Lake Garda
   HOME

TheInfoList



Lake Garda ( it, Lago di Garda or ; lmo, label=
Eastern Lombard Eastern Lombard is a group of closely related dialects of Lombard language, Lombard, a Gallo-Italic languages, Gallo-Italic language spoken in Lombardy, mainly in the provinces of Bergamo, Brescia and Mantua, in the area around Crema, Italy, Crema ...
, Lach de Garda; vec, Ƚago de Garda; la, Benacus; grc, Βήνακος) is the largest
lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a Depression (geology), basin, surrounded by land, and set apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the World Ocean, oc ...

lake
in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands of Italy, se ...

Italy
. It is a popular holiday location in northern Italy, about halfway between
Brescia Brescia (; lmo, link=no, label= Lombard, Brèsa ; lat, Brixia; vec, Bressa) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. I ...
and
Verona Verona ( , ; vec, Verona or ''Veròna'') is a city on the Adige River in Veneto, northern Italy, Italy, with 258,031 inhabitants. It is one of the seven provincial capitals of the region. It is the largest city Comune, municipality in the regi ...

Verona
, and between
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, del ...

Venice
and
Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its ...

Milan
on the edge of the
Dolomites german: Dolomiten , photo=Val Gardena with Sella and Saslonch from Resciesa.JPG , photo_size= 285px , photo_caption=The Western Dolomites in Gherdëina , country= Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubbl ...
.
Glacier A glacier (; ) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight. A glacier forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its Ablation#Glaciology, ablation over many years, often Century, centuries. Glaciers slowl ...

Glacier
s formed this alpine region at the end of the last
Ice Age An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and ...

Ice Age
. The lake and its shoreline are divided between the provinces of
Verona Verona ( , ; vec, Verona or ''Veròna'') is a city on the Adige River in Veneto, northern Italy, Italy, with 258,031 inhabitants. It is one of the seven provincial capitals of the region. It is the largest city Comune, municipality in the regi ...
(to the south-east),
Brescia Brescia (; lmo, link=no, label= Lombard, Brèsa ; lat, Brixia; vec, Bressa) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. I ...
(south-west), and
Trentino Trentino ( lld, Trentin) officially the Autonomous Province of Trento, is an Autonomous area, autonomous Provinces of Italy, province of Italy, in the Northern Italy, country's far north. The Trentino and South Tyrol constitute the Regions of It ...
(north). The name Garda, which the lake has been referred to in documents dating to the 8th century, comes from the town of the same name. It is evolved from the Germanic word ''warda'', meaning "place of guard", "place of observation" or "place of safety".


Geography

The northern part of the lake is narrower, surrounded by mountains, the majority of which belong to the Gruppo del Baldo. The shape is typical of a
moraine A moraine is any accumulation of unconsolidated debris (regolith and rock), sometimes referred to as glacial till, that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions, and that has been previously carried along by a glacier or ice she ...

moraine
valley, probably having been formed under the action of a
Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek wikt:παλαιός, palaios - old, wikt:λίθος, lithos - stone), is a period in prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone too ...
glacier. Although traces of the glacier's actions are evident today, in more recent years it has been hypothesised that the glacier occupied a previously existing depression, created by stream erosion 5 to 6 million years ago. The lake has numerous small islands and five main ones, the largest being
Isola del Garda Isola del Garda or Isola di Garda or Isola Borghese is the biggest island on Lake Garda. It is part of the ''comune'' of San Felice del Benaco, in the Province of Brescia, Lombardy, Italy. The island has a long and varied history, having been used ...

Isola del Garda
, where, in 1220 St. Francis of Assisi founded a monastery. In its place now stands a 19th-century building in the Venetian Gothic style. Nearby to the south is Isola San Biagio, also known as the Isola dei Conigli ("Island of the Rabbits"). Both are offshore of
San Felice del Benaco San Felice del Benaco (Brescian, Gardesano: ) is a ''comune'' in the province of Brescia, in Lombardy, northern Italy. The name derives most likely from the Latin ''sinus felix'', meaning "pleasant harbour". It is located on the western shore of th ...
, on the lake's western side. The three other main islands are Isola dell'Olivo, Isola di Sogno, and Isola di Trimelone, all farther north near the eastern side. The main tributary is the
Sarca River The Sarca is a river springin ...
, others include the Ponale River (fed by Lago di Ledro), the Varone River, Varone/Magnone River (via the Cascate del Varone) and various streams from both mountainsides, while the only outlet is the Mincio River (, at Peschiera). The subdivision is created by the presence of a fault submerged between Sirmione and Punta San Vigilio which is almost a natural barrier that hampers the homogenization between the water of the two zones. If the water level of the Adige river is excessive, water is diverted to the lake through the Mori-Torbole tunnel.


Climate

The particularly mild climate favours the growth of some hardy Mediterranean plants, including the olive tree, parasol pine, mediterranean cypress, chinese windmill palm and Canary Island Date Palm. Some hardy citrus trees, such as hardy lemons and Satsuma (fruit), satsuma can also be found, which are extremely rare at this latitude (46° North). This greatly favoured the development of tourism since the end of WWII. In ancient times, poets like Catullus wrote about "Lacus Benacus" with its mild climate vivified by the winds. The lake is oriented from north to south towards the Po Valley, so many winds typical of the lake are the result of a difference between lower and higher altitude temperatures. Due to this, winds are generated that descend from the mountains to the plains in the morning and go back to the mountains in the afternoon. The bottleneck formed by the lake basin affects the timing of the winds, many of which happen on a regular daily basis. The winds are all named, most in regional Italian dialect so a single wind may have different names.


Biology

''Salmo carpio'', also known as the carpione (''carpione del Garda''Crivelli, A.J. 2006
''Salmo carpio''
In: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. Downloaded on 2 April 2010
or ''Lake Garda carpione''S. Melotto, G. Alessio (2006
Biology of carpione, ''Salmo carpio'' L., an endemic species of Lake Garda (Italy)
''Journal of Fish Biology'' 37, 687–698.
) is a rare salmonid fish endemism, endemic to Lake Garda. It has been introduced to a number of other lakes in Italy and elsewhere but unsuccessfully in all cases. The population in Lake Garda has been strongly declining, and is considered critically endangered (IUCN Red List, IUCN 3.1). The main threats are due to overfishing, pollution and possibly competition from introduced species such as Coregonus and other Salmonidae. Adult lake trout outside the mating season are silvery with very few black spots on the body and almost none on the head. During the mating season, some males develop a dark mottled body colouration. Garda lake trout reach a length of up to 50 centimetres. They live primarily in depths of . They feed on zooplankton and bottom-dwelling crustaceans in summer. Males and females reach sexual maturity at two or three years. The mating takes place every one to two years. The spawning takes place in depth in the vicinity of underwater springs. The maximum age is five years.


History

* Battle of Lake Benacus, in which Roman forces defeated the Alamanni on the shores of Lake Garda, in the year 268. * Battle between Milan and Venetian Republic in 1438 following the military engineering feat of galeas per montes. * Battle of Rivoli, in 1797 during the French campaign of Napoleon I in Italy against Austria. * Battle of Solferino in 1859, during the Italy, Italian Risorgimento. The terrible aftermath of this battle led to the Geneva Convention and the formation of the Red Cross. * The lake was the site of Naval Operations on Lake Garda, 1866, naval battles in 1866 between Italy and Austria. * As persuaded by the Nazis, Benito Mussolini established the capital of his Italian Social Republic in late 1943 in a villa in the town of Salò on its shores. It served as a nexus for military operations and communications for Nazi, German troops who occupied northern Italy in late 1943 during World War II.


Mythology

According to the Greco-Roman mythology, the River Mincio, Mincius was the child of the Lake Benacus.


Towns and villages on the lake

The ancient fortified town of Sirmione, located on the south of the lake, is one particularly popular destination, home to the Virgilio & Catullo Spa Complexes, as well as numerous restaurants, bars, hotels, fashion stores and a market. The picturesque Scaligero Castle (Sirmione), Scaliger castle dates from the 13th century. The Roman Republic, Roman poet Catullus had a villa here, and visitors can see a ruined Roman spa named the Grotte di Catullo (Grottoes of Catullus) although there is no evidence linking him to this particular building. The sulfur spring (hydrosphere), springs at the tip of the peninsula have a reputation for healing catarrhal conditions, particularly those involving the ear. Another popular town is the town of Garda (VR), Garda. Garda is approximately from the more popular town of Verona. Garda's economy is based on tourism. Nearby, there is Gardaland, one of the most famous theme parks in Italy. At the northern end of the lake, the towns of Riva and Torbole are famous for winds that attract people who sailing, sail, windsurf & kitesurfing, kiteboard.


Transport


Ferry

Infrequent ferry services connect major towns on the eastern and western shores of Lake Garda. The services run in a zig-zag manner from Desenzano del Garda to Riva del Garda, via Peschiera del Garda, Salò, Garda and Malcesine. One express ferry, on which bicycles are not allowed, operates per day: journey time from Riva del Garda to Peschiera takes 2 hours.


Rail

Railway stations with direct bus links include Rovereto (to Riva del Garda), Verona (to Garda), Peschiera del Garda (to Garda) and Desenzano del Garda (to Salò).


Bus

Buses are faster alternatives to ferry services. On Lake Garda's eastern coast (provinces of Verona and Trentino), ATV (Verona Transport Company) provides at least five daily bus routes between Verona and Garda, with one route extending beyond Garda to Riva del Garda. Trentino Transporti provides daily bus routes between Riva del Garda and Rovereto or Trento. * 162: Verona – Garda (via Bussolegno) * 163: Verona – Garda (via Lasize) * 164: Verona – Verona-Villafranca Airport (''summer only'') – Peschiera del Garda – Gardaland – Garda * 165: Verona – Garda (via Calmasino) * 183: Peschiera – Garda – Gardaland – Malcesine (''May to October'') * 184: Garda – Malcesine – Riva del Garda * 205: Verona – Garda EXPRESS (''summer only'') * X05: Verona – Garda EXPRESS (''limited service'') On Lake Garda's western coast (Brescia province), SAIA (Brescia Mobilità) provides regular bus services between Desenzano and Salò. * S202: Brescia – Salò – Campione – Limone sul Garda – Riva del Garda * LN006: Salò – Desenzano del Garda (via Cunettone) * LN007: Salò – Desenzano del Garda (via Raffa) * LN027: Salò – Desenzano del Garda (via Moniga)


Panoramas


See also

* Sirmio *Rocca di Manerba del Garda


References


External links


VisitGarda is the official website for the promotion of tourism of Lake Garda.

Gardalombardia is the official website for the promotion of tourism of the western coast of Lake Garda.

Brescia Tourism is the official tourism board website of Brescia and Garda Lake.
* *
Discovering Lake Garda - official Blog lake Garda Trentino Tourist Information Lake Garda
{{Authority control Lakes of Lombardy, Garda Lakes of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Garda Subalpine lakes of Italy, Garda Waterways of Italy Lakes of Trentino, Garda Province of Brescia Province of Verona Garda Mountains