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Lake
Lake
Toba (Indonesian: Danau Toba) is a large natural lake occupying the caldera of a supervolcano. The lake is about 100 kilometres (62 miles) long, 30 kilometres (19 mi) wide, and up to 505 metres (1,657 ft) deep. Located in the middle of the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, with a surface elevation of about 900 metres (2,953 ft), the lake stretches from 2°53′N 98°31′E / 2.88°N 98.52°E / 2.88; 98.52 to 2°21′N 99°06′E / 2.35°N 99.1°E / 2.35; 99.1. It is the largest lake in Indonesia
Indonesia
and also the largest volcanic lake in the world.[1] Lake
Lake
Toba is the site of a massive supervolcanic eruption estimated at VEI 8 that occurred 69,000 to 77,000 years ago,[2][3][4] representing a climate-changing event. Recent advances in dating methods suggest a more accurate identification of 74,000 years ago as the date.[5] It is the largest-known explosive eruption on Earth
Earth
in the last 25 million years. According to the Toba catastrophe theory, it had global consequences for human populations; it killed most humans living at that time and is believed to have created a population bottleneck in central east Africa and India, which affects the genetic make-up of the human worldwide population to the present.[6] Debate exists regarding the catastrophe theory. It has been accepted that the eruption of Toba led to a volcanic winter with a worldwide decrease in temperature between 3 to 5 °C (5.4 to 9.0 °F), and up to 15 °C (27 °F) in higher latitudes. Additional studies in Lake
Lake
Malawi in East Africa show significant amounts of ash being deposited from the Toba eruptions, even at that great distance, but little indication of a significant climatic effect in East Africa.[7]

Contents

1 Geology 2 Major eruption

2.1 More recent activity

3 People 4 Flora
Flora
and fauna 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 Additional reading 9 External links

Geology[edit]

Batu Gantung (Hanging stone) in Lake
Lake
Toba

The Toba caldera complex in Northern Sumatra, comprises four overlapping volcanic craters that adjoin the Sumatran "volcanic front." The fourth and youngest caldera is the world's largest Quaternary
Quaternary
caldera (100 by 30 km [62 by 19 mi]) and intersects the three older calderas. An estimated 2,800 km3 (670 cu mi) of dense-rock equivalent pyroclastic material, known as the youngest Toba tuff, was released during one of the largest explosive volcanic eruptions in recent geological history. Following this eruption, a resurgent dome formed within the new caldera, joining two half-domes separated by a longitudinal graben.[3] At least four cones, four stratovolcanoes, and three craters are visible in the lake. The Tandukbenua
Tandukbenua
cone on the northwestern edge of the caldera has only sparse vegetation, suggesting a young age of several hundred years. Also, the Pusubukit (Hill Center) volcano (1,971 m above sea level) on the south edge of the caldera is solfatarically active.[8] Major eruption[edit] Main article: Toba catastrophe theory

Location of Lake
Lake
Toba shown in red on map

The Toba eruption (the Toba event) occurred at what is now Lake
Lake
Toba about 75,000±900 years ago.[9] It was the last in a series of at least four caldera-forming eruptions at this location, with earlier calderas having formed around 788,000±2,200 years ago.[10] This last eruption had an estimated VEI=8, making it the largest-known explosive volcanic eruption within the last 25 million years. Bill Rose and Craig Chesner of Michigan Technological University
Michigan Technological University
have estimated that the total amount of material released in the eruption was about 2,800 km3 (670 cu mi)[11]—about 2,000 km3 (480 cu mi) of ignimbrite that flowed over the ground, and approximately 800 km3 (190 cu mi) that fell as ash mostly to the west. However, based on the new method (crystal concentration and exponential), Toba possibly erupted 3,200 km3 (770 cu mi) of ignimbrite and co-ignimbrite. The pyroclastic flows of the eruption destroyed an area of least 20,000 km2 (7,722 sq mi), with ash deposits as thick as 600 m (1,969 ft) by the main vent.[11] The eruption was large enough to have deposited an ash layer approximately 15 cm (6 in) thick over all of South Asia; at one site in central India, the Toba ash layer today is up to 6 m (20 ft) thick[12] and parts of Malaysia
Malaysia
were covered with 9 m (30 ft) of ash fall.[13] In addition it has been variously calculated that 10,000 million tonnes (1.1×1010 short tons) of sulfurous acid[14] or 6,000 million tonnes (6.6×109 short tons) of sulfur dioxide[15] were ejected into the atmosphere by the event. The subsequent collapse formed a caldera that filled with water, creating Lake
Lake
Toba. The island in the center of the lake is formed by a resurgent dome.

Landsat
Landsat
photo of Sumatra
Sumatra
surrounding Lake
Lake
Toba

The exact year of the eruption is unknown, but the pattern of ash deposits suggests that it occurred during the northern summer because only the summer monsoon could have deposited Toba ashfall in the South China Sea.[16] The eruption lasted perhaps two weeks, and the ensuing volcanic winter resulted in a decrease in average global temperatures by 3.0 to 3.5 °C (5 to 6 °F) for several years. Ice cores from Greenland
Greenland
record a pulse of starkly reduced levels of organic carbon sequestration. Very few plants or animals in southeast Asia would have survived, and it is possible that the eruption caused a planet-wide die-off. However, the global cooling has been discussed by Rampino and Self. Their conclusion is that the cooling had already started before Toba's eruption. This conclusion was supported by Lane and Zielinski who studied the lake-core from Africa and GISP2. They concluded that there was no volcanic winter after Toba eruption and that high H2SO4 deposits do not cause long-term effects.[17][18] Evidence from studies of mitochondrial DNA suggests that humans may have passed through a genetic bottleneck around this time that reduced genetic diversity below what would be expected given the age of the species. According to the Toba catastrophe theory, proposed by Stanley H. Ambrose of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
in 1998, the effects of the Toba eruption may have decreased the size of human populations to only a few tens of thousands of individuals.[19] However, this hypothesis is not widely accepted because similar effects on other animal species have not been observed, and paleoanthropology suggests there was no population bottleneck.[20][21] More recent activity[edit] Since the major eruption ~70,000 years ago, eruptions of smaller magnitude have also occurred at Toba. The small cone of Pusukbukit formed on the southwestern margin of the caldera and lava domes. The most recent eruption may have been at Tandukbenua
Tandukbenua
on the northwestern caldera edge, suggested by a lack of vegetation that could be due to an eruption within the last few hundred years.[22] Some parts of the caldera have shown uplift due to partial refilling of the magma chamber, for example, pushing Samosir
Samosir
Island
Island
and the Uluan Peninsula above the surface of the lake. The lake sediments on Samosir
Samosir
Island
Island
show that it has risen by at least 450 m (1,476 ft)[10] since the cataclysmic eruption. Such uplifts are common in very large calderas, apparently due to the upward pressure of below-ground magma. Toba is probably the largest resurgent caldera on Earth. Large earthquakes have recently occurred in the vicinity of the volcano, notably in 1987 along the southern shore of the lake at a depth of 11 km (6.8 mi).[23] Such earthquakes have also been recorded in 1892, 1916, and 1920–1922.[10] Lake
Lake
Toba lies near the Great Sumatran fault, which runs along the centre of Sumatra
Sumatra
in the Sumatra
Sumatra
Fracture Zone.[10] The volcanoes of Sumatra
Sumatra
and Java
Java
are part of the Sunda Arc, a result of the northeasterly movement of the Indo-Australian Plate, which is sliding under the eastward-moving Eurasian Plate. The subduction zone in this area is very active: the seabed near the west coast of Sumatra
Sumatra
has had several major earthquakes since 1995, including the 9.1 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the 8.7 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake, the epicenters of which were around 300 km (190 mi) from Toba. People[edit]

Batak canoes near Haranggaol on Lake
Lake
Toba (circa 1920)

Most of the people who live around Lake
Lake
Toba are ethnically Bataks. Traditional Batak houses are noted for their distinctive roofs (which curve upwards at each end, as a boat's hull does) and their colorful decor.[24] Flora
Flora
and fauna[edit] The flora of the lake includes various types of phytoplankton, emerged macrophytes, floating macrophytes, and submerged macrophytes, while the surrounding countryside is rainforest including areas of Sumatran tropical pine forests on the higher mountainsides.[25] The fauna includes several species of zooplankton and benthic animals. Since the lake is oligotrophic (nutrient-poor), the native fish fauna is relatively scarce, and the only endemics are Rasbora tobana (strictly speaking near-endemic, since also found in some tributary rivers that run into the lake)[26] and Neolissochilus thienemanni, locally known as the Batak fish.[27] The latter species is threatened by deforestation (causing siltation), pollution, changes in water level and the numerous fish species that have been introduced to the lake.[27] Other native fishes include species such as Aplocheilus panchax, Nemacheilus pfeifferae, Homaloptera gymnogaster, Channa gachua, Channa striata, Clarias batrachus, Barbonymus gonionotus, Barbonymus schwanenfeldii, Danio albolineatus, Osteochilus vittatus, Puntius binotatus, Rasbora jacobsoni, Tor tambra, Betta imbellis, Betta taeniata and Monopterus albus.[28] Among the many introduced species are Anabas testudineus, Oreochromis mossambicus, Oreochromis niloticus, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio, Osphronemus goramy, Trichogaster pectoralis, Trichopodus trichopterus, Poecilia reticulata and Xiphophorus hellerii.[28]

Panoramic view of Lake
Lake
Toba

Gallery[edit]

Lake
Lake
Toba Aerial View

Aerial view of the southern shore with Sibandang Island
Island
visible in the background

View of the lake with an example of Batak architecture in the foreground

Traditional Batak house at Ambarita, Lake
Lake
Toba

Sipiso-Piso Waterfall

Lake
Lake
Toba from Tongging Village, near Sipiso-Piso Waterfall

Lake
Lake
Toba featured in 1,000-rupiah banknote

Details of carvings on the prow of a Toba Batak canoe

The caldera of Lake
Lake
Toba, with a resurgent dome, forming Samosir Island

A panoramic partial view of Toba Lake, as seen from the west side to the southeast

See also[edit]

List of lakes of Indonesia List of volcanoes in Indonesia Mount Sinabung

References[edit]

^ a b c "LakeNet – Lakes".  ^ "Global Volcanism Program – Toba".  ^ a b Chesner, C.A.; Westgate, J.A.; Rose, W.I.; Drake, R.; Deino, A. (March 1991). "Eruptive history of Earth's largest Quaternary
Quaternary
caldera (Toba, Indonesia) clarified" (PDF). Geology. Michigan Technological University. 19 (3): 200–203. Bibcode:1991Geo....19..200C. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0200:EHOESL>2.3.CO;2. Retrieved 2008-08-23.  ^ Ninkovich, D.; N.J. Shackleton; A.A. Abdel-Monem; J.D. Obradovich; G. Izett (7 December 1978). "K−Ar age of the late Pleistocene eruption of Toba, north Sumatra". Nature. Nature Publishing Group. 276 (5688): 574–577. Bibcode:1978Natur.276..574N. doi:10.1038/276574a0.  ^ Vogel, Gretchen, How ancient humans survived global ‘volcanic winter’ from massive eruption, Science, March 12, 2018 ^ "When humans faced extinction". BBC. 2003-06-09. Retrieved 2007-01-05.  ^ Lane, Christine S.; Ben T. Chorn; Thomas C. Johnson (29 April 2013). "Ash from the Toba supereruption in Lake
Lake
Malawi shows no volcanic winter in East Africa at 75 ka". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (20): 8025–8029. Bibcode:2013PNAS..110.8025L. doi:10.1073/pnas.1301474110. PMC 3657767 . PMID 23630269.  ^ "Synonyms and Subfeatures: Toba". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 7 June 2017.  ^ Zielinski, G. A.; P.A. Mayewski; L.D. Meeker; S. Whitlow; M. Twickler; K. Taylor (1996). "Potential Atmospheric impact of the Toba mega-eruption ~71,000 years ago". Geophysical Research Letters. United States: American Geophysical Union. 23 (8): 837–840. Bibcode:1996GeoRL..23..837Z. doi:10.1029/96GL00706.  ^ a b c d "Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia". Oregon State University.  ^ a b "Supersized eruptions are all the rage!". USGS. April 28, 2005.  ^ Acharyya, S.K.; Basu, P.K. (1993). "Toba ash on the South Asia
South Asia
and its implications for correlation of late pleistocene alluvium". Quaternary
Quaternary
Research. 40 (1): 10–19. Bibcode:1993QuRes..40...10A. doi:10.1006/qres.1993.1051.  ^ Scrivenor, John Brooke (1931). The Geology of Malaya. London: MacMillan. OCLC 3575130. , noted by Weber. ^ Huang, C.Y.; Zhao, M.X.; Wang, C.C.; Wei, G.J. (2001). "Cooling of the South China Sea by the Toba Eruption and correlation with other climate proxies ∼71,000 years ago". Geophysical Research Letters. 28 (20): 3915–3918. Bibcode:2001GeoRL..28.3915H. doi:10.1029/2000GL006113.  ^ Robock, A.; C.M. Ammann; L. Oman; D. Shindell; S. Levis; G. Stenchikov (2009). "Did the Toba volcanic eruption of ~74k BP produce widespread glaciation?". Journal of Geophysical Research. 114: D10107. Bibcode:2009JGRD..11410107R. doi:10.1029/2008JD011652.  ^ Bühring, C.; Sarnthein, M.; Leg 184 Shipboard Scientific Party (2000). "Toba ash layers in the South China Sea: evidence of contrasting wind directions during eruption ca. 74 ka". Geology. 28 (3): 275–278. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2000)028<0275:TALITS>2.3.CO;2.  ^ Lane, Christine S (2013). "Ash from the Toba supereruption in Lake Malawi shows no volcanic winter in East Africa at 75 ka". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110: 8025–8029. Bibcode:2013PNAS..110.8025L. doi:10.1073/pnas.1301474110. PMC 3657767 . PMID 23630269.  ^ Zielinski, GA (1996). "Potential atmospheric impact of the Toba Mega‐Eruption∼ 71,000 years ago". Geophysical Research Letters. 23: 837–840. Bibcode:1996GeoRL..23..837Z. doi:10.1029/96GL00706.  ^ "Yellowstone Is a Supervolcano?". Biot Reports. Suburban Emergency Management Project (164). January 11, 2005. Archived from the original on January 13, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-21.  ^ Gathorne-Hardy, F. J., and Harcourt-Smith, W. E. H., "The super-eruption of Toba, did it cause a human bottleneck?", Journal of Human Evolution 45 (2003) 227–230. ^ Petraglia, Michael D (2012). "The Toba volcanic super-eruption, environmental change, and hominin occupation history in India over the last 140,000 years". Quaternary
Quaternary
International. 258: 119–134. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2011.07.042.  ^ "Toba volcano (Indonesia, Sumatra)". VolcanoDiscovery.com.  ^ "Significant Earthquakes of the World". United States Geological Survey (USGS).  ^ "Batak People". IndonesianMusic.com. Archived from the original on 2008-08-13.  ^ "Danau Toba ( Lake
Lake
Toba)". International Lake
Lake
Environment Committee. Archived from the original on 2009-03-03.  ^ Lumbantobing, D. N. (2010). Four New Species of the Rasbora trifasciata-Group (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Northwestern Sumatra, Indonesia. Copeia 4: 644–670 ^ a b Saragih, B., and S. Sunito (2001). Lake
Lake
Toba: Need for an integrated management system. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management 6(3): 247–251. ^ a b FishBase
FishBase
(2012). Species in Toba. Accessed 25 January 2012

Additional reading[edit]

Rampino, Michael R. and Stephen Self (1993). "Climate-volcanism feedback and the Toba eruption of 74,000 Years Ago". Quaternary Research. 40 (3): 269–280. Bibcode:1993QuRes..40..269R. doi:10.1006/qres.1993.1081.  Vazquez, Jorge A. and Mary R. Reid (2004). "Probing the accumulation history of the voluminous Toba Magma". Science. 305 (5686): 991–994. Bibcode:2004Sci...305..991V. doi:10.1126/science.1096994. PMID 15310899.  Petraglia, M.; et al. (2007). "Middle Paleolithic Assemblages from the Indian Subcontinent Before and After the Toba Super-Eruption". Science. 317 (5834): 114–116. Bibcode:2007Sci...317..114P. doi:10.1126/science.1141564. PMID 17615356. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lake
Lake
Toba.

Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia
Indonesia
– Volcano.oregonstate.edu Accessed 11 December 2005 Stanley H. Ambrose, Volcanic Winter, and Differentiation of Modern Humans Accessed 11 December 2005 Joel Achenbach, Who Knew, National Geographic Accessed 11 December 2005 ( Lake
Lake
Toba Ecosystem Management Plan) From laketoba.org Magma
Magma
'Pancakes' May Have Fueled Toba Supervolcano Lake
Lake
Toba travel guide from Wikivoyage

v t e

Tourist attractions in Indonesia

Sumatra

Ampera Bridge Baiturrahman Grand Mosque Barelang Bridge Bintan Island Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park Gunongan Historical Park Jam Gadang Kerinci Seblat National Park Krakatoa Lagundri Bay Lake
Lake
Maninjau Lake
Lake
Singkarak Lake
Lake
Toba Lumbini Natural Park Maimun Palace Mentawai Islands Regency Nias Pagaruyung Palace Penyengat Island Sipura Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra

Java

Ancol Dreamland Anyer Arjuno-Welirang Batu City Bogor Palace Borobudur Ciletuh-Palabuhanratu Geopark Cukang Taneuh Dieng Volcanic Complex Ceto Temple G-Land Gembira Loka Zoo Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park Ijen
Ijen
Crater Istiqlal Mosque Karimunjawa National Park Kawah Putih Keraton Kasepuhan Keraton Kacirebonan Keraton Kanoman Keraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Malang Mount Bromo Mount Halimun Salak National Park Mount Merapi Mount Semeru Mrapen Pangandaran Patenggang Lake Pelabuhan Ratu Penataran Prambanan Puncak Ragunan Zoo Sangiran Suramadu Bridge Taman Mini Indonesia
Indonesia
Indah Tangkuban Perahu Thousand Islands Tirto Samodra Beach Tretes Trowulan Yogyakarta City Ujung Kulon National Park

Kalimantan

Betung Kerihun National Park Bukit Baka Bukit Raya National Park Baning Nature Tourist Park Danau Sentarum National Park Derawan Islands Kakaban Kutai National Park Sabangau National Park Samboja Lestari Tanjung Puting The Equator monument

Sulawesi

Bantimurung – Bulusaraung National Park Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park Bunaken National Park Gandang Dewata National Park Kepulauan Togean National Park Lake
Lake
Tempe Lore Lindu National Park Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Park Taka Bone Rate National Park Toraja Trans Studio Makassar Wakatobi National Park

Lesser Sunda Islands

Awang Bay Bedugul Bali Bird Park Bali Safari and Marine Park Canggu Cempi Bay Dreamland Beach Garuda Wisnu Kencana Gili Air Gili Meno Gili Trawangan Goa Gajah Gunung Rinjani National Park Jimbaran Kelimutu Kintamani Komodo National Park Kuta Lake
Lake
Segara Anak Lovina Beach Mount Rinjani Mount Tambora Moyo Island Nusa Dua Nusa Lembongan Pecatu Rinca Sanur Seminyak Senggigi Tampaksiring Tanah Lot Tanjung Ringgit Tirta Gangga Ubud Ujung Water Palace Uluwatu

Maluku and Papua

Fort Belgica Lorentz National Park Puncak
Puncak
Jaya Raja Ampat Islands Teluk Cenderawasih National Park W

.