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Lagos
Lagos
(/ˈleɪɡɒs, -ɡoʊs/;[11] Yoruba: Èkó) is a city in the Nigerian state of Lagos. The city, with its adjoining conurbation, is the most populous in Nigeria
Nigeria
and on the African continent. It is one of the fastest growing cities in the world[12][13][14][15][16][17][18] and one of the most populous urban areas.[19][20] Lagos
Lagos
is a major financial centre in Africa; the megacity has the fourth-highest GDP in Africa[21][2] and houses one of the largest and busiest seaports on the continent.[22][23][24] Lagos
Lagos
initially emerged as a port city that originated on a collection of islands, which are contained in the present day Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Lagos
Lagos
Island, Eti-Osa, Amuwo-Odofin
Amuwo-Odofin
and Apapa. The islands are separated by creeks, fringing the southwest mouth of Lagos Lagoon, while being protected from the Atlantic Ocean by barrier islands and long sand spits such as Bar Beach, which stretch up to 100 km (62 mi) east and west of the mouth. Due to rapid urbanization, the city expanded to the west of the lagoon to include areas in the present day Lagos
Lagos
Mainland, Ajeromi-Ifelodun
Ajeromi-Ifelodun
and Surulere. This led to the classification of Lagos
Lagos
into two main areas: the Island, which was the initial city of Lagos, before it expanded into the area known as the Mainland.[25] This city area was governed directly by the Federal Government through the Lagos
Lagos
City Council, until the creation of Lagos State
Lagos State
in 1967, which led to the splitting of Lagos
Lagos
city into the present day seven Local Government Areas (LGAs), and an addition of other towns (which now make up 13 LGAs) from the then Western Region, to form the state.[26] Lagos, the capital of Nigeria
Nigeria
since its amalgamation in 1914, went on to become the capital of Lagos State
Lagos State
after its creation. However, the state capital was later moved to Ikeja
Ikeja
in 1976, and the federal capital moved to Abuja
Abuja
in 1991. Even though Lagos
Lagos
is still widely referred to as a city, the present day Lagos, also known as "Metropolitan Lagos", and officially as " Lagos
Lagos
Metropolitan Area"[27][28][29] is an urban agglomeration or conurbation,[30] consisting of 20 LGAs, 32 LCDAs including Ikeja, the state capital of Lagos
Lagos
State.[2][31] This conurbation makes up 37% of Lagos
Lagos
State's total land area, but houses about 85% of the state's total population.[2][26][32] The exact population of Metropolitan Lagos
Lagos
is disputed. In the 2006 federal census data, the conurbation had a population of about 8 million people.[33] However, the figure was disputed by the Lagos State
Lagos State
Government, which later released its own population data, putting the population of Lagos
Lagos
Metropolitan Area at approximately 16 million.[note 3] As of 2015, unofficial figures put the population of "Greater Metropolitan Lagos", which includes Lagos
Lagos
and its surrounding metro area, extending as far as into Ogun State, at approximately 21 million.[1][26][34][35]

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Cityscape

2.1.1 Island

2.1.1.1 Lagos
Lagos
Island 2.1.1.2 Ikoyi 2.1.1.3 Victoria Island 2.1.1.4 Iddo

2.1.2 Mainland

2.2 Climate

3 Architecture 4 Places of worship 5 Administration and demographics

5.1 Census data for Lagos

6 Economy 7 Culture

7.1 Music and film industry 7.2 Sport 7.3 Tourism 7.4 Cuisine

8 Education

8.1 Vocational schools 8.2 Polytechnics 8.3 Universities

9 Healthcare 10 Transportation

10.1 Highways 10.2 Rail 10.3 Ferries 10.4 Air 10.5 Bridges

11 Notable people 12 International relations

12.1 Twin towns and sister cities

13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Lagos
History of Lagos
and Timeline of Lagos Aerial view of Lagos
Lagos
in 1929 Lagos
Lagos
was originally inhabited by the Awori subgroup of the Yoruba people in the 15th century.[17][36][37][5] Under the leadership of the Oloye Olofin, the Awori moved to an island now called Iddo and then to the larger Lagos Island.[38][39] In the 16th century, the Awori settlement was conquered by the Benin Empire
Benin Empire
and the island became a Benin
Benin
war-camp called "Eko" under Oba Orhogbua, the Oba of Benin
Oba of Benin
at the time.[40][41] Eko is still the native name for Lagos. Lagos, which means "lakes", was a name given to the settlement by the Portuguese. The present-day Lagos
Lagos
state has a high percentage of Awori clan, who migrated to the area from Isheri along the Ogun river. Throughout history, it was home to a number of warring ethnic groups who had settled in the area. Following its early settlement by the Awori nobility, and its conquest by the Bini warlords of Benin, the state first came to the attention of the Portuguese in the 15th century.[42] Portuguese explorer Rui de Sequeira visited the area in 1472, naming the area around the city Lago de Curamo. Another explanation is that Lagos
Lagos
was named for Lagos, Portugal—a maritime town that, at the time, was the main centre of Portuguese expeditions down the African coast. In Britain's early 19th century fight against the transatlantic slave trade, its West Africa
Africa
Squadron or Preventative Squadron as it was also known, continued to pursue Portuguese, American, French and Cuban slave ships and to impose anti-slavery treaties with West African coastal chiefs with so much doggedness that they created a strong presence along the West African coast from Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
all the way to the Niger Delta (today's Nigeria) and as far south as Congo.[43] In 1849, Britain appointed John Beecroft Consul of the Bights of Benin
Benin
and Biafra, a position he held (along with his governorship of Fernando Po) until his death in 1854.[44] John Duncan was appointed Vice Consul and was located at Wydah.[45] At the time of Beecroft's appointment, the Kingdom of Lagos
Lagos
(under Oba Kosoko) was in the western part of the Consulate of the Bights of Benin
Benin
and Biafra and was a key slave trading port.[46] In 1851 and with pressure from liberated slaves who now wielded political and business influence, Britain intervened in Lagos
Lagos
in what is now known as the Bombardment of Lagos or Capture of Lagos[46][47] resulting in the installation of Oba Akitoye and the ouster of Oba Kosoko. Oba Akitoye then signed the Treaty between Great Britain and Lagos
Lagos
abolishing slavery. The signing of the 1852 treaty ushered in the Consular Period in Lagos' history wherein Britain provided military protection to Lagos.[48] Following threats from Kosoko and the French who were positioned at Wydah, a decision was made by Lord Palmerston (British Prime Minister) who noted in 1861, "the expediency of losing no time in assuming the formal Protectorate of Lagos".[49] William McCoskry, the Acting Consul in Lagos
Lagos
with Commander Bedingfield convened a meeting with Oba Dosunmu on 30 July 1861 aboard HMS Prometheus where Britain's intent was explained and a response to the terms were required by August 1861. Dosunmu resisted the terms of the treaty but under the threat to unleash violence on Lagos
Lagos
by Commander Bedingfield, Dosunmu relented and signed the Lagos Treaty of Cession on 6 August 1861.[47][50][51]

Map of Lagos' initial city boundaries, showing its contemporary districts. Note that this definition is rarely used in present day; the expanded metropolitan area is now a more accepted definition of Lagos. Lagos
Lagos
was declared a colony on 5 March 1862. The remainder of modern-day Nigeria
Nigeria
was seized in 1887, and when the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria
Nigeria
was established in 1914, Lagos
Lagos
became its capital, continuing as such after the country's independence from Britain in 1960. Along with migrants from all over Nigeria
Nigeria
and other West African nations were the returnee ex-slaves known as Creoles, who came from Freetown, Sierra Leone, Brazil and the West Indies
West Indies
to Lagos. The Creoles contributed to Lagos' modernisation and their knowledge of Portuguese architecture
Portuguese architecture
can still be seen from the architecture on Lagos
Lagos
Island. Since the 19th century, Lagos
Lagos
gradually transformed to a melting pot of Africans and Europeans.[52][53][5][54] Railway links and telephone cables connecting Lagos
Lagos
to London
London
had been established by 1886.[55][56][57] Electric street lighting was introduced in the city in 1898.[40][58] Lagos
Lagos
experienced rapid growth throughout the 1960s and 1970s as a result of Nigeria's economic boom.[59] Before the creation of Lagos State
Lagos State
on 27 May 1967, Lagos, which was the country's capital had been administered directly by the Federal Government as a Federal Territory through the Federal Ministry of Lagos
Lagos
Affairs, while the Lagos
Lagos
City
City
Council (LCC) governed the city.[26] Lagos, along with the towns from the then Western region (Ikeja, Agege, Mushin, Ikorodu, Epe and Badagry), were eventually captured to create Lagos
Lagos
State.[26] Lagos
Lagos
city was split into the present day seven Local Government Areas (LGAs), while the other towns now make up 13 LGAs in the state. Lagos
Lagos
played the dual role of being the State and Federal Capital until 1976 when the state capital was moved to Ikeja. Lagos
Lagos
was adversely affected during Nigeria's military rule.[60] Also, on 12 December 1991, the seat of the Federal Government was also formally relocated to Abuja. However, Lagos
Lagos
still remains the financial centre of the country, and also grew to become the most populous conurbation in the country.[26]

Geography[edit] Lagos
Lagos
is loosely classified into two main geographical areas—the "Island" and the "Mainland".

Cityscape[edit] Island[edit] Victoria Island Tinubu Square
Tinubu Square
Lagos
Lagos
Island, 2014 The Island is a loose geographical term that is used to define the area of Lagos
Lagos
that is separated from the "mainland" by the main channel draining the lagoon into the Atlantic Ocean, which forms Lagos Harbour. The Island is mainly a collection of islands that are separated from each other by creeks of varying sizes and are connected together by bridges. The smaller sections of some creeks have been dredged and built over. This part of Lagos
Lagos
is the area where most business activities and entertainment events in Lagos
Lagos
takes place. It also houses most of the upscale residential areas in Lagos. The Local Government Areas (LGAs) that are considered to be in the Island include Lagos
Lagos
Island, Amuwo-Odofin, Apapa
Apapa
(sometimes also regarded as being on the mainland), and Eti-Osa. The major upscale island neighbourhoods within these LGAs include Ikoyi
Ikoyi
and Victoria Island. Three major bridges join the island to the mainland. They are the Carter Bridge, which starts from Iddo; the Eko Bridge (formerly called the Second Mainland Bridge); and the Third Mainland Bridge, which passes through densely populated mainland suburbs to the Lagos
Lagos
Lagoon.

Lagos
Lagos
Island[edit] Main article: Lagos
Lagos
Island Lagos
Lagos
Marina Lagos Island
Lagos Island
contains a central business district.[61] This district is characterised by high-rise buildings. The island also contains many of the city's largest wholesale marketplaces (such as the popular Idumota and Balogun Markets).[62] It also has the National Museum of Nigeria, the Central Mosque, the Glover Memorial Hall, Christ's Church Cathedral (CMS) and the Oba's Palace (Iga Idunganran).[63] Another major part of Lagos Island
Lagos Island
is Marina. It borders around the idumota and Balogun markets and houses major Banking institutions. Though formerly in a derelict condition, Lagos Island's Tinubu Square
Tinubu Square
is a site of historical importance; it was here that the Amalgamation Ceremony that unified the North and South protectorate to form Nigeria
Nigeria
took place in 1914.

Ikoyi[edit] Main article: Ikoyi Ikoyi
Ikoyi
is situated on the eastern half of Lagos Island
Lagos Island
and joined to it by a land fill.[64] Ikoyi
Ikoyi
is also connected to Victoria Island by Falomo bridge, which carries the main road over Five Cowrie creek.[65] Ikoyi
Ikoyi
housed the headquarters of the federal government of Nigeria
Nigeria
and other buildings owned by the government, including the old federal secretariat complex. The complex today is on reestablishment. In Ikoyi
Ikoyi
there are military and police barracks, a top-security prison and a federal high court of Nigeria. Ikoyi
Ikoyi
also has a number of hotels, night clubs, a recreational park and one of Africa's largest golf courses. Originally a middle class neighbourhood, in recent years, it has become a fashionable residential enclave for the upper middle class to the upper class. There are also commercial activities in Ikoyi, which is spotted in an increasing number of offices, banks, and shopping complexes. The commercial section is concentrated in the South-West.

Victoria Island[edit] Main article: Victoria Island (Nigeria) Oando Head Office in Victoria Island Victoria Island with its annexe is situated to the south of Lagos Island.[59] It has expensive real estate properties and for that reason, many new luxury condos and apartments are blooming up everywhere. Along with Ikoyi, Victoria Island occupies a major area in Lagos
Lagos
that boasts of several sizeable shopping districts. On its sea shore along the Atlantic front, there is environmentally reconstructed Bar Beach. One of the most important streets in Victoria Island Lagos
Lagos
is Saka Tinubu Street because it is where telecommunication business is done majorly, there is a plaza called GSM PLAZA where buying and selling of mobile phones and its accessories and other related businesses are carried out. It was founded in 2001, a group of young men came together to form a small business outlets with each one having landline phone on the table and people made calls on pay as you use basis, but there was a new tune between 2002-2003 when gsm business commences in a bigger picture in Nigeria, today, it is a well known place.

Iddo[edit] Across the main channel of the lagoon from Lagos
Lagos
Island, there is a smaller settlement called Iddo. Iddo is also a railroad terminus and it is now situated in the Lagos Mainland
Lagos Mainland
local government area after it was connected to the mainland like a peninsula.[66]

Mainland[edit] A huge population of Lagosians also live on the Lagos
Lagos
mainland, and most industries are located there. The mainland is known for its music and nightlife, which used to be located in areas around Yaba and Surulere. However, in recent years more night clubs have sprung up on the Island, making the Island (particularly Victoria Island and Lekki Phase 1) the main nightlife attractions. Mainland LGAs include Surulere, Ajeromi-Ifelodun
Ajeromi-Ifelodun
and Lagos
Lagos
Mainland. Metropolitan Lagos suburban LGAs include: Agege, Apapa, Mushin, Oshodi-Isolo
Oshodi-Isolo
and Ikeja (site of Murtala Muhammed International Airport
Murtala Muhammed International Airport
and the capital of Lagos
Lagos
State). Major Areas on the mainland include Ebute Metta, Yaba and Ejigbo. Some rivers, like Badagry
Badagry
Creek, flow parallel to the coast for some distance before exiting through the sand bars to the sea.

Climate[edit] Lagos
Lagos
experiences a tropical savanna climate (Aw) according to the Köppen climate classification, as there's a significant precipitation difference between the wet season and the dry season. The wet season starts in April and ends in October, while the dry season starts in November and ends in March. The wettest month is June with precipitation total 315.5 millimetres (12.42 in), while the driest month is January with precipitation total 13.2 millimetres (0.52 in). Located near the equator, Lagos
Lagos
has only a slight seasonal temperature variation, with high temperatures ranging 28.3–32.9 °C (82.9–91.2 °F). Lagos
Lagos
shares the seasons of the Southern Hemisphere, with summer highs in March, daily range 32.9–24.1 °C (91.2–75.4 °F), and warm winters in August, ranging 28.3–21.8 °C (82.9–71.2 °F) as the daily average.

Climate data for Lagos
Lagos
(Murtala Muhammed International Airport) 1961–1990, extremes: 1886–present

Month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

Record high °C (°F)

40.0(104.0)

37.1(98.8)

37.0(98.6)

39.6(103.3)

37.0(98.6)

37.6(99.7)

33.2(91.8)

33.0(91.4)

33.2(91.8)

33.7(92.7)

39.9(103.8)

36.4(97.5)

40.0(104.0)

Average high °C (°F)

32.2(90.0)

33.2(91.8)

32.9(91.2)

32.2(90.0)

30.9(87.6)

29.3(84.7)

28.2(82.8)

28.3(82.9)

28.9(84.0)

30.3(86.5)

31.4(88.5)

31.8(89.2)

30.8(87.4)

Daily mean °C (°F)

27.3(81.1)

28.4(83.1)

28.5(83.3)

28.0(82.4)

27.0(80.6)

25.6(78.1)

25.2(77.4)

25.0(77.0)

25.5(77.9)

26.4(79.5)

27.2(81.0)

27.2(81.0)

26.8(80.2)

Average low °C (°F)

22.4(72.3)

23.7(74.7)

24.1(75.4)

23.7(74.7)

23.2(73.8)

21.9(71.4)

22.3(72.1)

21.8(71.2)

22.1(71.8)

22.4(72.3)

23.0(73.4)

22.5(72.5)

22.8(73.0)

Record low °C (°F)

12.6(54.7)

16.1(61.0)

14.0(57.2)

14.9(58.8)

20.0(68.0)

21.2(70.2)

15.0(59.0)

19.0(66.2)

13.0(55.4)

17.9(64.2)

11.1(52.0)

11.6(52.9)

11.1(52.0)

Average precipitation mm (inches)

13.2(0.52)

40.6(1.60)

84.3(3.32)

146.3(5.76)

202.4(7.97)

315.5(12.42)

243.0(9.57)

121.7(4.79)

160.0(6.30)

125.1(4.93)

39.7(1.56)

14.8(0.58)

1,506.6(59.31)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)

1.5

2.8

6.6

9.0

12.5

16.2

13.2

11.6

12.7

11.2

4.9

2.1

104.3

Average relative humidity (%)

81

79

76

82

84

87

87

85

86

87

84

82

83

Mean monthly sunshine hours

164.3

168.0

173.6

180.0

176.7

114.0

99.2

108.5

114.0

167.4

186.0

192.2

1,843.9

Source #1: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
(humidity, 1952–1967),[67] NOAA (sun)[68]

Source #2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[69]

Architecture[edit] Main article: Architecture of Lagos Lagos
Lagos
skyline Falomo roundabout, Lagos Lagos
Lagos
has the tallest skyline in Nigeria. The architectural styles in Lagos
Lagos
are diverse and ranges from tropical, vernacular to colonial European and ultramodern buildings or a mixture. Brazilian style architecture brought by the creoles is evident in buildings such as Water House and Shitta Bey Mosque.[70][71][72] Skyscrapers and most high rise buildings are centered on the islands while the mainland has some high rise buildings.[73] In recent years, the Lagos
Lagos
State government has renovated existing parks and green areas, with a long term goal of expansion. Many good quality buildings are interspersed across the city.[74][75][76][77][78]

Places of worship[edit] Among the places of worship, they are Christian churches and temples : Church of Nigeria
Nigeria
(Anglican Communion), Presbyterian Church of Nigeria
Nigeria
(World Communion of Reformed Churches), Nigerian Baptist Convention (Baptist World Alliance), Living Faith Church Worldwide, Redeemed Christian Church of God, Assemblies of God, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lagos
Lagos
(Catholic Church) and Muslims mosques. [79]

Administration and demographics[edit] Stanmore Court - Lagos In terms of administration, Lagos
Lagos
is not a single municipality and therefore has no overall city administration.[80] The geographical city limits of Metropolitan Lagos
Lagos
comprises 16 of the 20 Local Government Areas, which together comprise Lagos
Lagos
State. The latter entity provides overall government for the metropolitan region. The Municipality
Municipality
of Lagos, which covered Lagos
Lagos
Island, Ikoyi, and Victoria Island as well as some mainland territory, was managed by the Lagos
Lagos
City
City
Council (LCC), but it was disbanded in 1976 and divided into several Local Government Areas (most notably Lagos Island
Lagos Island
LGA, Lagos Mainland
Lagos Mainland
LGA and Eti-Osa
Eti-Osa
LGA).[81] The mainland beyond the Municipality
Municipality
of Lagos, on the other hand, comprised several separate towns and settlements such as Mushin, Ikeja and Agege. In the wake of the 1970s Nigerian oil boom, Lagos experienced a population explosion, untamed economic growth, and unmitigated rural migration. This caused the outlying towns and settlements to develop rapidly, thus forming the present day "Lagos Metropolitan Area", also known as "Metropolitan Lagos". The history of Lagos
Lagos
is still evidenced in the layout of the LGAs that display the unique identities of the cultures that created them. By 2006, the metro area around Lagos
Lagos
had extended beyond Lagos
Lagos
State's boundaries and attained a megacity status. This much larger area is referred to as "Greater Metropolitan Lagos" or " Lagos
Lagos
Megacity Region", which is a continuous built up land area of additional 1,535.4 square kilometres (592.8 square miles), comprising sprawls in LGAs situated next to Lagos' eastern and western city limits in Lagos State, and beyond northern limits, spilling into the LGAs in adjoining Ogun State. Ogun State
Ogun State
LGAs within Greater Metropolitan Lagos
Lagos
majorly include: Obafemi Owode, Sagamu, Ifo, Ado-Odo/Ota
Ado-Odo/Ota
and part of Ewekoro.[35]

The 16 LGAs of Metropolitan Lagos

Local Government Area Land area[82](in km²) Population[33](2006 Census) Density(inh. per km²)

Agege 17 459,939 41,071

Ajeromi-Ifelodun 13.9 684,105 55,474

Alimosho 137.8 1,277,714 6,899

Amuwo-Odofin 179.1 318,166 2,364

Apapa 38.5 217,362 8,153

Eti-Osa 299.1 287,785 1,496

Ifako-Ijaiye 43 427,878 16,078

Ikeja 49.92 313,196 6,785

Kosofe 84.4 665,393 8,174

Lagos
Lagos
Island 9.26 209,437 24,182

Lagos
Lagos
Mainland 19.62 317,720 16,322

Mushin 14.05 633,009 36,213

Ojo 182 598,071 3,781

Oshodi-Isolo 41.98 621,509 13,886

Somolu 14.6 402,673 34,862

Surulere 27.05 503,975 21,912

Metropolitan Lagos 1,171.28 7,937,932 7,941

A map showing the 16 LGAs making up Lagos
Lagos
Metropolitan Area Today, the word Lagos
Lagos
most often refers to the urban area, called "Metropolitan Lagos" in Nigeria, which includes both the islands of the former municipality of Lagos
Lagos
and the mainland suburbs. Lagos
Lagos
State government is responsible for some of the utilities including roads and transportation, power, water, health and education. Metropolitan Lagos
Lagos
extends over 16 of the 20 LGAs of Lagos
Lagos
State, and contains about 85% of the population of Lagos
Lagos
State, and includes semi-rural areas.[83] Lagos
Lagos
City
City
has a considerable number of high-rise buildings that dominate its skyline. Most of the tall buildings are located in the downtown Central Business District. Lagos
Lagos
was the former capital city of Nigeria
Nigeria
but it has since been replaced by Abuja. Abuja
Abuja
officially gained its status as the capital of Nigeria
Nigeria
on 12 December 1991, although the decision to move the federal capital had been made in now Act no. 6 of 1976. Lagos
Lagos
is also home to the High Court of the Lagos State
Lagos State
Judiciary, housed in an old colonial building on Lagos
Lagos
Island.[84]

Census data for Lagos[edit] Although the 2006 National Population Census of Nigeria
Nigeria
credited the metropolitan area with a population figure of 7,937,932, the figure is at variance with some projections by the UN and other population agencies and groups worldwide. The population figure of Lagos
Lagos
State given by the Lagos State
Lagos State
Government is 17,553,924. It was based on claimed conducted enumeration for social planning by the Lagos
Lagos
State Government "parallel census" and it believes that since the inhabitants of the metropolitan area of Lagos
Lagos
constitute 88% of the Lagos State
Lagos State
population, the population of metropolitan Lagos
Lagos
is about 15.5 million.[85] A rejoinder to Lagos State
Lagos State
Government views[86] concluded that Lagos State
Lagos State
concealed the fact that the population projection, for Lagos
Lagos
Urban Agglomeration by the UN agencies had been revised downwards substantially as early as 2003. It failed to interpret the two most important and fairly representative and reliable secondary data sets already in public domain, the National Identity Card Scheme and the 2003 Voters Registration figures from INEC. The figures for 2007 Voters Registration by INEC were an act subsequent to the release of the provisional census results and comprehensively corroborate, vindicate and validate the population figures in no uncertain terms. According to the official results of the 2006 census, there were 8,048,430 inhabitants in Metropolitan Lagos.[33] This figure was lower than anticipated, and has created controversy in Nigeria. Lagos
Lagos
Island, the central Local Government Area and historic centre of Metropolitan Lagos, had a population of 212,700 at the 2006 Census.[87]

Lagos
Lagos
market scene Market scene Authorities of Lagos State
Lagos State
have attacked the results of the 2006 census, accusing the Nigerian National Population Commission of having undercounted the population of the state. This accusation is denied by the National Population Commission.[88][89] A study found that research carried out by Africapolis (the African subsidiary of e-Geopolis backed by the Agence française de développement), in addition to the cross-referencing of official figures with more scientific independent research concluded that the 2006 census figures for Lagos State
Lagos State
of about 9 million were valid and that the state's own assessments are inflated.[90] Lagos
Lagos
is, by most estimates, one of the fastest-growing cities in the world.[91] Lagos
Lagos
is currently experiencing a population increase of about 275,000 persons per annum. In 1999 the United Nations predicted that the city's metropolitan area, which had only about 290,000 inhabitants in 1950, would exceed 20 million by 2010 and thus become one of the ten most populated cities in the world.

There is a huge spectrum of wealth distribution among the people that reside in Lagos. It ranges from the very wealthy to the very poor. Lagos
Lagos
has attracted many young people and families seeking a better life from all other parts of Nigeria
Nigeria
and beyond[60] and this has also contributed to its cosmopolitan status.[92][93][94][95][96]Some people are leaving Lagos
Lagos
and Nigeria
Nigeria
in search of better living conditions, cities like Townsville
Townsville
in Australia are very popular with expats and have services set up to assist people in settling into their new life.[97][98]Historical populationYearPop.±%1950325,218—    1960762,418+134.4%19701,413,528+85.4%19802,572,218+82.0%19904,764,093+85.2%20007,280,706+52.8%201010,441,182+43.4%201913,903,620+33.2%source:[99] for Lagos
Lagos
Agglomeration Economy[edit] A shopping mall in Lagos Apapa
Apapa
port The city of Lagos
Lagos
is a major economic focal point in Nigeria, generating around 10% of the country's GDP. Most commercial and financial business is carried out in the central business district situated on the island. This is also where most of the country's commercial banks, financial institutions and major corporations are headquartered. Lagos
Lagos
is also the major Information Communications and Telecommunications (ICT) hub of West Africa
Africa
and potentially, the biggest ICT market in the continent.[100] Lagos
Lagos
is developing a 24-hour economy[101][102] and has also been ranked as one of the most expensive cities in the world.[103][104][105][106][107][108] In some parts of Lagos, residents have one of the highest standards of living in Nigeria
Nigeria
and in Africa.[109][110] At the same time, a sizable proportion of the residents live in slums without access to piped water and sanitation.[111][112][113][114][115] The Port
Port
of Lagos
Lagos
is Nigeria's leading port and one of the largest and busiest in Africa. It is administered by the Nigerian Ports Authority and it is split into three main sections: Lagos
Lagos
port, in the main channel next to Lagos
Lagos
Island, Apapa
Apapa
Port
Port
(site of the container terminal) and Tin Can Port, both located in Badagry
Badagry
Creek, which flows into Lagos
Lagos
Harbour from the west.[116] The port features a railhead. The port has seen growing amounts of crude oil exported, with export figures rising between 1997 and 2000.[117] Oil and petroleum products provide 14% of GDP and 90% of foreign exchange earnings in Nigeria
Nigeria
as a whole.[118]

Culture[edit] Music and film industry[edit] Lagos
Lagos
is famous throughout Africa
Africa
for its music scene. Lagos
Lagos
has a vibrant nightlife[102][119][120] and has given birth to a variety of styles such as Sakara music, Nigerian hip hop, highlife, juju, fuji and Afrobeat.[121] Lagos
Lagos
is the centre of the Nigerian movie industry, often referred to as 'Nollywood'. Idumota market on Lagos Island
Lagos Island
is the primary distribution centre. Many films are shot in the Festac area of Lagos, where the World Festival of Black Arts was held.[122] Iganmu is home to the primary centre for the performing arts and artistes in Nigeria: the National Arts Theatre. James Brown
James Brown
performed in Lagos
Lagos
in 1970.[123] Paul McCartney recorded his fifth post- Beatles
Beatles
album, Band on the Run, in an EMI studio in Lagos
Lagos
in August and September 1973.[124] Other foreign musicians who have also performed in the city include Sean Paul, Snoop Dogg,[125] 50 Cent, Akon, Jarule, Ashanti, Usher, Shaggy,[126] R Kelly,[127] especially during the Star Mega Jam; Shakira, John Legend, Boyz II Men[128] T-Pain, Brian McKnight, JayZ,[129] Mary J. Blige,[130] Beyoncé, Brandy, Ciara, Keri Hilson
Keri Hilson
and Lauryn Hill, among others.[131][132]

Sport[edit] Football is Lagos' most popular sport. Prominent Lagos
Lagos
football clubs include Bridge Boys F.C.
Bridge Boys F.C.
MFM F.C.
MFM F.C.
and First Bank: both play in Nigeria National League, the second tier of Nigerian football.

The Lagos Black Heritage Festival Parade, 2012 The Nigeria
Nigeria
national football team, also known as the Super Eagles, used to play almost all of their home games in Lagos
Lagos
at the National Stadium in Surulere; much later, games were played at the then New Abuja
Abuja
National Stadium in Abuja
Abuja
for sometime; however, games are now mostly played at the newer Godswill Akpabio International Stadium in Uyo, which is the default home of the Super Eagles. Lagos
Lagos
also hosted the 2nd All-African games in 1973.[133][134][135] Cycling is increasingly becoming a sport to be reckoned with. About three years ago, Cycology Riding Club started a club in Lagos
Lagos
and soon after, other clubs mushroomed in cities like Port
Port
Harcourt and Abuja. Some of these clubs aim to promote cycling as a lifestyle and create awareness through social initiatives in their communities. Considering the traffic congestion in the big cities, it is a welcome sight, environmentally, to see Nigerians ply the streets on two wheels.

Tourism[edit] Lekki
Lekki
Beach in Lagos Cathedral Church Of Christ, Marina, Lagos Lagos, subsequent to the re-modernization project achieved by the previous administration of Governor Raji Babatunde Fashola, is gradually becoming a major tourist destination, being one of the largest cities in Africa
Africa
and in the world. Lagos
Lagos
is currently taking steps to become a global city. The 2009 Eyo carnival (a yearly festival originated from Iperu Remo, Ogun State), which took place on 25 April, was a step toward world city status. Currently, Lagos
Lagos
is primarily known as a business-oriented and a fast-paced community.[83] Lagos
Lagos
has become an important location for African and "black" cultural identity.[136] Lots of festivals are held in Lagos; festivals vary in offerings each year and may be held in different months. Some of the festivals are Festac Food Fair held in Festac Town Annually, Eyo Festival, Lagos
Lagos
Black Heritage Carnival, Lagos
Lagos
Carnival, Eko International Film Festival, Lagos
Lagos
Seafood Festac Festival, LAGOS PHOTO Festival and the Lagos
Lagos
Jazz Series, which is a unique franchise for high-quality live music in all genres with a focus on jazz. Established in 2010, the popular event takes place over a 3–5 day period at selected high quality outdoor venues. The music is as varied as the audience itself and features a diverse mix of musical genres from rhythm and blues to soul, Afrobeat, hip hop, bebop, and traditional jazz. The festivals provide entertainment of dance and song to add excitement to travelers during a stay in Lagos. Lagos
Lagos
has a number of sandy beaches by the Atlantic Ocean, including Elegushi Beach
Elegushi Beach
and Alpha Beach. Lagos
Lagos
also has a number of private beach resorts including Inagbe Grand Beach Resort and several others in the outskirts. Lagos
Lagos
has a variety of hotels ranging from three star to five star hotels, with a mixture of local hotels such as Eko Hotels and Suites, Federal Palace Hotel and franchises of multinational chains such as Intercontinental Hotel, Sheraton and Four Points by Hilton. Other places of interest include the Tafawa Balewa Square, Festac town, The Nike Art
Art
Gallery, Freedom Park, Lagos and the Cathedral Church of Christ, Lagos.

Cuisine[edit] Main articles: Nigerian cuisine
Nigerian cuisine
and African cuisine Arewa Traditional Kitchen Some of the famous cuisines in Lagos
Lagos
include indigenous delicacies such as eba and egusi; amala and ewedu; jollof; ofada rice; plantains (locally called dodo); beans; suya (spicy shish kebab or spiced roasted beef), which is consumed in local clubs and bars with a bottle of cold beer; and eba, made from cassava and eaten with soups prepared with vegetables and mixture of spices and herbs. Other cuisines range from local ones like Iyan (pounded yam) made from yam flour, amala; asaro, which is usually eaten with various kind of vegetables; and Egusi
Egusi
(melon soup) to European, Middle-Eastern, and Asian cuisine.[119][137]

Education[edit] See also: List of schools in Lagos Lagos
Lagos
Business School Lagos
Lagos
Business School's Cafeteria Dowen College in Lagos The Lagos State
Lagos State
Government operates state schools.[138] The education system is the 6-3-3-4 system, which is practised throughout the country (as well as by many other members of the Economic Community of West African States). The levels are Primary, Junior Secondary School (JSS), Senior Secondary School (SSS) and university. All children are offered basic education, with special focus now on the first nine years. Many of the schools in Nigeria
Nigeria
are federally funded and usually are boarding schools. A few examples are Federal government college Odogbolu (FGCOdogbolu), Federal government girls college Sagamu
Sagamu
(FGGCSagamu) and Federal government college Kano (FGCKano). The state of Lagos
Lagos
has its own federally funded high schools namely Federal government college Ijanikin also known as FGC Lagos, Kings College and Queens College. Lagos
Lagos
is home to various postsecondary schools, universities and other vocational institutions that are either operated by the government or private entities.[139]

Vocational schools[edit] Institute for Industrial Technology (IIT) : founded in 2000, IIT is a technical vocational school for male youth from families with limited resources. Its educational model is based on the Dual Training System. Polytechnics[edit] Yaba College of Technology (YABATECH) : founded in 1934, the college is Nigeria's first higher educational institution and third in Africa. The college is a center of culture and heritage. Currently it has student enrolment of over 16,000. Lagos State
Lagos State
Polytechnic is a polytechnic comprising more than six schools including private polytechnics and was founded 25 years ago. Its main campus resides at Ikorodu, along Shagamu road. Lagos
Lagos
City
City
Polytechnic, located at 6/8, Bashiru Oweh Street, Off Simbiat Abiola Road (formerly Medical Road), Ikeja
Ikeja
– This is the first private Polytechnic in Nigeria. It was established in 1990 by Engr. Babatunde Odufuwa. Engr. Odufuwa hails from Oke-Aye in Ijebu North East Local Government Area (I.N.E.L.G) of Ogun State. Grace Polytechnic Wolex Polytechnic Federal College of Fisheries and Marine Technology is a monotechnic that offers courses in fisheries technology, general science, marine engineering and nautical science. Federal College of Education (tech) Akoka Universities[edit] University of Lagos The University of Lagos
University of Lagos
(UNILAG) Akoka, is a large institution dating from 1962, with over 55,000 students. It comprises 13 faculties, run by over 4,000 staff.[140] Lagos State
Lagos State
University (LASU) is a multi-campus university established in the year 1983 and owned by the Lagos State
Lagos State
government. The main campus is located at Ojo, along the Lagos- Badagry
Badagry
Expressway. Pan-Atlantic University
Pan-Atlantic University
formerly known as Pan-African University has a business school (LBS), a school of Media and communication (SMC) and an entrepreneurial development center (EDC), specialized in providing short courses for SMEs. Lagos Business School
Lagos Business School
(LBS) is the most famous of them all, awarding world-class MBA and EMBA. The School of Media and Communication is also known for its pragmatic communication courses in the field of journalism, media and marketing. SMC awards BSc., MSc., and PHD in social science courses. Founded in 1996 and awarded University status in 2002. The University also places some emphasis on the study of art, running the Virtual Museum of Modern Nigerian Art. National Open University of Nigeria
Nigeria
is the first open university in Nigeria; it is located on Ahmadu Bello Way, Victoria Island, Lagos. Caleb University is a private university located at Imota, Lagos. Lagos State
Lagos State
College of Health Technology (LASCOHET) is an institution that runs health courses such as Health Information Management, Pharmacist Tech, Medical Laboratory Tech, Community Health Extension and Environmental Health Technology; it is located in Yaba. Lagos State
Lagos State
University College of Medicine (LASUCOM), Ikeja Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Idi-Araba-Mushin, Lagos. Healthcare[edit] Further information: List of hospitals in Lagos Lagos
Lagos
has many hospitals and medical facilities, some of which have accomplished feats in Nigeria's medical history. For example, the oldest Nigerian hospital is located in the city as well as West Africa's first air-operated emergency medical service, which commenced in the city. The Lagos
Lagos
healthcare system is generally divided into public and private sectors that provide medical services at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Although the private hospitals are usually more expensive, it does not necessarily translate to better health-care delivery.[141]

Transportation[edit] A map of major road links in Metropolitan Lagos Highways[edit] Toll gates and roads at the Lekki-Ẹpẹ Expressway Lagos
Lagos
has one of the largest and most extensive road networks in West Africa.[142][143] It also has suburban trains and some ferry services. Highways are usually congested in peak hours, due in part to the geography of the city, as well as to its explosive population growth.[91][144] Lagos
Lagos
is also linked by many highways and bridges. A new rail system that is supposed to span the length of the Badagry
Badagry
expressway is currently under construction. The Lagos– Ibadan
Ibadan
Expressway and the Lagos– Abeokuta
Abeokuta
Expressway are the major controlled-access highways in the north of the city and serve as inter-state highways to Oyo State
Oyo State
and Ogun State respectively. To the west the congested Lagos– Badagry
Badagry
Expressway serves outlying towns such as Festival Town, which was the location for the 1977 Festival of Black Arts and Culture 77.[145] Lagos's importance as a commercial centre and port and its strategic location have led to it being the end-point of three Trans-African Highway routes using Nigeria's national roads.[146] The Trans–West African Coastal Highway
Trans–West African Coastal Highway
leaves the city as the Badagry Expressway to Benin
Benin
and beyond as far as Dakar
Dakar
and Nouakchott; the Trans-Sahara Highway
Trans-Sahara Highway
to Algiers, which is close to completion, leaves the city as the Lagos- Ibadan
Ibadan
Expressway.[147] Lagos State
Lagos State
has a bus rapid transit (BRT) system;[143] the first phase was completed in February 2008. It is expected to operate along eight routes using specially designated bus rapid transit lanes running through the city, with the aim of expanding to other routes in the future. The first phase of the Lagos
Lagos
BRT runs 19 km (12 mi) through Ikorodu
Ikorodu
Road and Funsho Williams Avenue up to CMS. After weeks of test runs, operations started on 17 March 2008, six months earlier than planned.[143] Also, the signature color of Lagos
Lagos
state 14-seater bus (known as Danfo) is yellow with a touch of black. It has been estimated that the system will transport about 10,000 passengers in each direction per hour during peak travel times. At these times traffic congestion, called "Go Slow", by Lagosians, can be extreme.[148] The LAMATA
LAMATA
bus rapid transit corridor covers a distance of about 22 km (14 mi). The system is run by two operators, NURTW Cooperative (Nigerian Union of Road Transport Workers) and Lagbus, a Lagos State
Lagos State
Government owned Asset Management Company that contributes about 180 high-capacity buses for the implementation of the first phase Mile 12 to CMS BRT Lite system.

Rail[edit] An extensive urban rail system, Lagos
Lagos
Rail Mass Transit, running through the Lagos
Lagos
metropolis is currently under construction.[91][149][150] Several intercity and commuter trains serve Lagos
Lagos
through the Lagos
Lagos
Terminus railway station. Lagos
Lagos
is currently the world's largest city proper in term of population which does not have grade-separated rapid transit system.

Ferries[edit] Lagos State
Lagos State
Ferry Services Corporation runs a few regular routes, for example between Lagos Island
Lagos Island
and the mainland, served by modern ferries and wharves. Private boats run irregular passenger services on the lagoon and on some creeks.[151]

Air[edit] Lagos
Lagos
is served by Murtala Muhammed International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in Africa. The MMIA is Nigeria’s premier international air gateway. The airport’s history dates back to colonial times, around the time of the Second World War. The current international airport terminal was built and commissioned over 40 years ago, in 1978. The terminal opened officially March 15, 1979. The airport had been known simply as the Lagos
Lagos
International Airport. It was, however, re-named for the late Nigerian Head of State, General Murtala Muhammed, who died in 1976. The airport terminal has been renovated several times since the 1970s but its most radical makeover began in 2013, following the launch of the Federal government’s multi-billion naira Remodelling/ Rehabilitation Programme for its airports nationwide. Under the re-modeling work there, by late in 2014, the MMlA lounge area had been expanded to four times its previous size and new passenger handling conveyor systems installed which can handle over 1,000 passengers per hour. A second airport, Lekki-Epe International Airport is proposed.

Bridges[edit]

A side view of Falomo Underbridge

Notable people[edit] Main category: People from Lagos Nelson Agholor, Professional American football
American football
player, Super Bowl 52 Champion with the Philadelphia Eagles
Philadelphia Eagles
in 2018 Rilwan Akiolu, Oba (traditional ruler) of Lagos Akinwunmi Ambode, former Governor of Lagos
Lagos
state Agbani Darego, Miss Nigeria
Nigeria
2001, Semifinalist Miss Universe 2001 and Miss World 2001 Buchi Emecheta, novelist Babatunde Fashola, Former Governor of Lagos
Lagos
and current Minister of Power, Works and Housing Bode George, Politician Hakeem Olajuwon, professional basketball player Babajide Sanwo-Olu, Governor of Lagos
Lagos
State Bola Tinubu, Former Governor of Lagos
Lagos
State Funsho Williams, politician and one time aspirant to the office of Lagos
Lagos
state governor International relations[edit] Twin towns and sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Nigeria Lagos
Lagos
is twinned with:[152]

Gary, Indiana, United States, since 1991[152][153] Atlanta, Georgia, United States, since 1974[152] See also[edit] List of largest cities List of Governors of Lagos
Lagos
State Lagos
Lagos
portal Nigeria
Nigeria
portal Africa
Africa
portalGeography portal Notes[edit]

^ Metropolitan Lagos
Lagos
consists 16 out of Lagos
Lagos
State's 20 LGA, which excludes Badagry, Epe, Ibeju-Lekki
Ibeju-Lekki
and Ikorodu.[1][2]

^ Metropolitan Lagos
Lagos
consists 16 out of Lagos
Lagos
State's 20 LGA, which excludes: Badagry, Epe, Ibeju-Lekki
Ibeju-Lekki
and Ikorodu.[1][9]

^ Metropolitan Lagos
Lagos
consists 16 out of Lagos
Lagos
State's 20 LGA, which excludes Badagry, Epe, Ibeju-Lekki
Ibeju-Lekki
and Ikorodu.[1][6]

References[edit]

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149. ^http://www.faan.gov.ng/mmia/ 150. ^https://mypostalcode.com.ng/

Further reading[edit] Leithead, Alastair (August 2017). The city that won't stop growing: How can Lagos
Lagos
cope with its spiralling population?, BBC External links[edit]

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