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Lake
Lake
Ladoga (Russian: Ла́дожское о́зеро, tr. Ladozhskoye ozero, IPA: [ˈladəʂskəjə ˈozʲɪrə] or Russian: Ла́дога, tr. Ladoga, IPA: [ˈladəgə]; Finnish: Laatokka [earlier in Finnish Nevajärvi]; Livvi: Luadogu; Veps: Ladog, Ladoganjärv) is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast
Leningrad Oblast
in northwestern Russia, in the vicinity of Saint Petersburg. It is the largest lake entirely in Europe, and the 14th largest freshwater lake by area in the world. Ladoga Lacus, a methane lake on Saturn's moon Titan, is named after the lake.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Maps

3 Geological history 4 Wildlife 5 History 6 Lists

6.1 Tributaries 6.2 Towns upon the lake

7 Image gallery 8 References 9 External links

Etymology[edit] In one of Nestor's chronicles from the 12th century he mentions a lake called "the Great Nevo", a clear link to the Neva River
Neva River
and, possibly furthermore, to Finnish nevo "sea" or neva "bog, quagmire".[1] Ancient Norse sagas
Norse sagas
and Hanseatic treaties both mention a city made of lakes named Old Norse
Old Norse
Aldeigja or Aldoga.[2] Since the beginning of the 14th century this hydronym was commonly known as Ladoga. According to T. N. Jackson, it can be taken "almost for granted, that the name of Ladoga first referred to the river, then the city, and only then the lake." Therefore, he considers the primary hydronym Ladoga to originate in the eponymous inflow to the lower reaches of the Volkhov River whose Finnic name was Alodejoki (corresponding to modern Finnish: Alojen joki) "river of the lowlands".[1] The Germanic toponym (Aldeigja → Aldoga) was soon borrowed by the Slavic population and transformed by means of the Old Russian metathesis ald- → lad- to Old East Slavic: Ладога. The Old Norse intermediary word between Finnish and Old Russian word is fully supported by archeology, since the Scandinavians first appeared in Ladoga in the early 750s, that is, a couple of decades before the Slavs.[3] Other theories about the origin of the name derive it from Karelian: aalto "wave" and Karelian: aaltokas "wavy"; or from the Russian dialectal word алодь, meaning "open lake, extensive water field".[4] Eugene Helimski by contrast, offers an etymology rooted in German. In his opinion, the primary name of the lake was Old Norse: *Aldauga "old source", associated to the open sea, in contrast to the name of the Neva River
Neva River
(flowing from Lake
Lake
Ladoga) which would derive from the German expression for "the new". Through the intermediate form *Aldaugja, Old Norse: Aldeigja cam about, referring to "Ladoga (city)".[5] Geography[edit] The lake has an average surface area of 17,891 km2 (excluding the islands). Its north-to-south length is 219 km and its average width is 83 km; the average depth is 51 m, although it reaches a maximum of 230 m in the north-western part. Basin area: 276,000 km2, volume: 837 km3[6] (earlier estimated as 908 km3). There are around 660 islands, with a total area of about 435 km2. Ladoga is, on average, 5 m above sea level.[7] Most of the islands, including the famous Valaam archipelago, Kilpola
Kilpola
and Konevets, are situated in the northwest of the lake. Separated from the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
by the Karelian Isthmus, it drains into the Gulf of Finland
Finland
via the Neva River. Lake
Lake
Ladoga is navigable, being a part of the Volga-Baltic Waterway connecting the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
with the Volga River. The Ladoga Canal bypasses the lake in the southern part, connecting the Neva to the Svir. The basin of Lake
Lake
Ladoga includes about 50,000 lakes and 3,500 rivers longer than 10 km. About 85% of the water inflow is due to tributaries, 13% is due to precipitation, and 2% is due to underground waters. Maps[edit]

Map of Lake
Lake
Ladoga

Location

Brockhaus and Efron

Geological history[edit] See also: Geology of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
and Svecofennian orogeny

Ancylus Lake
Lake
around 7,000 BC.

Geologically, the Lake
Lake
Ladoga depression is a graben and syncline structure of Proterozoic
Proterozoic
age (Precambrian). This "Ladoga–Pasha structure", as it known, hosts Jotnian
Jotnian
sediments. During the Pleistocene glaciations the depression was partially stripped of its sedimentary rock fill by glacial overdeepening.[8] During the Last Glacial Maximum, about 17,000 years BP, the lake served likely as a channel that concentrated ice of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet into an ice stream that fed glacier lobes further east.[9] Deglaciation following the Weichselian glaciation
Weichselian glaciation
took place in the Lake
Lake
Ladoga basin between 12,500 and 11,500 radiocarbon years BP. Lake Ladoga was initially part of the Baltic Ice Lake
Lake
(70–80 m. above present sea level), a historical freshwater stage of Baltic Sea. It is possible, though not certain, that Ladoga was isolated from it during regression of the subsequent Yoldia Sea
Yoldia Sea
brackish stage (10,200–9,500 BP). The isolation threshold should be at Heinjoki to the east of Vyborg, where the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
and Ladoga were connected by a strait or a river outlet at least until the formation of the River Neva, and possibly even much later, until the 12th century AD or so.[10][11] At 9,500 BP, Lake
Lake
Onega, previously draining into the White Sea, started emptying into Ladoga via the River Svir. Between 9,500 and 9,100 BP, during the transgression of Ancylus Lake, the next freshwater stage of the Baltic, Ladoga certainly became part of it, even if they hadn't been connected immediately before. During the Ancylus Lake
Lake
subsequent regression, around 8,800 BP Ladoga became isolated.[12][citation needed] Ladoga slowly transgressed in its southern part due to uplift of the Baltic Shield
Baltic Shield
in the north. It has been hypothesized, but not proven, that waters of the Litorina Sea, the next brackish-water stage of the Baltic, occasionally invaded Ladoga between 7,000 and 5,000 BP. Around 5,000 BP the waters of the Saimaa
Saimaa
Lake
Lake
penetrated Salpausselkä
Salpausselkä
and formed a new outlet, River Vuoksi, entering Lake
Lake
Ladoga in the northwestern corner and raising its level by 1–2 m.[13] The River Neva
River Neva
originated when the Ladoga waters at last broke through the threshold at Porogi into the lower portions of Izhora River, then a tributary of the Gulf of Finland, between 4,000 and 2,000 BP. Dating of some sediments in the northwestern part of Lake
Lake
Ladoga suggests it happened at 3,100 radiocarbon years BP (3,410–3,250 calendar years BP).[14]

Lake
Lake
Ladoga as part of w:Baltic Ice Lake
Lake
(between 11200 and 10500 yr BP). Blue line - front of Ice margin 13300 cal yr BP..

Lake
Lake
Ladoga as part of Ancylus Lake
Lake
(between 9300 and 9200 yr BP). Green line - south shoreline of Lake
Lake
Ladoga during Yoldia stage of Baltic basin.

Wildlife[edit] The Ladoga is rich with fish. 48 forms (species and infra specific taxa) of fish have been encountered in the lake, including roach, carp bream, zander, European perch, ruffe, endemic variety of smelt, two varieties of Coregonus albula
Coregonus albula
(vendace), eight varieties of Coregonus lavaretus, a number of other Salmonidae
Salmonidae
as well as, albeit rarely, endangered European sea sturgeon. Commercial fishing was once a major industry but has been hurt by overfishing. After the war, between 1945–1954, the total annual catch increased and reached a maximum of 4,900 tonnes. However, unbalanced fishery led to the drastic decrease of catch in 1955–1963, sometimes to 1,600 tonnes per year. Trawling has been forbidden in Lake
Lake
Ladoga since 1956 and some other restrictions were imposed. The situation gradually recovered, and in 1971–1990 the catch ranged between 4,900 and 6,900 tonnes per year, about the same level as the total catch in 1938.[15] Fish farms and recreational fishing are developing. [16] It has its own endemic ringed seal subspecies known as the Ladoga seal. Since the beginning of the 1960s Ladoga has become considerably eutrophicated.[17] Nizhnesvirsky Natural Reserve
Nizhnesvirsky Natural Reserve
is situated along the shore of Lake Ladoga immediately to the north of the mouth of the River Svir. History[edit]

Konevsky monastery

In the Middle Ages, the lake formed a vital part of the trade route from the Varangians to the Eastern Roman Empire, with the Norse emporium at Staraya Ladoga
Staraya Ladoga
defending the mouth of the Volkhov since the 8th century. In the course of the Swedish–Novgorodian Wars, the area was disputed between the Novgorod Republic
Novgorod Republic
and Sweden. In the early 14th century, the fortresses of Korela (Kexholm) and Oreshek (Nöteborg) were established along the banks of the lake. The ancient Valaam
Valaam
Monastery was founded on the island of Valaam, the largest in Lake
Lake
Ladoga, abandoned between 1611–1715, magnificently restored in the 18th century, and evacuated to Finland
Finland
during the Winter War
Winter War
in 1940. In 1989 the monastic activities in the Valaam
Valaam
were resumed. Other historic cloisters in the vicinity are the Konevets Monastery, which sits on the Konevets
Konevets
island, and the Alexander-Svirsky Monastery, which preserves fine samples of medieval Muscovite architecture. During the Ingrian War, a fraction of the Ladoga coast was occupied by Sweden. In 1617, by the Treaty of Stolbovo, the northern and western coast was ceded by Russia
Russia
to Sweden. In 1721, after the Great Northern War, it was restitution to Russia
Russia
by the Treaty of Nystad. Later, in 1812–1940 the lake was shared between Finland
Finland
and Russia. According to the conditions of the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty militarization of the lake was severely restricted. However, both Soviet Russia
Russia
and Finland had flotillas in Ladoga (see also Finnish Ladoga Naval Detachment). After the Winter War
Winter War
(1939–40) according to the Moscow Peace Treaty, Ladoga, previously shared with Finland, became an internal basin of the Soviet Union. During the Continuation War
Continuation War
(1941–44) not only Finnish and Soviet, but also German and Italian vessels operated there (see also Naval Detachment K and Regia Marina). Under these circumstances, during much of the Siege of Leningrad
Siege of Leningrad
(1941–44), Lake
Lake
Ladoga provided the only access to the besieged city because a section of the eastern shore remained in Soviet hands. Supplies were transported into Leningrad with trucks on winter roads over the ice, the "Road of Life", and by boat in the summer. After World War II, Finland
Finland
lost the Karelia region again to the USSR, and all Finnish citizens were evacuated from the ceded territory. Ladoga became an internal Soviet basin once again. The northern shore, Ladoga Karelia
Karelia
with the town of Sortavala, is now part of the Republic of Karelia. The western shore, Karelian Isthmus, became part of Leningrad Oblast. Lists[edit] Tributaries[edit]

(incomplete list)

Svir River
Svir River
from Lake
Lake
Onega (south-east, discharge: 790 m3/s); Volkhov River
Volkhov River
from Lake
Lake
Ilmen (south, discharge: 580 m3/s); Vuoksi River
Vuoksi River
(and Burnaya River) from Lake
Lake
Saimaa
Saimaa
in Finland
Finland
(west, discharge: 540 m3/s). Syas River
Syas River
(south, discharge: 53 m3/s). Olonka River from Lake
Lake
Utozero

Towns upon the lake[edit]

Shlisselburg
Shlisselburg
(at 59°56′N 31°02′E / 59.933°N 31.033°E / 59.933; 31.033 (Shlisselburg)) Novaya Ladoga
Novaya Ladoga
(at 60°06′N 32°18′E / 60.100°N 32.300°E / 60.100; 32.300 (Novaya Ladoga)) Syasstroy
Syasstroy
(at 60°08′N 32°34′E / 60.133°N 32.567°E / 60.133; 32.567 (Syasstroy)) Pitkyaranta
Pitkyaranta
(at 61°34′N 31°28′E / 61.567°N 31.467°E / 61.567; 31.467 (Pitkyaranta)) Sortavala
Sortavala
(at 61°42′N 30°41′E / 61.700°N 30.683°E / 61.700; 30.683 (Sortavala)) Lakhdenpokhya
Lakhdenpokhya
(at 61°31′N 30°12′E / 61.517°N 30.200°E / 61.517; 30.200 (Lakhdenpokhya)) Priozersk
Priozersk
(at 61°02′N 30°08′E / 61.033°N 30.133°E / 61.033; 30.133 (Priozersk))

Image gallery[edit]

Rocky shore

The archipelago in Ladoga Lake
Lake
with the Monastery of the Transfiguration of the Saviour

Rafts on the Peter the Great Canal. City of Shlisselburg

Konevets
Konevets
Island

Sortavala
Sortavala
harbour, Karelia

Saint Nicholas Skete on island Valaam
Valaam
on Ladoga lake and little ship

Valaam
Valaam
Archipelago

Boulder on Vidlitsa, west shore

Superior mirage
Superior mirage
on Lake
Lake
Ladoga

Oreshek
Oreshek
Fortress on Ladoga shore in Shlisselburg

View

References[edit]

^ a b Evgeny Pospelov: Geographical names of the world. Toponymic dictionary. Second edition. Astrel, Moscow 2001, p. 106 f. ^ S. V. Kirilovsky: Did you know? In: Gazetteer Leningrad region. Lenizdat, Leningrad 1974, p. 79 f. ^ T. N. Jackson: Альдейгья. Археология и топонимика. Памятники средневековой культуры: Открытия и версии. Saint-Petersburg, 1994. С. 77—79. ^ N. Mammoth: Топонимика Приладожья. ^ Eugene Helimski: Ladoga and Perm revisited.[dead link] ^ Sorokin, Aleksander I. et al. (1996). New morphometrical data of Lake
Lake
Ladoga. Hydrobiologia 322.1–3, 65–67. ^ Калесник С.В. Ладожское озеро. Л.: Гидрометеоиздат, 1968. ^ Amantov, A.; Laitakari, I.; Poroshin, Ye (1996). " Jotnian
Jotnian
and Postjotnian: Sandstones and diabases in the surroundings of the Gulf of Finland" (PDF). Geological Survey of Finland, Special
Special
Paper. 21: 99–113. Retrieved 27 July 2015.  ^ Stroeven, Arjen P.; Hättestrand, Clas; Kleman, Johan; Heyman, Jakob; Fabel, Derek; Fredin, Ola; Goodfellow, Bradley W.; Harbor, Jonathan M.; Jansen, John D.; Olsen, Lars; Caffee, Marc W.; Fink, David; Lundqvist, Jan; Rosqvist, Gunhild C.; Strömberg, Bo; Jansson, Krister N. (2016). "Deglaciation of Fennoscandia". Quaternary Science Reviews. 147: 91–121.  ^ Ailio, Julius (1915). "Die geographische Entwicklung des Ladogasees in postglazialer Zeit". Bull. Comm. Géol. Finlande. 45: 1–159.  ^ Davydova, Natalia N. et al. (1996). Late- and postglacial history of lakes of the Karelian Isthmus. Hydrobiologia 322.1–3, 199–204. ^ Saarnisto, Matti; Grönlund, Tuulikki; Ekman, Ilpo (1995-01-01). "Lateglacial of Lake
Lake
Onega — Contribution to the history of the eastern Baltic basin". Quaternary International. 27 (Supplement C): 111–120. doi:10.1016/1040-6182(95)00068-T.  ^ Saarnisto, Matti (1970). The Late Weichselian and Flandrian history of the Saimaa
Saimaa
Lake
Lake
complex. Societas Scientiarium Fennicae. Commentationes Physico-Mathematicae 37. ^ Saarnisto, Matti & Tuulikki Grönlund (1996). Shoreline displacement of Lake
Lake
Ladoga – new data from Kilpolansaari. Hydrobiologia 322.1–3, 205–215. ^ Kudersky, Leonid K. et al. (1996). Fishery of Lake
Lake
Ladoga — past, present and future. Hydrobiologia 322.1–3, 57–64. ^ Ladoga ^ Holopainen, Anna-Liisa et al. (1996) The tropic state of Lake
Lake
Ladoga as indicated by late summer phytoplankton. Hydrobiologia 322.1–3, 9–16.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lake
Lake
Ladoga.

Simola, Heikki et al. (eds), Proceeding of The First International Lake
Lake
Ladoga Symposium. Special
Special
issue of Hydrobiologia. Vol. 322, Issues 1–3. / April 1996. Ladoga Lake
Lake
(photos) War on Lake
Lake
Ladoga, 1941–1944 Maps

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 235949274 GND: 4111182-5 BNF:

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