Lafcadio Hearn (/hɜːrn/; Greek: Πατρίκιος
Λευκάδιος Χερν; 27 June 1850 – 26 September 1904),
known also by the Japanese name Koizumi Yakumo (小泉 八雲), was a
writer, known best for his books about Japan, especially his
collections of Japanese legends and ghost stories, such as Kwaidan:
Stories and Studies of Strange Things. In the United States, Hearn is
also known for his writings about the city of
New Orleans based on his
ten-year stay in that city.
1.1 Early life
1.1.1 Emigration to Ireland, abandonment
1.1.2 Catholic education, abandonment
1.2 Emigration to Cincinnati
1.2.1 Newspaper and literary work
1.2.2 Marriage, firing by the Enquirer
1.3 New Orleans
1.4 Two Years in the French West Indies
1.5 Later life in Japan
3.1 Books written by Hearn on Japanese subjects
3.2 Books written by Hearn on Louisiana subjects
3.3 Posthumous anthologies
4 See also
6 Further reading
7 External links
Hearn was born in and named after the island of Lefkada, one of the
Greek Ionian Islands, on 27 June 1850.:p. 3 He was the son of
Surgeon-Major Charles Bush Hearn (of County Offaly, Ireland) and Rosa
Antoniou Kassimatis, a Greek woman of noble Kytheran lineage through
her father, Anthony Kassimatis. His father was stationed in Lefkada
during the British occupation of the islands, where he was the
highest-ranking surgeon in his regiment. Lafcadio was baptized
Patricios Lefcadios Hearn (Πατρίκιος Λευκάδιος
Χερν) in the Greek Orthodox Church, but he seems to have been
called "Patrick Lefcadio Kassimati Charles Hearn" in English.
Hearn's parents were married in a Greek Orthodox ceremony on 25
November 1849, several months after his mother had given birth to the
couple's first child and Hearn's older brother, George Robert Hearn,
on 24 July 1849. George Hearn died on 17 August 1850, two months after
Lafcadio's birth.: p. 11
Emigration to Ireland, abandonment
A complex series of conflicts and events led to
Lafcadio Hearn being
moved from Greece to Ireland, where he was abandoned first by his
mother (leaving him in the care of her husband's aunt), then his
father, and finally by his father's aunt, who had been appointed his
In 1850 Hearn's father was promoted to Staff Surgeon Second Class and
was reassigned from
Lefkada to the British West Indies. Since his
family did not approve of the marriage, and worried that his
relationship might harm his career prospects, Charles Hearn did not
inform his superiors of his son or pregnant wife and left his family
behind. In 1852, he arranged to send his son and wife to live with his
family in Dublin, Ireland, where they received a cool reception.
Charles Hearn's Protestant mother, Elizabeth Holmes Hearn, had
difficulty accepting Rosa Hearn's Catholicism and lack of education
(she was illiterate and spoke no English). Rosa found it difficult to
adapt to a foreign culture and the Protestantism of her husband's
family, and was eventually taken under the wing of Elizabeth's sister,
Sarah Holmes Brenane, a widow who had converted to Catholicism.
Despite Sarah Brenane's efforts, Rosa suffered from homesickness. When
her husband returned to Ireland on medical leave in 1853, it became
clear that the couple had become estranged. Charles Hearn was assigned
to the Crimean Peninsula, again leaving his pregnant wife and child in
Ireland. When he came back in 1856, severely wounded and traumatized,
Rosa had returned to her home island of
Cerigo in Greece, where she
gave birth to their third son, Daniel James Hearn. Lafcadio had been
left in the care of Sarah Brenane.
Charles Hearn petitioned to have the marriage with Rosa annulled, on
the basis of her lack of signature on the marriage contract, which
made it invalid under English law. After being informed of the
annulment, Rosa almost immediately married Giovanni Cavallini, a Greek
citizen of Italian ancestry who was later appointed by the British as
governor of Cerigotto. Cavallini required as a condition of the
marriage that Rosa give up custody of both Lafcadio and James. As a
result, James was sent to his father in
Dublin and Lafcadio remained
in the care of Sarah Brenane (Brenane had disinherited Charles Hearn
because of the annulment). Neither Lafcadio nor James saw their mother
again, who had four children with her second husband. Rosa was
eventually committed to the National Mental Asylum on Corfu, where she
died in 1882.:pp. 14–15
Charles Hearn, who had left Lafcadio in the care of Sarah Brenane for
the past 4 years, now appointed her as Lafcadio's permanent guardian.
He married his childhood sweetheart, Alicia Goslin, in July 1857, and
left with his new wife for a posting in Secunderabad, where they had
three daughters prior to Alicia's death in 1861. Lafcadio never saw
his father again: Charles Hearn died of malaria in the
Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez in
In 1857, at age seven and despite the fact that both his parents were
still alive, Hearn became the permanent ward of his great aunt, Sarah
Brenane. She divided her residency between
Dublin in the winter
months, her husband's estate at Tramore,
County Waterford on the
southern Irish coast, and a house at Bangor, North Wales. Brenane also
engaged a tutor during the school year to provide basic instruction
and the rudiments of Catholic dogma. Hearn began exploring Brenane's
library and read extensively in Greek literature, especially
Catholic education, abandonment
In 1861, Hearn's aunt, aware that Hearn was turning away from
Catholicism, and at the urging of Henry Hearn Molyneux, a relative of
her late husband and a distant cousin of Hearn, enrolled him at the
Institution Ecclésiastique, a Catholic church school in Yvetot,
France. Hearn's experiences at the school confirmed his lifelong
conviction that Catholic education consisted of "conventional
dreariness and ugliness and dirty austerities and long faces and
Jesuitry and infamous distortion of children's brains.":p. 25 Hearn
became fluent in French and would later translate into English the
works of Guy de Maupassant, who coincidentally attended the school
shortly after Hearn's departure.
In 1863, again at the suggestion of Molyneux, Hearn was enrolled at
St. Cuthbert's College, Ushaw, a Catholic seminary at what is now the
University of Durham. In this environment, Hearn adopted the nickname
"Paddy" to try to fit in better, and was the top student in English
composition for three years.:p. 26 At age 16, while at Ushaw, Hearn
injured his left eye in a schoolyard mishap. The eye became infected
and, despite consultations with specialists in
Dublin and London, and
a year spent out of school convalescing, went blind. Hearn also
suffered from severe myopia, so his injury left him permanently with
poor vision, requiring him to carry a magnifying glass for close work
and a pocket telescope to see anything beyond a short distance (Hearn
avoided eyeglasses, believing they would gradually weaken his vision
further). The iris was permanently discolored, and left Hearn
self-conscious about his appearance for the rest of his life, causing
him to cover his left eye while conversing and always posing for the
camera in profile so that the left eye was not visible.:p. 35
In 1867, Henry Molyneux, who had become Sarah Brenane's financial
manager, went bankrupt, along with Brenane. There was no money for
tuition, and Hearn was sent to London's East End to live with
Brenane's former maid. She and her husband had little time or money
for Hearn, who wandered the streets, spent time in workhouses, and
generally lived an aimless, rootless existence. His main intellectual
activities consisted of visits to libraries and the British
Emigration to Cincinnati
By 1869, Henry Molyneux had recovered some financial stability and
Brenane, now 75, was infirm. Resolving to end his expenditures on the
19-year-old Hearn, he purchased a one-way ticket to New York and
instructed Hearn to find his way to Cincinnati, to locate Molyneux's
sister and her husband, Thomas Cullinan, and to obtain their
assistance in making a living. Upon meeting Hearn in Cincinnati, the
family had little assistance to offer: Cullinan gave him $5 and wished
him luck in seeking his fortune. As Hearn would later write, "I was
dropped moneyless on the pavement of an American city to begin
For a time, he was impoverished, living in stables or store rooms in
exchange for menial labor. He eventually befriended the English
printer and communalist Henry Watkin, who employed him in his printing
business, helped find him various odd jobs, lent him books from his
library, including utopianists Fourier, Dixon and Noyes, and gave
Hearn a nickname which stuck with him for the rest of his life, The
Raven, from the Poe poem. Hearn also frequented the
Library, which at that time had an estimated 50,000 volumes. In the
spring of 1871 a letter from Henry Molyneux informed him of Sarah
Brenane's death and Molyneux's appointment as sole executor. Despite
Brenane having named him as the beneficiary of an annuity when she
became his guardian, Hearn received nothing from the estate and never
heard from Molyneux again.:pp. 36–37
Newspaper and literary work
By the strength of his talent as a writer, Hearn obtained a job as a
reporter for the
Cincinnati Daily Enquirer, working for the newspaper
from 1872 to 1875. Writing with creative freedom in one of
Cincinnati's largest circulating newspapers, he became known for his
lurid accounts of local murders, developing a reputation as the
paper's premier sensational journalist, as well as the author of
sensitive accounts of some of the disadvantaged people of Cincinnati.
The Library of America
The Library of America selected one of these murder accounts,
Gibbeted, for inclusion in its two-century retrospective of American
True Crime, published in 2008. After one of his murder stories, the
Tanyard Murder, had run for several months in 1874, Hearn established
his reputation as Cincinnati's most audacious journalist, and the
Enquirer raised his salary from $10 to $25 per week.:p. 54
Cover page of first issue of Ye Giglampz, a satirical weekly published
in 1874 by
Lafcadio Hearn and Henry Farny
In 1874 Hearn and the young Henry Farny, later a renowned painter of
the American West, wrote, illustrated, and published an 8-page weekly
journal of art, literature and satire entitled Ye Giglampz. The
Cincinnati Public Library reprinted a facsimile of all nine issues in
1983. The work was considered by a twentieth century critic to be
'Perhaps the most fascinating sustained project he undertook as an
Marriage, firing by the Enquirer
On 14 June 1874, Hearn, aged 23, married Alethea ("Mattie") Foley, a
20-year-old African American woman, an action in violation of Ohio’s
anti-miscegenation law at that time. In August 1875, in response to
complaints from local clergyman about his anti-religious views and
pressure from local politicians embarrassed by some of his satirical
writing in Ye Giglampz, the Enquirer fired him, citing as its reason
his illegal marriage. He went to work for the rival newspaper The
Cincinnati Commercial. The Enquirer offered to re-hire after his
stories began appearing in the Commercial and its circulation began
increasing, but Hearn, incensed at the paper's behavior, refused.
Hearn and Foley separated, but attempted reconciliation several times
before divorcing in 1877. Foley remarried in 1880.:pp. 82, 89
While working for the Commercial Hearn agreed to be carried to the top
of Cincinnati's tallest building on the back of a famous steeplejack,
Joseph Roderiguez Weston, and wrote a half-terrified, half-comic
account of the experience. It was also during this time that Hearn
wrote a series of accounts of the Bucktown and Levee neighborhoods of
Cincinnati, "...one of the few depictions we have of black life in a
border city during the post-Civil War period.":p. 98 He also wrote
about local black song lyrics from the era, including a song titled
"Shiloh" that was dedicated to a Bucktown resident named "Limber
Char-Coal: Cartoon published in
New Orleans Daily Item on 25 August
During the autumn of 1877, recently divorced from Mattie Foley and
restless, Hearn had begun neglecting his newspaper work in favor of
translating into English works of the French author Gautier. He had
also grown increasingly disenchanted with Cincinnati, writing to Henry
Watkin, "It is time for a fellow to get out of
Cincinnati when they
begin to call it the Paris of America." With the support of Watkin and
Cincinnati Commercial publisher Murat Halstead, Hearn left Cincinnati
for New Orleans, where he initially wrote dispatches on the "Gateway
to the Tropics" for the Commercial.
Hearn lived in
New Orleans for nearly a decade, writing first for the
newspaper Daily City Item beginning in June 1878, and later for the
Times Democrat. Since the Item was a 4-page publication, Hearn's
editorial work changed the character of the newspaper dramatically. He
began at the Item as a news editor, expanding to include book reviews
of Bret Harte and Émile Zola, summaries of pieces in national
magazines such as Harper's, and editorial pieces introducing Buddhism
and Sanskrit writings. As editor, Hearn created and published nearly
two hundred woodcuts of daily life and people in New Orleans, making
the Item the first Southern newspaper to introduce cartoons and giving
the paper an immediate boost in circulation. Hearn gave up carving the
woodcuts after six months when he found the strain was too great for
his eye.:p. 134
Alligators: Cartoon published in
New Orleans Daily Item on 13
At the end of 1881 Hearn took an editorial position with the New
Orleans Times Democrat and was employed translating items from French
and Spanish newspapers as well as writing editorials and cultural
reviews on topics of his choice. He also continued his work
translating French authors into English: Gérard de Nerval, Anatole
France, and most notably Pierre Loti, an author who influenced Hearn's
own writing style.: pp. 130–131 Milton Bronner, who edited
Hearn's letters to Henry Watkin, wrote "[T]he Hearn of
New Orleans was
the father of the Hearn of the West Indies and of Japan," and this
view was endorsed by Norman Foerster.
The vast number of his writings about
New Orleans and its environs,
many of which have not been collected, include the city's Creole
population and distinctive cuisine, the French Opera, and Louisiana
Voodoo. Hearn wrote enthusiastically of New Orleans, but also wrote of
the city's decay, "a dead bride crowned with orange flowers".:p.
Hearn's writings for national publications, such as Harper's Weekly
and Scribner's Magazine, helped create the popular reputation of New
Orleans as a place with a distinct culture more akin to that of Europe
Caribbean than to the rest of North America. Hearn's
best-known Louisiana works include:
Gombo zhèbes: Little dictionary of Creole proverbs (1885)
La Cuisine Créole (1885), a collection of culinary recipes from
leading chefs and noted Creole housewives who helped make New Orleans
famous for its cuisine
Chita: A Memory of Last Island (1889), a novella based on the
hurricane of 1856 first published in Harper's Monthly in 1888
Hearn also published in
Harper's Weekly the first known written
article (1883) about Filipinos in the United States, the Manilamen or
Tagalogs, one of whose villages he had visited at Saint Malo,
Lake Borgne in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana.
Hearn's former home on Cleveland Avenue in
New Orleans is preserved as
a registered historic place.
At the time he lived there, Hearn was little known, and even now he is
little known for his writing about New Orleans, except by local
cultural devotees. However, more books have been written about him
than any former resident of
New Orleans except Louis Armstrong.
Hearn's writings for the
New Orleans newspapers included
impressionistic descriptions of places and characters and many
editorials denouncing political corruption, street crime, violence,
intolerance, and the failures of public health and hygiene officials.
Despite the fact that he is credited with "inventing"
New Orleans as
an exotic and mysterious place, his obituaries of the vodou leaders
Marie Laveau and Doctor John Montenet are matter-of-fact and
debunking. Selections of Hearn's
New Orleans writings have been
collected and published in several works, starting with Creole
Sketches in 1924, and more recently in Inventing New Orleans:
Writings of Lafcadio Hearn.
Two Years in the French West Indies
Harper's sent Hearn to the West Indies as a correspondent in 1887. He
spent two years in
Martinique and in addition to his writings for the
magazine, produced two books: Two Years in the French West Indies and
Youma, The Story of a West-Indian Slave, both published in
Later life in Japan
Lafcadio Hearn, shown with Koizumi Setsu. Note the way he is
facing—he always preferred to be photographed this way so that his
left eye could not be seen.
In 1890, Hearn went to
Japan with a commission as a newspaper
correspondent, which was quickly terminated. It was in Japan, however,
that he found a home and his greatest inspiration. Through the
goodwill of Basil Hall Chamberlain, Hearn gained a teaching position
during the summer of 1890 at the Shimane Prefectural Common Middle
School and Normal School in Matsue, a town in western
Japan on the
coast of the Sea of Japan. The
Lafcadio Hearn Memorial Museum
Lafcadio Hearn Memorial Museum and his
old residence are still two of Matsue's most popular tourist
attractions. During his fifteen-month stay in Matsue, Hearn married
Koizumi Setsu, the daughter of a local samurai family, with whom he
had four children. He became a naturalized Japanese, assuming the
name Koizumi Yakumo, in 1896 after accepting a teaching position in
Tokyo. After having been Greek Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and, later
on, Spencerian, he became Buddhist.
Kazuo, Hearn's son, aged about seventeen.
During late 1891, Hearn obtained another teaching position in
Kumamoto, Kyūshū, at the Fifth Higher Middle School, where he spent
the next three years and completed his book Glimpses of Unfamiliar
Japan (1894). In October 1894, he secured a journalism job with the
English-language newspaper Kobe Chronicle, and in 1896, with some
assistance from Chamberlain, he began teaching
English literature at
Tokyo Imperial University, a job he had until 1903. In 1904, he was a
professor at Waseda University.
Japan he encountered the art of ju-jutsu which made a deep
impression upon him:
Hearn, who encountered judo in
Japan at the end of the nineteenth
century, contemplated its concepts with the awed tones of an explorer
staring about him in an extraordinary and undiscovered land. "What
Western brain could have elaborated this strange teaching, never to
oppose force by force, but only direct and utilize the power of
attack; to overthrow the enemy solely through his own strength, to
vanquish him solely by his own efforts? Surely none! The Western mind
appears to work in straight lines; the Oriental, in wonderful curves
On 26 September 1904, he died of heart failure at the age of 54 years.
His grave is at the
Zōshigaya Cemetery in Toshima, Tokyo.
In the late 19th century,
Japan was still largely unknown and exotic
to Westerners. However, with the introduction of Japanese aesthetics,
particularly at the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1900, Japanese
styles became fashionable in Western countries. Consequently, Hearn
became known to the world by his writings concerning Japan. In later
years, some critics would accuse Hearn of exoticizing Japan, but
because he offered the West some of its first descriptions of
Meiji Era Japan, his work has historical
Hearn's grave, in Zōshigaya Cemetery.
Admirers of Hearn's work have included Ben Hecht, John Erskine,
and Malcolm Cowley.
The Japanese director
Masaki Kobayashi adapted four Hearn tales into
his 1964 film, Kwaidan. Some of his stories have been adapted by Ping
Chong into his puppet theatre, including the 1999
Kwaidan and the 2002
OBON: Tales of Moonlight and Rain.
Hearn's life and works were celebrated in The Dream of a Summer Day, a
play that toured Ireland during April and May 2005, which was staged
by the Storytellers Theatre Company and directed by Liam Halligan. It
is a detailed dramatization of Hearn's life, with four of his ghost
Yone Noguchi is quoted as saying about Hearn, "His Greek temperament
and French culture became frost-bitten as a flower in the North."
There is also a cultural center named after Hearn at the University of
Hearn was a major translator of the short stories of Guy de
The first museum in Europe for
Lafcadio Hearn was inaugurated in
Lefkada, Greece, his birthplace, on 4 July 2014, as Lefcadio Hearn
Historical Center. It contains early editions, rare books and Japanese
collectibles. The visitors, through photos, texts and exhibits, can
wander in the significant events of Lafcadio Hearn's life, but also in
the civilizations of Europe, America and
Japan of the late eighteenth
and early nineteenth centuries through his lectures, writings and
tales. The municipalities of Kumamoto, Matsue, Shinjuku, Yaizu, Toyama
University, Koizumi family and other people from
Japan and Greece
contributed to the establishment of Lefcadio Hearn Historical Center.
Lafcadio Hearn Japanese Gardens. Tramore, Ireland
Gardens have been created in memory of
Lafcadio Hearn in the town of
Tramore, County Waterford, Ireland. The
Lafcadio Hearn Japanese
Gardens reflect the life and extensive wanderings Lafcadio Hearn
(Koizumi Yakumo) and tell the story of his life. In their style and
planting they contain elements of the gardening traditions of the
countries and cultures traversed by Hearn. The journey begins in a
Victorian Garden to commemorate Hearn’s childhood summers in Tramore
with his great aunt Sarah Brenane. There is an American Garden, a
Greek Garden and a traditional Japanese Tea Garden, in addition to a
Stream Garden, ponds, a waterfall and an extensive woodland area. The
main elements of design, in particular the use of rocks and water and
the plant selection, are influenced by the tradition of a Japanese
Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan, 1895
Books written by Hearn on Japanese subjects
Glimpses of Unfamiliar
Out of the East: Reveries and Studies in New
Kokoro: Hints and Echoes of Japanese Inner Life (1896)
Gleanings in Buddha-Fields: Studies of Hand and Soul in the Far East
The Boy who Drew Cats, (1897)
Exotics and Retrospectives (1898)
Japanese Fairy Tales (1898, and sequels)
Japanese Lyrics (1900)
A Japanese Miscellany (1901)
Kottō: Being Japanese Curios, with Sundry Cobwebs (1902)
Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things (1903, later made into
Kwaidan by Masaki Kobayashi)
Japan: An Attempt at Interpretation (1904)
The Romance of the Milky Way and other studies and stories (1905)
Books written by Hearn on Louisiana subjects
La Cuisine Creole: A Collection of Culinary Recipes (1885)
Gombo Zhèbes": A Little Dictionary of Creole Proverbs, Selected from
Six Creole Dialects. (1885)
Chita: A Memory of Last Island (1889)
Creole Sketches (1924, Houghton Mifflin)
Letters from the Raven; being the correspondence of Lafcadio Hearn
Henry Watkin (1907)
Includes Letters from the Raven, 'Letters to a Lady, Letters of Ozias
Leaves from the Diary of an Impressionist (1911, Houghton Mifflin
Interpretations of Literature (1915, Dodd, Mead and Company)
On Reading in Relation to Literature (1921, The Atlantic Monthly
Lectures on Shakespeare (1928, Hokuseido Press)
Insect-musicians and other stories and sketches (1929)
Japan's Religions: Shinto and Buddhism (1966)
Books and Habits; from the Lectures of
Lafcadio Hearn (1968, Books for
Writings from Japan: An Anthology (1984), Penguin Books)
Lafcadio Hearn's America: Ethnographic Sketches and Editorials (2002,
University Press of Kentucky)
Lafcadio Hearn's Japan: An Anthology of His Writings on the Country
and Its People (2007, Tuttle)
American Writings (2009, Library of America)
Insect Literature (2015, Swan River Press; for details, see Insects in
One of Cleopatra's Nights and Other Fantastic Romances (1882,
translation of stories by Théophile Gautier), Richard Worthington
Stray Leaves From Strange Literature; Stories Reconstructed from the
Anvari-Soheili, Baital Pachisi, Mahabharata, Pantchantra, Gulistan,
Talmud, Kalewala, etc.(1884, James R. Osgood and Company)
Some Chinese Ghosts (1887)
Youma, the Story of a West-Indian Slave (1889)
Two Years in the French West Indies (1890)
Lafcadio Hearn Memorial Museum
List of horror fiction authors
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hearn, Lafcadio".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
^ a b Bisland, Elizabeth (1906). The life and letters of Lafcadio
Hearn. 1. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin.
^ According to one of his biographers, a family Bible records
'Patricio Lafcadio Tessima Carlos Hearn, August 1850.' Kennard, Nina
H. (1912). Lafcadio Hearn. New York: D. Appleton and Co.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Cott, Jonathan (1990). Wandering Ghost:
The Odyssey of Lafcadio Hearn. New York: Knopf.
^ Christopher Benfey, ed. (2008). Lafcadio Hearn: American Writings.
New York: Library of America. ISBN 978-1-59853-039-1.
^ Grace, Kevin (4 January 2012). Legendary Locals of Cincinnati.
Arcadia Publishing. p. 25. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
^ Harold Schechter, ed. (2008). True Crime: An American Anthology.
Library of America. pp. 117–130.
^ Jon Christopher Hughes (Autumn 1982). ""Ye Giglampz" and the
Apprenticeship of Lafcadio Hearn". American Literary Realism,
1870–1910. University of Illinois Press. 15 (2): 182–194.
^ Gale, Robert (2002). A
Lafcadio Hearn Companion. Greenwood Press.
pp. 179–180. ISBN 0-313-31737-2.
^ Norman Foerster (1934), American Poetry and Prose, Revised and
Enlarged Edition, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 1149; Hearn, Lafcadio
(1907), Letters from the Raven: Being the Correspondence of Lafcadio
Hearn with Henry Watkin, ed., Milton Bronner, New York: Brentano's.
^ Peggy Grodinsky (14 February 2007). "A chronicle of Creole cuisine".
Chronicle. Houston. .
Lafcadio Hearn (1924). Charles Woodward Hutson, ed. Creole Sketches.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. OCLC 2403347.
^ Starr, S. Frederick (2001). Inventing New Orleans: Writings of
Lafcadio Hearn. University Press of Mississippi.
^ "Two Years in the French West Indies". World Digital Library.
Retrieved 22 August 2017.
^ Hearn, Lafcadio (1890). Youma: Story of a Western Indian Slave. New
York: Harper & Brothers.
^ Kazuo, Iwao, Kiyoshi, and Suzuko: Katharine Chubbuck, ‘Hearn,
(Patricio) Lafcadio Carlos (1850–1904)’, Oxford Dictionary of
National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004
^ Norman Foerster (1934), American Poetry and Prose, Revised and
Enlarged Edition, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 1149.
^ Law, Mark (2007). The Pyjama Game: A Journey Into Judo (2008 ed.).
London: Aurum Press Ltd. p. 41.
Lafcadio Hearn at Find a Grave
^ Komakichi, Nohara, The True Face of Japan, (1936, 1st ed.)
^ Guo, Nanyang (2000), Interpreting Japan's interpreters: the problem
of Lafcadio Hearn, New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 3 (1),
^ Askew, Rie (2009), The Critical Reception of
Lafcadio Hearn outside
Japan, New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 11 (2), 44–71
^ MacAdams, William (1995), Ben Hecht, Barricade, p. 34,
ISBN 1-56980-028-6 .
^ Cowley, Malcolm (1949), "Introduction", in Goodman, Henry, The
Selected Writings of Lafcadio Hearn, Citadel .
^ Noguchi, Yone (1910),
Lafcadio Hearn in Japan, New York: Mitchell
^ "Bibliography", Lafcadio Hearn, Trussel .
^ Hearn's Works
Amenomori, Nobushige (1905). "Lafcadio Hearn, the Man," The Atlantic
Monthly, October 1905.
Bisland, Elizabeth (1906). The Life and Letters of Lafcadio Hearn,
Vol. II, New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Company.
Bronner, Milton, ed. (1907), Letters from the Raven: Being the
Lafcadio Hearn with Henry Watkin .
Cott, Jonathan (1992), Wandering Ghost: The Odyssey of Lafcadio Hearn,
Kodansha International .
Dawson, Carl (1992).
Lafcadio Hearn and the Vision of Japan, Johns
Hopkins University Press.
Gould, George M. (1908), Concerning Lafcadio Hearn, George W. Jacobs
& Company .
Hearn, Lafcadio (2001), Starr, S Frederick, ed., Inventing New
Orleans: Writings of Lafcadio Hearn, University Press of
——— (2009), "Some Chinese Ghosts, Chita, Two Years in the French
West Indies, Youma and Selected Journalism and Letters", in Benfey,
Christopher, American Writings, Library of America .
Kennard, Nina H (1912), Lafcadio Hearn, New York: D. Appleton &
Kunst, Arthur E. (1969). Lafcadio Hearn, Twayne Publishers.
LaBarre, Delia, ed. (2007).
New Orleans of Lafcadio Hearn: Illustrated
Sketches from the Daily City Item. Louisiana State University Press.
Langton, D. H. (1912). "Lafcadio Hearn: Journalist and Writer on
Japan," The Manchester Quarterly, Vol. XXXI.
Lurie, David (2005), "Orientomology: The Insect Literature of Lafcadio
Hearn (1850–1904)", in Pflugfelder, Gregory M; Walker, Brett L,
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Wikisource has original works written by or about:
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Hearn's Works, by T Russel
Lafcadio Hearn at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about
Lafcadio Hearn at Internet Archive
Works by or about Koizumi Yakumo at Internet Archive
Lafcadio Hearn at
LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Works by Lafcadio Hearn, at Unz.org
Works by Lafcadio Hearn, at Hathi Trust
Lafcadio Hearn and Haiku", Modern haiku (essay) .
Hearn's influence in literature
"A Journey to Lefcadio Hearn's birthplace", GRJP Web .
Dirda, Michael, "The Ghost Stories of Lafcadio Hearn", Library without
walls (review), Barnes & Noble .
Lafcadio Hearn's papers at the Albert and Shirley Small Special
Collections Library, University of Virginia
Japan and the Japanese as Seen by Foreigners
Two Years in the French West Indies From the Collections at the
Library of Congress
ISNI: 0000 0001 2117 1376
BNF: cb119070801 (data)