion among Hokkien
Hokkien
speakers from outside of the Philippines. In Cebu
Cebu
and Dumaguete for example, instead of Tagalog, Cebuano words are incorporated. In Iloilo
Iloilo
and Bacolod, Hiligaynon words are incorporated. While in Central Luzon, Kapampangan and Pangasinan
Pangasinan
words are incorporated.

Similarities with either Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
variants

Most speakers of Philippine Hokkien
Hokkien
have their origins in Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou, hence the influence of the Hokkien
Hokkien
variants spoken in these areas.

The use of -iak suffix where other variants have -ek [-ik], e.g. 色 siak or sek [sik], 綠色 lia̍k-siak or lia̍k-sek [lia̍k-sik], etc. The use of -i suffix where other variants have -u, e.g. 語 gí/gú, 做菜 chí/chú [tsí/tsú], etc. The use of -uiⁿ [-uinn] suffix where other variants have -eng [-ing] or -oaiⁿ [-uainn], e.g. 最先 suiⁿ [suinn], 高 kûiⁿ [kûinn], etc. The use of -oang [-uang] suffix where other variants have -ong, e.g. 風 hoang [huang], etc.

Similarities with Standard Xiamen
Xiamen
(Amoy) variant

Since the Standard Xiamen
Xiamen
(Amoy) variant is considered the most prestigious variant of Hokkien
Hokkien
and is the spoken variant of the educated residents of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou, elements of this variant occasionally seep into Philippine Hokkien, such as the following:

The use of -ng suffix where other variants have -uiⁿ [-uinn], e.g. 門 mng, 飯 png, 酸 sng, etc. The use of -e suffix where other variants have -oe, e.g. 火 he, 未 be, 地 tē, 細 sè. The use of -oe [-ue] suffix where other variants have -oa [-ua], e.g. 話 ōe [ūe], 花 hoe [hue], 瓜 koe [kue]. The use of -iuⁿ [-unn] suffix where other variants have -iauⁿ [iaunn]), e.g. 羊 iûⁿ [iûnn], 丈 tiūⁿ [tiūnn], 想 siuⁿ [siunn]. The use of -iong suffix where other variants have -iang, e.g. 上 siāng, 香 hiang.

Use of colloquialisms

Philippine Hokkien
Hokkien
(as well as Southeast Asian Hokkien) uses a disproportionately large amount of colloquial words as compared to the Hokkien
Hokkien
variants used in China
China
and Taiwan. Many of the colloquialisms are themselves considered dated (specifically, pre-World War II) in China
China
but are still in use among Hokkien-speaking Chinese Filipinos.

am-cham [am-tsam] (骯髒): dirty. Its equivalent in the Standard Xiamen
Xiamen
dialect is "lāu-siông". chha-thâu [tshia-thâu] (車頭): chauffeur (literally, "car head", but used in China
China
to refer to a headstock). Its equivalent in the Standard Xiamen
Xiamen
dialect is "chhia-hu [tshia-hu]" (車夫). chhiáⁿ-thâu-lō͘ [tshiánn-thâu-lōo] (請頭路): to work, to get employed. Its equivalent in the Standard Xiamen
Xiamen
dialect is "chòe-kang [tsuè-kang]" (揣工). chhiú-siak [tshiú-siak] (首饰): jewelry. Its equivalent in the Standard Xiamen
Xiamen
dialect is "chu-pó [tsu-pó]" (珠寶). khan-chhiú [khan-tshiú] (牽手): to marry. Its equivalent in the Standard Xiamen
Xiamen
dialect is "kiat-hun" (結婚). liām-chúi [liām-tsúi](淋水): to baptise. Its equivalent in the Standard Xiamen
Xiamen
dialect is "sóe-lé [sué-lé]" (洗禮). pēⁿ-chhù/pīⁿ-chhù [pēnn-tshù/pīnn-tshù] (病厝): hospital (literally, "sick house"). Its equivalent in the Standard Xiamen dialect is "i-ìⁿ [i-ìnn]" (醫院). pēⁿ-īⁿ/pīⁿ-īⁿ [pēnn-īnn/pīnn-īnn] (病院): hospital (literally, "sick house"). Its equivalent in the Standard Xiamen dialect is "i-ìⁿ [i-ìnn]" (醫院). sio̍k (俗): cheap, economical. Its equivalent in the Standard Xiamen dialect is "piān-gî" (便宜). siong-hó (相好): friend (literally, "good acquaintance"). Its equivalent in the Standard Xiamen
Xiamen
dialect is "pêng-iú [pîng-iú]" (朋友). Tn̂g-soaⁿ [Tn̂g-suann] (唐山): China, derived from the term Tangshan. Its equivalent in the Standard Xiamen
Xiamen
dialect is "Tiong-kok" (中國). tōa-o̍h [tuā-o̍h] (大學): university or college. Also found in Penang Hokkien. Its equivalent in the Standard Xiamen
Xiamen
dialect is "tāi-ha̍k" (大學).

Loanwords from English, Spanish, Portuguese and Philippine languages

Philippine Hokkien, like other Southeast Asian variants of Hokkien (e.g. Singaporean Hokkien, Penang Hokkien, Johor Hokkien
Hokkien
and Medan Hokkien) absorbed several indigenous and English words and phrases which are usually only found (or are more important) in its new milieu. These "borrowed" words are never used in written Hokkien, for which Mandarin characters are used.

ba-su: cup chhe-ke [tshe-ke]: check ka-mú-ti: sweet potato o-pi-sin: office pan-sit: stir-fried noodles in Chinese Filipino
Chinese Filipino
cuisine sap-bûn (雪文): soap (though this sounds similar to the Tagalog sabón, is not borrowed from that language. In Taiwanese, which is a variant of Hokkien
Hokkien
that is not influenced by Tagalog, it is pronounced as sap-bûn. Etymologically speaking, perhaps both Taiwanese and Tagalog ultimately derive sap-bûn/sabon from the Romance languages that had brought the concept of soap to them, such as Portuguese sabão and Spanish jabón respectively).

Sample phrases[edit]

Everyday Phrases

good morning - hó-chá-khí [hó-tsá-khí] (好早起) good afternoon - hó-ē-po͘ [hó-ē-poo] (好下埔) good evening - hó-àm-mî (好暗暝) How are you? - Dí-hó--bô? (你好無?) Fine, thank you. - hó, to-siā. (好,多謝。) And you? - Dí-nì? (你呢?) you're welcome - m-bián kheh-khì (毋免客氣) sorry - tùi-put-chū [tùi-put-tsū] (對不住) Congratulations! - Kiong-hí! (恭喜!) My surname is Tsua/Tsai/Tsai/Kai. - Góa sìⁿ Chhòa. [Gúa sìnn Tshuà.] (我姓蔡。) I do not know - Goá m̄ chai-iáⁿ. [Gúa m̄ tsai-iann.] (我毋知影。) Do you speak Philippine Hokkien? - Dí ē-hiáu kóng Lán-lâng-ōe bâ? [Dí ē-hiáu kóng Lán-lâng-uē bâ?] (你會曉講咱儂話嗎?)

Common Pronouns

this - che [tse] (這, 即), chit-ê [tsit-ê] (這個, 即個) that - he (許, 彼), hit-ê (彼個) here - chia [tsia] (者), hia/hiâ (遮, 遐), chit-tau [tsit-tau] (這兜) there - hia (許, 遐), hit-tau (彼兜) what - siáⁿ-mih [siánn-mih] (啥物), sīm-mi̍h (甚物), sīm-mô͘ [sīm-môo](甚麼) when - tī-sî (底時), kī-sî (幾時), tang-sî (當時), sīm-mi̍h-sî-chūn [sīm-mi̍h-sî-tsūn] (甚麼時陣) where - tó-lo̍h (佗落, 倒落), tó-ūi [tó-uī] (倒位, 佗位, 叨位) who - siáⁿ-lâng [siánn-lâng] (啥人) or siáⁿ-nga̍h [siánn-nga̍h] (啥nga̍h) or siáⁿ [siánn] (啥) why - ūi-siáⁿ-mi̍h [ūi-siánn-mi̍h] (為啥物), ka-nà (ka哪) how - án-chóaⁿ [án-tsuánn]" (按怎), chóaⁿ [tsuánn] (怎)

See also[edit]

Chinese Filipino Philippine Mandarin Min Nan Pe̍h-ōe-jī Taiwanese Romanization
Romanization
System Holopedia Speak Hokkien
Hokkien
Campaign

Notes[edit]

^ Chinese, Min Nan
Min Nan
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Teresita Ang-See, "Chinese in the Philippines", 1997, Kaisa, pg. 57. ^ Chang, Principles of POJ, p. 33.

v t e

Languages of the Philippines

Official languages

Filipino English

Regional languages

Aklanon Bikol Cebuano Chavacano Hiligaynon Ibanag Ilocano Ivatan Kapampangan Karay-a Maguindanao Maranao Pangasinan Sambal Surigaonon Tagalog Tausug Waray Yakan

Indigenous languages (by region)

Luzon

Ilocos

Bolinao

Cordillera

Atta Balangao Bontoc Ga'dang Kalinga Kallahan Kankanaey Ibaloi Ifugao Isnag Itneg Itawis Iwaak Malaweg Tuwali

Cagayan
Cagayan
Valley

Arta Atta Central Cagayan
Cagayan
Agta Dinapigue Agta Dupaningan Agta Gaddang Ilongot Isinai Itbayat Itawis Kallahan Karao Malaweg Nagtipunan Agta Paranan Agta Paranan Yogad

Central Luzon

Abellen Ambala Antsi Botolan Casiguran Dumagat Agta Indi Kasiguranin Mariveleño Northern Alta Southern Alta Umiray Dumaget

Calabarzon

Inagta Alabat Manide Remontado Agta Southern Alta Umiray Dumaget

Metro Manila

Hokaglish Taglish

Mimaropa

Agutaynen Alangan Asi Calamian Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Cuyonon Iraya Kagayanen Molbog Onhan Palawan
Palawan
Batak Palawano Ratagnon Romblomanon Tadyawan

Bicol

Albay
Albay
Bikol Inagta Partido Manide Masbateño Mount Iraya Agta Pandan Bikol Rinconada Bikol Sorsoganon Southern Catanduanes Bikol

Visayas

Western Visayas

Ati Caluyanon Capiznon Sulod

Negros Island

Ata Karolanos Magahat

Central Visayas

Bantayanon Eskayan Porohanon

Eastern Visayas

Abaknon Baybay Kabalian

Mindanao

Zamboanga Peninsula

Subanon

Northern Mindanao

Bukid Higaonon Ilianen Iranun Kamigin Matigsalug Subanon Western Bukidnon

Caraga

Agusan Ata Manobo Butuanon Higaonon Kamayo Mamanwa

Davao

Bagobo B'laan Davawenyo Kalagan Mandaya Mansaka Obo Sangirese Sarangani Tagabawa

Soccsksargen

B'laan Cotabato Manobo Ilianen Iranun Obo Tboli Tiruray

Muslim Mindanao

Iranun Pangutaran Sama Sama

Immigrant languages

Arabic Basque Chinese

Mandarin Hokkien

French German Japanese Korean Malay

Indonesian Malaysian

Sindhi Spanish

History

Vietnamese

Sign languages

American Sign Philippine Sign

Historical languages

Proto-Philippine Old Tagalog

v t e

Southern Min

Datian Min

Qianlu dialect Houlu dialect

Hokkien

East Asia

Quanzhou
Quanzhou
dialect

Anxi dialect Hui'an dialect Jinjiang dialect Nan'an dialect Tong'an dialect

Amoy
Amoy
dialect Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
dialect

Longhai dialect

Taiwanese Longyan Min

Zhangping dialect

Toubei dialect

Southeast Asia

Philippine Hokkien Northern Malaysian Hokkien

Penang Hokkien Medan Hokkien

Southern Peninsular Malaysian Hokkien

Riau Hokkien Singaporean Hokkien

Teo-Swa (Chaoshan)

East Asia

Teochew

Raoping dialect

Shantou dialect
Shantou dialect
(Swatow)

Chenghai dialect Nan'ao dialect

Jieyang dialect Chaoyang dialect

Puning dialect Huilai dialect

Haifeng dialect

Southeast Asia

Bangkok Teochew Cambodia Teochew Kalimantan Teochew

Zhenan Min

Cangnan dialect Pingyang dialect Dongtou dialect Yuhuan dialect

Zhongshan Min

Longdu dialect Nanlang dialect Sanxiang dialect Zhangjiabian dialect

Unclassified

Yixing dialect Zhoushan dialect

v t e

Chinese language(s)

Major subdivisions

Mandarin

Northeastern

Harbin Shenyang

Beijing

Beijing

Ji–Lu

Tianjin Jinan

Jiao–Liao

Dalian Qingdao Weihai

Central Plains

Gangou Guanzhong Luoyang Xuzhou Dungan Dongping

Lan–Yin Southwestern

Sichuanese Kunming Minjiang Wuhan

Lower Yangtze

Nanjing

Wu

Taihu

Shanghainese Suzhou Wuxi Changzhou Hangzhou Shaoxing Ningbo Jinxiang Jiangyin Shadi

Taizhou Wu

Taizhou

Oujiang

Wenzhou

Wuzhou

Jinhua

Chu–Qu

Quzhou Jiangshan Qingtian

Xuanzhou

Gan

Chang–Du Yi–Liu Ying–Yi Da–Tong

Xiang

New

Changsha

Old

Shuangfeng

Ji–Xu Yong–Quan

Qiyang

Min

Eastern

Fuzhou Fuqing Fu'an Manjiang

Southern

Hokkien

Quanzhou Zhangzhou Amoy Taiwanese Philippine Hokkien Medan Hokkien Penang Hokkien Singaporean Hokkien Southern Peninsular Malaysian Hokkien

Zhenan Longyan Teochew

Shantou Haifeng

Zhongshan

Nanlang Sanxiang

other

Northern

Jian'ou Jianyang

Central Pu–Xian Shao–Jiang Leizhou

Zhanjiang

Hainan

Hakka

Meixian Wuhua Tingzhou

Changting

Taiwanese Hakka

Sixian dialect Raoping dialect

Yue

Yuehai

Cantonese Xiguan Jiujiang Shiqi Weitou Dapeng

Gao–Yang Siyi

Taishan

Goulou Wu–Hua Yong–Xun Luo–Guang Qin–Lian

Proposed

Huizhou Jin

Hohhot

Pinghua

Unclassified

Danzhou Mai Shaozhou Tuhua Waxiang Badong Yao Yeheni Shehua

Standardized forms

Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
(Mandarin)

Sichuanese Taiwanese Philippine Malaysian Singaporean

Cantonese Taiwanese Hokkien

Phonology

Historical

Old

Old National Cantonese Mandarin Literary and colloquial readings

Grammar

Chinese grammar Chinese classifier Chinese Idiom

History

Old Chinese Eastern Han Middle Chinese Old Mandarin Middle Mandarin Proto-Min Ba–Shu Gan

Literary forms

Official

Classical

Adoption in Vietnam

Vernacular

Other varieties

Written Cantonese Written Dungan Written Hokkien Written Sichuanese

Scripts

Standard

Simplified Traditional

Historical

Oracle bone Bronze Seal Clerical Semi-cursive Cursive

Braille

Cantonese
Cantonese
Braille Mainland Chinese Braille Taiwanese Braille Two-Cell Chinese Braille

Other

Romanization

Pinyin Wade–Giles

Bopomofo Xiao'erjing Nüshu Chinese punctuation Taiwanese kana Dungan Cyrillic

List of va

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