Labuan /ləˈbuːən/ (Jawi: لابوان), officially the Federal
Labuan (Malay: Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan, Jawi:
ولايه ڤرسكوتوان لابوان), is a federal territory of
Malaysia. It is made up of the eponymous
Labuan Island and six smaller
islands, and is located off the coast of the state of
Sabah in East
Malaysia. Labuan's capital is Victoria and is best known as an
offshore financial centre offering international financial and
business services via
Labuan IBFC since 1990 as well as being an
offshore support hub for deepwater oil and gas activities in the
region. It is also a tourist destination for people travelling through
Sabah, nearby Bruneians and scuba divers. The name
Labuan derives from
the Malay word labuhan which means harbour.
Labuan is often
referred to as the pearl of Borneo.
1.1 Postage stamps and postal history
3.1 Population and religion
5.1 Administrative subdivision
6 Places of interest
7 Notable residents
8 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Brunei 15th century–1846
United Kingdom 1846–1848
Labuan Crown 1848–1941
British North Borneo
British North Borneo 1890–1904
United Kingdom 1904–1906
Straits Settlements 1907–1941
Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan 1942–1945
British North Borneo
British North Borneo Crown 1946–1963
For three centuries from the 15th century, the north and west coast of
Borneo including the island of
Labuan was part of the Sultanate of
Brunei. In the 18th century,
Labuan attracted British interest.
James Brooke acquired the island for Britain through the Treaty of
Labuan with the Sultan of Brunei,
Omar Ali Saifuddin II
Omar Ali Saifuddin II on 18 December
1846. A British naval officer, Rodney Mundy, visited
his ship HMS Iris to keep the Sultan in line until the British
Government made a final decision to take the island and he took
Pengiran Mumin to witness the island's accession to the British Crown
on 24 December 1846. Some sources state that during the signing of
the treaty, the Sultan had been threatened by a British navy warship
ready to fire on the Sultan's palace if he refused to sign the treaty
while another source says the island was ceded to Britain as a reward
for assistance in combating pirates.
The main reason why the British possessed the island was to protect
their own interest in the region as a naval base and to suppress
piracy in the South China Sea. The British also believed
the island could be the next Singapore. The island became a Crown
Colony in 1848 with
James Brooke appointed as the first governor and
commander-in-chief, with William Napier as his
lieutenant-governor. In 1849, the Eastern Archipelago
Company became the first of several British companies to try to
Labuan coal deposits. The company was formed to exploit
coal deposits on the island and adjacent coast of
Borneo but soon
became involved in a dispute with James Brooke. Not proving
itself a great commercial or strategic asset, administration of Labuan
was handed to the
British North Borneo
British North Borneo Company in 1890. In
1894, a submarine communications cable was built by the British to
link the island's communications with North Borneo, Singapore and Hong
Kong for the first time. By 30 October 1906, the British
Government proposed to extend the boundaries of the Straits
Settlements to include Labuan. The proposal took effect from 1 January
British conquest of Labuan
The signing of the
Treaty of Labuan
Treaty of Labuan between the
Brunei sultanate and
the British delegation on 18 December 1846 at the
British flag hoisted for the first time on the island on 24 December
An 1888 British Map of Labuan
Japanese Navy anchoring at the coast of
Labuan on 14 January 1942
In World War II,
Labuan was occupied by Japan from 3 January 1942
until June 1945 and governed as part of the Northern
unit by the Japanese 37th Army. The island served as the
administrative centre for the Japanese forces. During the
occupation, the Japanese Government changed the island name to Maida
Island (前田島 [Maeda-shima]) on 9 December 1942 after Marquis
Toshinari Maeda, as a remembrance to the first Japanese commander in
Borneo who was killed in an air crash at Bintulu, Sarawak
when en route to the island to open the airfield there. As the
Allied counter-attack came closer, the Japanese also developed Labuan
Brunei Bay as a naval base.
American support craft moving towards Victoria and Brown beach to
assist the landing of the members of Australian 24th Infantry Brigade
on the island during Operation Oboe Six
Japanese Commander in Borneo, Lieutenant General
Masao Baba signing
the surrender document dated 9 September 1945 on the Australian 9th
Division headquarters in
Labuan while being watched by the Australian
Major General George Wootten
The liberation of
Borneo by the Allied forces began on 10 June 1945
when the Australian Army under the command of Australian Major General
George Wootten launched an attack under the codename of Operation Oboe
Labuan became the main objective for the Allied forces to
repossess. Soon, the 9th Division of the Australian Army launched
the attack with support from airstrikes and sea bombardments until the
capture of the
Labuan airstrip. Most of the
Labuan island area
including the main town of Victoria was under the control of Allied
forces within four days of the landing on 10 June. On 9 September
1945, the Japanese Lieutenant General
Masao Baba officially
surrendered at a place now known as Surrender Point near the
Layang-layang beach which he had been brought to the 9th Division
headquarters on the island to sign the surrender document in front of
the Australian 9th Division Army Commander George Wootten.
The name of
Labuan was later restored by the British and the island
was administered under the British Military Administration together
with the rest of the Straits Settlements.
Labuan then on 15 July 1946
joined the North
Borneo Crown Colony, which in turn became a part of
the state of
Malaysia in 1963. In 1984, the
Labuan to the federal government which later
been accessed to a federal territory. It was declared an
international offshore financial centre and free trade zone in
Postage stamps and postal history
1885 2c, used in 1891
A post office was operating in
Labuan by 1864, and used a circular
date stamp as postmark. The postage stamps of India and Hong Kong were
used on some mail, but they were probably carried there by
individuals, instead of being on sale in Labuan. Mail was routed
through Singapore. From 1867,
Labuan officially used the postage
stamps of the
Straits Settlements but began issuing its own in May
Although initially the design for the first stamp issue was proposed
to be depicting a clump of sago palms, for economic reasons, the queen
heads design was finally adopted, having been used initially for
postage stamps of Grenada. The first stamps of
depict the usual profile of Queen Victoria but are unusual for being
inscribed in Malay-Arabic (Jawi) and Chinese scripts in addition to
"LABUAN POSTAGE". Perennial shortages necessitated a variety of
surcharges in between the several reprints and colour changes of the
1880s. The original stamps were engraved, but the last of the design,
in April 1894, were done by lithography.
Beginning in May 1894, the designs of North
Borneo were printed in
different colours, with "LABUAN" either engraved into the vignette or
overprinted. On 24 September 1896, the 50th anniversary of the cession
was marked by overprinting "1846 / JUBILEE / 1896" on the overprinted
Borneo designs. Additional overprints appeared through the
1890s. In 1899 many types were surcharged with a value of 4 cents.
A last Labuan-only design came out in 1902, depicting a crown and
inscribed "LABUAN COLONY". After incorporation into the Straits
Settlements in 1906,
Labuan ceased issuing its own stamps, although
they remained valid for some time. Many of the remainder were
cancelled-to-order for sale to collectors and are now worth only
pennies; genuine franked/post used stamps are worth much more.
A map of
Labuan island including the outlying islands.
Labuan's area comprises the main island (
Labuan Island – 91.64
square kilometres or 35.38 square miles) and six other smaller
islands, Burung, Daat, Kuraman, Big Rusukan, Small Rusukan and Papan
island with a total area of 91.64 square kilometres (35.38 square
miles). The islands lie 8 kilometres (5.0 miles) off the coast of
Borneo, adjacent to the Malaysian state of
Sabah and to the north of
Brunei Darussalam, on the northern edge of
Brunei Bay facing the South
Labuan Island is mainly flat and undulating; its highest
point is Bukit Kubong at 148 metres (486 feet) above sea level. Over
70% of the island is still covered with vegetation. The main town area
of Victoria is located in a position facing
Big Rusukan Island
Big Rusukan Island (Pulau Rusukan Besar)
Small Rusukan Island
Small Rusukan Island (Pulau Rusukan Kecil)
Labuan has a tropical rainforest climate with no dry season. Over the
course of a year, the temperature typically varies from 25 to
32 °C (77 to 90 °F) and is rarely below 24 °C
(75 °F) or above 33 °C (91 °F). The warm season
lasts from 1 April to 13 June with an average daily high temperature
above 31 °C (88 °F). The hottest day of the year is 29
April, with an average high of 32 °C (90 °F) and low of
26 °C (79 °F). The cold season lasts from 7 January to 17
February with an average daily high temperature below 30 °C
(86 °F). The coldest day of the year is 8 September, with an
average low of 25 °C (77 °F) and high of 31 °C
(88 °F). The weather station for
Labuan is located at Labuan
Thunderstorms are the most severe precipitation observed in Labuan
during 60% of those days with precipitation. They are most likely
around October, when they occur very frequently. Meanwhile, the
relative humidity for
Labuan typically ranges from 63% (mildly humid)
to 96% (very humid) over the course of the year, rarely dropping below
53% and reaching as high as 100% (extremely humid).
Climate data for
Labuan Airport) 1961–1990, extremes
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Average relative humidity (%) (at 14:00)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: NOAA,
Deutscher Wetterdienst (humidity,
Source #2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)
Population and religion
Labuan – 2010 Census
An-Nur State Mosque
Kwang Fook Kong Temple
According to Malaysia's Department of Statistics,
for 2010 was at 86,908 and it is projected to be at 91,300 for
2013. In 2015, the population was reported to be at 96,800,
surpassing the 2013 estimate. The ethnic composition in 2010 in
Brunei Malay and
Bajau (6,300), Murut and Lun Bawang/Lundayeh (701), Chinese (10,014),
Indian (641), Other ethnic (19,727) and non-Malaysian citizen
(12,144). The majority of Chinese people in
Labuan are from the
Hokkien dialect group; however, there are also many Hakkas, most of
whom are migrants or descendants of migrants from Sabah.
As of 2010[update] Census the population of
Labuan is 76.0% Muslim,
12.4% Christian, 9.0% Buddhist, 0.4% Hindu, 2.1% follower of other
religions, and 0.1% non-religious.
Labuan Ethnic Composition (2010)
Brunei Malay & Kedayan
The economy of
Labuan thrives on its vast oil and gas resources and
international investment and banking services.
Labuan is a very much
an import-export oriented economy. Virtually all of its commodities
including crude oil, methanol, HBI, gas, flour, animal feed, sea
products and ceramic tiles are exported either to Peninsular Malaysia
or overseas. Raw materials, parts and equipments for industrial uses
well as consumer products are imported. In 2004, the total value of
Labuan's external trade reached MYR11.8 billion from only
MYR5.0 billion in 1995 for a net trade surplus of
MYR5.1 billion. Among its major trade partners are India,
Sarawak and South Korea. 65% of its exports are
petroleum and gas-based products.
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of
Labuan is estimated at
MYR3.63 billion in 2012 with a growth rate of 5.8 percent. Labuan
GDP per capita in 2012 is MYR39,682. The total employment for Labuan
is around 39,800 in 2012. The main economic sectors in
service and manufacturing which contributed 94.6 percent to the island
GDP. The service sector consisted mainly of Finance and Insurance and
Real Estate and Business Services. Meanwhile, the manufacturing sector
consists mainly of oil and gas industry and support.
Labuan Financial Park complex
Labuan International Business and Financial Centre
Labuan IBFC was
created as Malaysia's only offshore financial hub in October 1990 and
was operating under the name of
Labuan International Offshore
Financial Centre (IOFC). At the time it was established to strengthen
the contribution of financial services to the Gross National Product
Malaysia as well as to develop the island and its surrounding
vicinity. The jurisdiction, supervised by the
Financial Services Authority or LOFSA, offers benefits such as 3% tax
on net audited results or a flat rate of Malaysian Ringgit (MYR)
20,000 to trading companies; low operational costs; liberal exchange
controls; and a host of other advantages including readily available,
experienced and professional service providers. In 2010 the notion
"offshore" was excluded from all the statutes of
Labuan due to world
pressure on the tax havens and offshores.
Since its inception, the jurisdiction has expanded to become a base
for more than 6,500 offshore companies and more than 300 licensed
financial institutions including world leading banks.
Labuan IBFC is
embarking on an aggressive growth strategy to become the premier
international business and financial centre in the Asia Pacific
Labuan's business focus is on five core areas: offshore holding
companies, captive insurance, Shariah-compliant Islamic Finance
structures, public and private funds and wealth management. Labuan
IBFC’s position is further enhanced by the launch of the Malaysian
International Islamic Finance Centre initiative in August 2006.
Labuan is one of the Malaysian federal government territories. The
island is administered by the federal government through the Ministry
of Federal Territories.
Labuan Corporation is the municipal government
for the island and is headed by a chairman who is responsible for
development and administration of the island.
Labuan has one
representative in each of the Lower and Upper Houses of Parliament.
Typically, the current member of parliament of
Labuan will be
appointed to become chairman of
The island is represented in the lower house of parliament by MP
Roszman Datuk Haji Isli and in the upper house by Senator Yunus Kurus.
Below is the list of administrator of
Labuan Corporation from 2001 to
Othman Mohd Rijal
Suhaili Abdul Rahman
Ahmad Phesal Talib
Rozman Haji Isli
The Federal Territory is administratively subdivided into the capital
Labuan (formerly Victoria) and 27 kampung (administrative
villages), and which are ruled by appointed Ketua Kampung
Sungai Bedaun / Sungai Sembilang
Gersik / Saguking / Jawa / Parit
Kilan / Kilan Pulau Akar
Nagalang / Kerupang
Sungai Miri / Pagar
Ganggarak / Merinding
Security is the responsibility of the federal government, with naval
patrol vessels, a garrison and an air detachment based on the island.
The vigilance of the local Coast Guard and Customs and Excise
contribute to the maintenance of Labuan's reputation and status as an
international offshore financial centre and free trade zone.
Places of interest
Chimney at the Colliery Fields
There are several attractions and places of interest on Labuan. The
Labuan War Cemetery
Labuan War Cemetery contains various war graves and memorials to the
fallen of World War II. This includes British, Australian, Indian,
Sarawakian, Bruneian, North
Borneo and Empire troops, making it the
largest war grave with 3,908 graves of fallen soldiers. A memorial
service is held on Remembrance Day once every 4-year.
There is also a memorial celebrating the surrender of the Japanese to
the Australian Forces in 1945. There are also remnants of Labuan's
history as a
Royal Navy coaling station, including the chimney, a well
known local landmark. There is also a
Labuan Maritime Museum.
Labuan is also the base for diving on four popular wreck dives: the
Cement wreck, the American wreck, (the first USS Salute), the
Australian wreck and the Blue Water wreck.
Labuan has many schools. However, it has only one international
Labuan International School. Other places of interest
Labuan International Sea Sport Complex. Newly proposed is
the Marina centre and
Labuan Square project which are completed in
Labuan's own institution of higher education is Universiti Malaysia
Labuan International Campus, a branch of Universiti Malaysia
Sabah in Sepanggar Bay, Kota Kinabalu.
Labuan also has a matriculation
college, Kolej Matrikulasi Labuan, the only matriculation college in
East Malaysia. Thus, all pre-university students from Sabah, Sarawak
Labuan will take their courses here.
Labuan War Cemetery
Replica Clock Tower of 1906[note 1]
Yussof Mahal, politician from
Barisan National party and former Member
of Parliament for Labuan.
Rozman Datuk Hj. Isli, is now the current Member of Parliament of
Labuan after the 13th General Election (GE13)
Kelvin Teo, young entrepreneur and season 1 winner of reality show
Love Me Do.
Suresh Singh, right-hand bowler who plays for Malaysian cricket
Hassan Sani, Malaysian and
Sabah football player
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The history of
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Chai Foh Chin (2007) Early Picture Postcards of North
Stephen R. Evans, Abdul Rahman Zainal and Rod Wong Khet Ngee (Reprint
History of Labuan
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