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Laws affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people vary greatly by country or territory—everything from legal recognition of same-sex marriage or other types of partnerships, to the death penalty as punishment for same-sex romantic/sexual activity or identity. Laws that affect LGBT
LGBT
people include, but are not limited to, the following:

sodomy laws that penalize consensual same-sex sexual activity, and age of consent laws that may impose higher ages for same-sex sexual activity laws concerning the recognition of same-sex relationships, including same-sex marriage, civil unions, domestic partnerships, etc. laws concerning LGBT
LGBT
parenting, including adoption by LGBT
LGBT
people anti-discrimination laws in employment, housing, education, public accommodations, etc. anti-bullying legislation to protect LGBT
LGBT
children in school "bathroom bills" affecting access to sex-segregated facilities by transgender people hate crime laws imposing enhanced criminal penalties for prejudice-motivated violence against LGBT
LGBT
people laws concerning access to assisted reproductive technology laws concerning access to sex reassignment surgery and hormone replacement therapy legal recognition and accommodation of reassigned gender laws related to sexual orientation and military service laws regarding donation of blood by men who have sex with men

As of March 2017, 23 countries, most of them located in the Americas and Western Europe,[e] recognize same-sex marriage. As of August 2017, 73 countries as well as five sub-national jurisdictions[f] have laws criminalizing homosexuality,[1] with most of them located in Asia
Asia
and Africa. In 2006 that number was 92.[1] As of May 2016, 16 countries have an unequal age of consent law.[1] In 2011, the United Nations Human Rights Council
United Nations Human Rights Council
passed its first resolution recognizing LGBT
LGBT
rights, which was followed up with a report from the UN Human Rights Commission documenting violations of the rights of LGBT
LGBT
people, including hate crime, criminalization of homosexuality, and discrimination. Following up on the report, the UN Human Rights Commission urged all countries which had not yet done so to enact laws protecting basic LGBT
LGBT
rights.[2][3]

Contents

1 History of LGBT-related laws

1.1 Ancient Celts 1.2 Ancient India 1.3 Ancient West Asia

1.3.1 Ancient Israel 1.3.2 Ancient Persia 1.3.3 Ancient Mesopotamia

1.4 Ancient Rome 1.5 Congo 1.6 Feudal Japan 1.7 Lesotho 1.8 Papua New Guinea

2 Global LGBT
LGBT
rights maps 3 LGBT-related laws by country or territory

3.1 Africa

3.1.1 Northern Africa 3.1.2 Western Africa 3.1.3 Central Africa 3.1.4 Southeast Africa 3.1.5 Horn of Africa 3.1.6 Indian Ocean States 3.1.7 Southern Africa

3.2 Americas

3.2.1 North America 3.2.2 Central America 3.2.3 Caribbean 3.2.4 South America

3.3 Asia

3.3.1 Central Asia 3.3.2 Eurasia 3.3.3 West Asia 3.3.4 South Asia 3.3.5 East Asia 3.3.6 Southeast Asia

3.4 Europe

3.4.1 European Union 3.4.2 Central Europe 3.4.3 Eastern Europe 3.4.4 Northern Europe 3.4.5 Southern Europe 3.4.6 Western Europe

3.5 Oceania

3.5.1 Australasia 3.5.2 Melanesia 3.5.3 Micronesia 3.5.4 Polynesia

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

History of LGBT-related laws See also: LGBT
LGBT
history, Timeline of LGBT
LGBT
history, LGBT
LGBT
social movements, History of homosexuality, and Sodomy law
Sodomy law
§ History

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v t e

Ancient Celts According to Aristotle, although most "belligerent nations" were strongly influenced by their women, the Celts were unusual because their men openly preferred male lovers (Politics II 1269b).[4][5] H. D. Rankin in Celts and the Classical World notes that "Athenaeus echoes this comment (603a) and so does Ammianus (30.9). It seems to be the general opinion of antiquity."[5] In book XIII of his Deipnosophists, the Roman Greek rhetorician and grammarian Athenaeus, repeating assertions made by Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
in the 1st century BC ( Bibliotheca historica
Bibliotheca historica
5:32), wrote that Celtic women were beautiful but that the men preferred to sleep together. Diodorus went further, stating that "the young men will offer themselves to strangers and are insulted if the offer is refused". Rankin argues that the ultimate source of these assertions is likely to be Poseidonius
Poseidonius
and speculates that these authors may be recording "some kind of bonding ritual ... which requires abstinence from women at certain times".[5] Ancient India Throughout Hindu
Hindu
and Vedic
Vedic
texts there are many descriptions of saints, demigods, and even the Supreme Lord transcending gender norms and manifesting multiple combinations of sex and gender.[6] There are several instances in ancient Indian epic poetry
Indian epic poetry
of same sex depictions and unions by gods and goddesses. There are several stories depicting love between those of the same sex, especially among kings and queens. Kamasutra, the ancient Indian treatise on love talks about feelings for same sexes. Transsexuals
Transsexuals
are also venerated e.g. Lord Vishnu
Lord Vishnu
as Mohini
Mohini
and Lord Shiva
Lord Shiva
as Ardhanarishwara
Ardhanarishwara
(which means half woman).[7] Ancient West Asia Ancient Israel The ancient Law of Moses
Law of Moses
(the Torah) forbids men lying with men (intercourse) in Leviticus 18 and gives a story of attempted homosexual rape in Genesis in the story of Sodom and Gomorrah, the cities being soon destroyed after that. The death penalty was prescribed. In Deuteronomy 22:5, cross-dressing is condemned as being "abominable". Ancient Persia In Persia homosexuality and homoerotic expressions were tolerated in numerous public places, from monasteries and seminaries to taverns, military camps, bathhouses, and coffee houses. In the early Safavid era (1501–1723), male houses of prostitution (amrad khane) were legally recognized and paid taxes. Persian poets, such as Sa’di (d. 1291), Hafiz (d. 1389), and Jami
Jami
(d. 1492), wrote poems replete with homoerotic allusions. The two most commonly documented forms were commercial sex with transgender young males or males enacting transgender roles exemplified by the köçeks and Sufi
Sufi
spiritual practices in which the practitioner admired the form of a beautiful boy in order to enter ecstatic states and glimpse the beauty of God. Ancient Mesopotamia In Assyrian society, sex crimes were punished identically whether they were homosexual or heterosexual.[8] An individual faced no punishment for penetrating someone of equal social class, a cult prostitute, or with someone whose gender roles were not considered solidly masculine.[8][9] Such sexual relations were even seen as good fortune.[10] However, homosexual relationships with fellow soldiers, slaves, royal attendants, or those where a social better was submissive or penetrated, were treated as bad omens.[11][12] Middle Assyrian Law
Law
Codes dating 1075 BC has a particularly harsh law for homosexuality in the military, which reads: "If a man have intercourse with his brother-in-arms, they shall turn him into a eunuch."[13][14][15] Ancient Rome The "conquest mentality" of the ancient Romans shaped Roman homosexual practices.[16] In the Roman Republic, a citizen's political liberty was defined in part by the right to preserve his body from physical compulsion or use by others;[17] for the male citizen to submit his body to the giving of pleasure was considered servile.[18] As long as a man played the penetrative role, it was socially acceptable and considered natural for him to have same-sex relations, without a perceived loss of his masculinity or social standing.[19] The bodies of citizen youths were strictly off-limits, and the Lex Scantinia imposed penalites on those who committed a sex crime (stuprum) against a freeborn male minor.[20] Acceptable same-sex partners were males excluded from legal protections as citizens: slaves, male prostitutes, and the infames, entertainers or others who might be technically free but whose lifestyles set them outside the law. "Homosexual" and "heterosexual" were thus not categories of Roman sexuality, and no words exist in Latin
Latin
that would precisely translate these concepts.[21] A male citizen who willingly performed oral sex or received anal sex was disparaged, but there is only limited evidence of legal penalties against these men, who were presumably "homosexual" in the modern sense.[22] In courtroom and political rhetoric, charges of effeminacy and passive sexual behaviors were directed particularly at "democratic" politicians (populares) such as Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and Mark Antony.[23] Roman law
Roman law
addressed the rape of a male citizen as early as the 2nd century BC, when a ruling was issued in a case that may have involved a man of same-sex orientation. It was ruled that even a man who was "disreputable and questionable" had the same right as other citizens not to have his body subjected to forced sex.[24] A law probably dating to the dictatorship of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
defined rape as forced sex against "boy, woman, or anyone"; the rapist was subject to execution, a rare penalty in Roman law.[25] A male classified as infamis, such as a prostitute or actor, could not as a matter of law be raped, nor could a slave, who was legally classified as property; the slave's owner, however, could prosecute the rapist for property damage.[26] In the Roman army
Roman army
of the Republic, sex among fellow soldiers violated the decorum against intercourse with citizens and was subject to harsh penalties, including death,[27] as a violation of military discipline.[28] The Greek historian Polybius
Polybius
(2nd century BC) lists deserters, thieves, perjurers, and "those who in youth have abused their persons" as subject to the fustuarium, clubbing to death.[29] Ancient sources are most concerned with the effects of sexual harassment by officers, but the young soldier who brought an accusation against his superior needed to show that he had not willingly taken the passive role or prostituted himself.[30] Soldiers were free to have relations with their male slaves;[31] the use of a fellow citizen-soldier's body was prohibited, not homosexual behaviors per se.[32] By the late Republic and throughout the Imperial period, there is increasing evidence that men whose lifestyle marked them as "homosexual" in the modern sense served openly.[33] Although Roman law
Roman law
did not recognize marriage between men, and in general Romans regarded marriage as a heterosexual union with the primary purpose of producing children, in the early Imperial period some male couples were celebrating traditional marriage rites. Juvenal remarks with disapproval that his friends often attended such ceremonies.[34] The emperor Nero
Nero
had two marriages to men, once as the bride (with a freedman Pythagoras) and once as the groom. His consort Sporus
Sporus
appeared in public as Nero's wife wearing the regalia that was customary for the Roman empress.[35] Apart from measures to protect the prerogatives of citizens, the prosecution of homosexuality as a general crime began in the 3rd century of the Christian era when male prostitution was banned by Philip the Arab. By the end of the 4th century, after the Roman Empire had come under Christian rule, passive homosexuality was punishable by burning.[36] "Death by sword" was the punishment for a "man coupling like a woman" under the Theodosian Code.[37] Under Justinian, all same-sex acts, passive or active, no matter who the partners, were declared contrary to nature and punishable by death.[38] Congo E. E. Evans-Pritchard
E. E. Evans-Pritchard
recorded that in the past male Azande
Azande
warriors in the northern Congo routinely took on young male lovers between the ages of twelve and twenty, who helped with household tasks and participated in intercrural sex with their older husbands. The practice had died out by the early 20th century, after Europeans had gained control of African countries, but was recounted to Evans-Pritchard by the elders to whom he spoke.[39] Feudal Japan In feudal Japan, homosexuality was recognized, between equals (bi-do), in terms of pederasty (wakashudo), and in terms of prostitution. The younger partner in a pederastic relationship often was expected to make the first move; the opposite was true in ancient Greece. In religious circles, same-sex love spread to the warrior (samurai) class, where it was customary for a boy in the wakashū age category to undergo training in the martial arts by apprenticing to a more experienced adult man. The man was permitted, if the boy agreed, to take the boy as his lover until he came of age; this relationship, often formalized in a "brotherhood contract",[40] was expected to be exclusive, with both partners swearing to take no other (male) lovers. The Samurai
Samurai
period was one in which homosexuality was seen as particularly positive. Later when Japanese society became pacified, the middle classes adopted many of the practices of the warrior class. Lesotho Anthropologists Stephen Murray and Will Roscoe reported that women in Lesotho
Lesotho
engaged in socially sanctioned "long term, erotic relationships" called motsoalle.[41] Papua New Guinea In Papua New Guinea, same-sex relationships were an integral part of the culture of certain tribes until the middle of the last century. The Etoro and Marind-anim
Marind-anim
for example, even viewed heterosexuality as wasteful and celebrated homosexuality instead. They believed that in sharing semen, they are sharing their life force, yet women simply wasted this force any time they didn't get pregnant after sex. In many traditional Melanesian cultures a prepubertal boy would be paired with an older adolescent who would become his mentor and who would "inseminate" him (orally, anally, or topically, depending on the tribe) over a number of years in order for the younger to also reach puberty.[42] Global LGBT
LGBT
rights maps

Laws regarding same-sex sexuality by country or territory.

Laws regarding same-sex sexuality by country or territory   Same-sex marriage   Other type of partnership (or unregistered cohabitation)   Foreign same-sex marriages recognized   No recognition of same-sex couples   Laws restricting freedom of expression and association    De jure penalty that is de facto not enforced   Imprisonment   Imprisonment (up to life sentence)   Up to death

LGBT
LGBT
rights at the United Nations

  Support Countries which have signed a General Assembly declaration of LGBT rights and/or sponsored the Human Rights Council's 2011 resolution on LGBT
LGBT
rights (96 members)   Oppose Countries which signed a 2008 statement opposing LGBT
LGBT
rights (initially 57 members, now 54 members)   Neither Countries which, as regards the UN, have expressed neither official support nor opposition to LGBT
LGBT
rights (44 members)

Homosexual "propaganda" and "morality" laws by country or territory

Homosexual "propaganda" and "morality" laws by country or territory   Countries or territories that don't have homosexual "propaganda" or "morality" laws   Fine[43]   Unknown punishment   Imprisonment

Decriminalization of same-sex sexual intercourse by country or territory

  1790–1799   1800–1819   1820–1829   1830–1839   1840–1859   1860–1869   1870–1879   1880–1889   1890–1909   1910–1919   1920–1929   1930–1939   1940–1949   1950–1959   1960–1969   1970–1979   1980–1989   1990–1999   2000–2009   2010-present   Unknown date of legalization of same-sex intercourse   Same-sex sexual intercourse always legal    Male
Male
same-sex sexual intercourse illegal   Same-sex sexual intercourse illegal

Equalization of age of consent laws for same-sex couples by country or territory

  1790–1829   1830–1839   1840–1859   1860–1869   1870–1879   1880–1889   1890–1929   1930–1939   1940–19491   1950–1959   1960–1969   1970–1979   1980–1989   1990–1999   2000–2009   2010-present   Unknown date for equal age of consent laws for opposite and same-sex couples   No consent laws/equal age of consent laws always equal for opposite and same-sex couples   Unequal age of consent laws for same-sex couples   Same-sex sexual intercourse illegal 1During World War II, Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
annexed territory or established reichskommissariats which extended Germany's laws against same-sex sexual intercourse to those territories and reichskommissariats. Age of consent was previously equalized for same-sex couples in the following countries or territories before German annexation or establishment of reichskommissariats: Belluno (legal in 1890), Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
(legal in 1890), Poland
Poland
(legal in 1932), and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
(legal in 1890). All countries and territories listed that where annexed or established into reichskommissariats by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
during World War II
World War II
where restored as independent countries or reincorporated into their previous countries during or after the war and thus re-legalized equal age of consent laws for same-sex couples in those areas.

Legal status of adoption by same-sex couples by country or territory

  Joint adoption allowed   Second-parent adoption allowed   No laws allowing adoption by same-sex couples

LGBT
LGBT
service in national militaries by country or territory

  All LGBT
LGBT
people can serve   GBT men can serve   LGB people can serve   GB men can serve   Ambiguous/unknown policy    LGBT
LGBT
people are banned from serving   No military

Employment discrimination laws by sexual orientation and/or gender identity by country or territory

   Sexual orientation
Sexual orientation
and gender identity: all employment    Sexual orientation
Sexual orientation
with anti–employment discrimination ordinance and gender identity solely in public employment   Sexual orientation: all employment   Gender identity: all employment    Sexual orientation
Sexual orientation
and gender identity: federal public employment and federal contractors    Sexual orientation
Sexual orientation
and gender identity: public employment   Sexual orientation: public employment   No national-level employment laws covering sexual orientation and/or gender identity

Anti-discrimination laws covering goods and services by sexual orientation and/or gender identity by country or territory

Countries and territories with LGBT
LGBT
anti-discrimination laws in goods and services    Sexual orientation
Sexual orientation
and gender identity covered    Sexual orientation
Sexual orientation
covered    Gender identity
Gender identity
covered   No national or local level anti-discrimination laws covering sexual orientation and/or gender identity in goods and services

Constitutional discrimination laws by sexual orientation and/or gender identity by country or territory

   Sexual orientation
Sexual orientation
and gender identity covered    Sexual orientation
Sexual orientation
covered    Gender identity
Gender identity
covered   No national or local level constitutional discrimination laws covering sexual orientation and/or gender identity

LGBT
LGBT
hate crime laws by country or territory

   Sexual orientation
Sexual orientation
and gender identity hate crime laws    Sexual orientation
Sexual orientation
hate crime laws   No LGBT
LGBT
hate crime laws

Incitement to hatred based on sexual orientation and gender identity prohibited by country or territory

  Incitement to hatred based on sexual orientation and gender identity prohibited   Incitement to hatred based on sexual orientation prohibited   No prohibition on incitement to hatred based on sexual orientation and gender identity

Ban on conversion therapy for minors on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity by country or territory

  Ban on conversion therapy on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity    De facto ban on conversion therapy   Ban on conversion therapy pending/case-by-case bans   No ban on conversion therapy

LGBT
LGBT
immigration equality by country or territory

  Recognition of same-sex couples in national immigration laws   Unknown/ambiguous

Bans on same-sex unions by country or territory

  No specific prohibition of same-sex marriages or unions   Constitution bans same-sex marriage

Blood donation policies for men who have sex with men by country or territory

  Men who have sex with men may donate blood; No deferral   Men who have sex with men may donate blood; No deferral, except for blood transfusions1   Men who have sex with men may donate blood; Temporary deferral1   Men who have sex with men may not donate blood; Permanent deferral1   No Data 1No restriction in Israel, Belgium
Belgium
and the United States
United States
of America if last MSM activity was before 1977.

Blood donation policies for female sex partners of men who have sex with men by country or territory

   Female
Female
sex partners of men who have sex with men may donate blood; No deferral    Female
Female
sex partners of men who have sex with men may donate blood; Temporary deferral    Female
Female
sex partners of men who have sex with men may not donate blood; Permanent deferral   No Data

Laws concerning gender identity-expression by country or territory

  Legal identity change   No legal identity change   Unknown/Ambiguous

Legal recognition of non-binary genders and third gender

  Nonbinary / third gender available as voluntary opt-in   Opt-in for intersex people only    Mandatory for some born intersex, and opt in   Mandatory for some born intersex   Nonbinary / third gender not legally recognized / no data

LGBT-related laws by country or territory Africa Main article: LGBT
LGBT
rights in Africa

List of countries or territories by LGBT
LGBT
rights in Africa

This table:

view talk edit

Northern Africa

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT
LGBT
allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Algeria Illegal since 1966 Penalty: Fine and up to 2 years imprisonment.[1][44]

Canary Islands (Autonomous community of Spain) Legal since 1979 + UN decl. sign.[1] De facto unions legal since 2003[45] Legal since 2005[46] Legal since 2005[47] (+automatic co-parent recognition)[48] Spain
Spain
responsible for defence Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[50]

Ceuta
Ceuta
(Autonomous city of Spain) Legal since 1979 + UN decl. sign.[1] De facto union since 1998[51] Legal since 2005[52] Legal since 2005[53] Spain
Spain
responsible for defence Bans all anti-gay discrimination[54] Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[50]

Egypt Male
Male
de facto illegal since 2000 Penalty: Up to 17 years imprisonment with or without hard labour and with or without fines under broadly-written morality laws Female
Female
uncertain.[1][55]

Libya Illegal since 1953[56]

Madeira (Autonomous region of Portugal) Legal since 1983 + UN decl. sign.[1] De facto union since 2001[57][58] Legal since 2010[59] Legal since 2016 (+automatic co-parent recognition)[60][61][62]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[49] Since 2011. All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[63]

Melilla
Melilla
(Autonomous city of Spain) Legal since 1979 + UN decl. sign.[1] De facto union since 2008[64] Legal since 2005[52] Legal since 2005[53] Spain
Spain
responsible for defence Bans all anti-gay discrimination[54] Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[50]

Morocco (Including Southern Provinces) Illegal since 1962 Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment.[1][65]

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (Excluding Southern Provinces) Illegal since 1944 (as part of the Overseas Province of Spanish Sahara) Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment[1][66][67]

South Sudan Illegal since 1899 (as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan) Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment.[1][44]

Constitutional ban since 2011.

Sudan Illegal since 1899 (as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan) Penalty: Death penalty
Death penalty
on third offense for men and on fourth offense for women.[1]

Tunisia Illegal since 1913 (as the French protectorate of Tunisia) Penalty: 3 years imprisonment.[1][68]

Western Africa

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Benin Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[1][69] ( Age of consent
Age of consent
discrepancy)[1]

Burkina Faso Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[1]

Constitutional ban since 1991.

Cape Verde Legal since 2004 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[1]

Gambia Illegal since 1888 (as Gambia Colony and Protectorate) Penalty: Up to Iife imprisonment.[1][70][44]

Ghana Male
Male
illegal since 1860s (as Gold Coast) Penalty: 10 years imprisonment or more Female
Female
always legal.[1][71][44]

Guinea Illegal since 1988 Penalty: 6 months to 3 years imprisonment.[1][72]

Guinea-Bissau Legal since 1993[1] + UN decl. sign.

Ivory Coast Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country). ( Age of consent
Age of consent
discrepancy)[1]

Liberia Illegal since 1976 Penalty: 1 year imprisonment.[1][73]

Mali Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[1]

Mauritania Illegal since 1983 Penalty: Death by stoning[1][74]

Niger Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country). ( Age of consent
Age of consent
discrepancy)[1]

Nigeria Illegal under federal law since 1901 (as Northern Nigeria Protectorate and Southern Nigeria
Nigeria
Protectorate) Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment Illegal in the states of Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Niger, Sokoto, Yobe, and Zamfara Penalty: Death penalty
Death penalty
for men. Whipping and/or imprisonment for women.[1][75][44]

Senegal Illegal since 1966 Penalty: 1 to 5 years imprisonment.[1][76]

Sierra Leone Male
Male
illegal since 1861 (as Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
Colony and Protectorate) Penalty: Up to life imprisonment (Not enforced) Female
Female
always legal + UN decl. sign.[1]

Togo Illegal since 1884 (as Togoland) Penalty: Fine and 3 years imprisonment.[1][44]

Central Africa

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Cameroon Illegal since 1972 Penalty: Fines to 5 years imprisonment.[1][44]

Central African Republic Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country). + UN decl. sign.[1]

Constitutional ban since 2016.[77]

Chad Illegal since 2017 Penalty: 3 months to 2 years imprisonment.

Democratic Republic of the Congo Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[1]

Constitutional ban since 2005.

Equatorial Guinea Legal since 1968.[1][78]

Gabon Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country) + UN decl. sign.

Republic of the Congo Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country). ( Age of consent
Age of consent
discrepancy)[1]

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (Overseas territory of the United Kingdom) Legal since 2001 + UN decl. sign.[1] Legal since 2017 Legal since 2017[79][80] Legal since 2017 Since 2000. UK responsible for defence. Constitutional ban all anti-gay on discrimination. Since 2013.

São Tomé and Príncipe Legal since 2012 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Southeast Africa

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Burundi Illegal since 2009 Penalty: 3 months to 2 years imprisonment.[1][81]

Constitutional ban since 2005.

Kenya Illegal since 1897 (as East Africa
Africa
Protectorate) Penalty: up to 14 years imprisonment.[1][44]

Constitutional ban since 2010.[82]

Rwanda Legal since 1980[1][83] + UN decl. sign.

Constitutional ban since 2003.

Tanzania Illegal since 1864 (only Zanzibar) Illegal since 1899 Penalty: Up to life imprisonment.[1][44]

Uganda Male
Male
illegal since 1894 Penalty: Up to life imprisonment[84] or vigilante execution.[84] Female
Female
uncertain.

Constitutional ban since 2005.

Horn of Africa

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Djibouti Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[1]

Eritrea Illegal since 1957 (as part of the Federation of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Eritrea) Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment[1][85]

Ethiopia Illegal Penalty: 10 years imprisonment or more[1]

Somalia Illegal since 1962 Penalty: Up to death[86]

Somaliland Illegal Penalty: Up to death[86]

Indian Ocean States

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

British Indian Ocean Territory (Overseas territory of the United Kingdom) Legal since 2001 + UN decl. sign.[1] Since 2014, UK Military Personnel only. Since 2014, UK Military Personnel only.

Since 2000. UK responsible for defence.

Comoros Illegal since 1982 Penalty: 5 years imprisonment & fines[1][87]

French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Overseas territory of France) Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the department).[1] Civil solidarity pact
Civil solidarity pact
since 1999 Legal since 2013 Legal since 2013

Bans all anti-gay discrimination Under French law since 2017, sterilization was abolished for gender transitioning.

Madagascar Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country). ( Age of consent
Age of consent
discrepancy)[1]

Mauritius Male
Male
illegal since 1838 (as part of British Mauritius) Penalty: Up to 5 years imprisonment Female
Female
always legal[88] + UN decl. sign.[1][89]

Bans some anti-gay discrimination[90][91]

Mayotte (Overseas department of France) Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the department).[1] Civil solidarity pact
Civil solidarity pact
since 1999 Legal since 2013 Legal since 2013

Bans all anti-gay discrimination Under French law since 2017, sterilization was abolished for gender transitioning.

Réunion (Overseas department of France) Legal since 1791[1] Civil solidarity pact
Civil solidarity pact
since 1999 Legal since 2013 Legal since 2013

Bans all anti-gay discrimination Under French law since 2017, sterilization was abolished for gender transitioning.

Seychelles Legal since 2016[92] + UN decl. sign.

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[1]

Southern Africa

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Angola De facto illegal since 1886 (as part of the Province of Angola) Penalty: Fines, restrictions or penal labor (Not enforced)[1][93] (decriminalization pending)[94][95]

Bans some anti-gay discrimination

Botswana Illegal since 1885 (as part of the Bechuanaland Protectorate) Penalty: Fine to up to 7 years imprisonment (Not enforced)[1][44]

Bans some anti-gay discrimination Legal gender and name change is allowed since 2017. Judicial permission required.

Lesotho Male
Male
legal since 2012 Female
Female
always legal[1]

Malawi Illegal since 1891 (as part of the Shire Highlands Protectorate and the Nyasaland Districts Protectorate) Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment & whippings ( Law
Law
suspended from usage since 2012)[1][96][44]

Mozambique Legal since 2015[97][98]

Bans some anti-gay discrimination[1][90]

Namibia Male
Male
illegal since 1920 (as part of South-West Africa; not enforced)[44] Female
Female
always legal[1][99][100]

South Africa Male
Male
legal since 1998 Female
Female
always legal + UN decl. sign.[1] Limited recognition of unregistered partnerships since 1998; Same-sex marriage since 2006. Legal since 2006 Legal since 2002 Since 1998 Bans all anti-gay discrimination Anti-discrimination laws are interpreted to include gender identity; legal gender may be changed after surgical or medical treatment.

Swaziland Male
Male
illegal since the 1880s Female
Female
always legal[1][44]

Zambia Illegal since 1911 (as part of the British South Africa
Africa
Company rule of Rhodesia) Penalty: up to 14 years imprisonment[1][44]

Zimbabwe Male
Male
illegal since 1891 (as part of the British South Africa
Africa
Company rule of Rhodesia) Female
Female
legal[1][44]

Constitutional ban since 2013

Americas Main article: LGBT
LGBT
rights in the Americas

List of countries or territories by LGBT
LGBT
rights in the Americas

Tables:

view talk edit

North America

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT
LGBT
people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Bermuda (Overseas territory of the United Kingdom) Legal since 1994 (age of consent discrepancy) + UN decl. sign.[1] Marriage from 2017 to 2018 Domestic partnerships
Domestic partnerships
since June 2018[101] / Legal from May 2017 until May 2018.[102] Legal since 2015[103] UK responsible for defense. Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[104]

Canada Legal since 1969 + UN decl. sign.[1][105] Domestic partnership in Nova Scotia (2001)[106]; Civil union
Civil union
in Quebec (2002)[107]; Adult interdependent relationship in Alberta
Adult interdependent relationship in Alberta
(2003)[108]; Common-law relationship in Manitoba (2004)[109] Legal in some provinces and territories since 2003, nationwide since 2005.[110] Legal in some provinces and territories since 1996, nationwide since 2010.[111] Since 1992[112] Bans all anti-gay discrimination, and hate speech. Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal in Manitoba and Ontario since 2015 (proposed in other jurisdictions). Transgender
Transgender
persons can change their gender identity or expression and name without completion of medical intervention and human rights protections explicitly includes gender identity or expression protections within all of Canada
Canada
since 2017.[113][114][115][116]

Greenland (Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark) Legal since 1933 + UN decl. sign.[1] Registered partnership since 1996[117] Legal since 2016 Step-child adoption since 2009.[118] Joint adoption since 2016.[119] Since 1978 (Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
responsible for defense) Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[1]

Mexico Legal since 1871 + UN decl. sign.[1] / Civil union
Civil union
in Mexico
Mexico
City (2007), Coahuila (2007),[120] Colima (2013),[121] Campeche (2013),[122] Jalisco (2014)[123] / Legal in Mexico
Mexico
City (2010),[124] Quintana Roo (2012),[125] Coahuila (2014), Chihuahua (2015), Guerrero (2015), Nayarit (2015), Jalisco (2016), Campeche (2016), Michoacán (2016), Colima (2016), Morelos (2016), Chiapas (2017), Puebla (2017), Baja California (2017). All states are obliged to honour same-sex marriages performed in states where it is legal.[124] (Proposed nationwide).[126][127] The Supreme Court has declared that it is unconstitutional to deny marriage licenses to same-sex couples in all states,[128] but as state constitutions were not invalidated, individual injunctions must still be obtained from the court.[129][130]

/ Explicitly legal in Mexico
Mexico
City (2010)[131], Coahuila (2014), Michoacán (2016), Colima (2016). [132] Nationwide, married same-sex couples may adopt.[133]

Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[134] Transgender
Transgender
persons can change their legal gender and name in Mexico City since 2008.[135] Mexico
Mexico
adopted a legal protocol for gender identity and sexual orientation in 2014 based upon constitutional provisions to equally protect the rights of all citizens.[136]

Saint Pierre et Miquelon ( Overseas collectivity
Overseas collectivity
of France) Legal since 1791 + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil solidarity pact
Civil solidarity pact
since 1999[137] Legal since 2013[138] Legal since 2013[139]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[54] Under French law since 2017, sterilization was abolished for gender transitioning.[140]

United States Legal in some states since 1962, nationwide since 2003.[1] Domestic partnership in California
Domestic partnership in California
(1999),[141] the District of Columbia (2002),[142] Maine (2004),[143] Oregon (2008),[144] Maryland (2008),[145] Wisconsin (2009)[146] and Nevada (2009)[147]; Civil union
Civil union
in New Jersey
Jersey
(2007),[148] Illinois (2011),[149] Hawaii (2012),[150] and Colorado (2013)[151] Legal in some states since 2004, nationwide since 2015.[152] Legal in some states since 1993, nationwide since 2015.[153] "Don't ask, don't tell" policy was abolished by president Barack Obama in 2011, meaning that since then LGB people have been allowed to serve openly in the military.[154] Despite U.S. president Donald Trump's opposition,[155] transgender people have been allowed to serve in the military as of January 1, 2018 according to a ruling by a federal judge.[156][157] / Federal executive order prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation for employees in the federal civilian workforce, along with the government employment in the District of Columbia, and the United States
United States
Postal Service, since 1998 (see Executive Order 12968 and Executive Order 13087). Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation with minors by mental health professionals illegal in some states. (Banned in California, Connecticut, Illinois, New Mexico, Vermont, New York, Nevada, New Jersey, Oregon, Rhode Island, the District of Columbia
District of Columbia
and some cities such as Miami Beach, Cincinnati, Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
and Seattle). Included in the federal hate crimes law since 2009. ( Sexual orientation
Sexual orientation
discrimination in public and private employment) / Gender identity
Gender identity
discrimination in employment and healthcare insurance banned since 2012.[158][159] Included in the federal hate crimes law since 2009. ( Gender identity
Gender identity
discrimination in public and private employment)

Central America

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT
LGBT
people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Belize Legal since 2016[160]

Section 16(3) of the constitution bans discrimination on the basis of sex, race, place of origin, political opinions, colour or creed[161] The ruling overturning Section 53 of the criminal code specifically stated "sex" as mentioned in Section 16(3) of the constitution, includes sexual orientation.[162][163] Transgender
Transgender
persons can change their legal name without surgeries. Gender change is not allowed.[164]

Costa Rica Legal since 1971 + UN decl. sign.[1] Unregistered cohabitation since 2014; ( De facto union pending)[165][166] (Court decision pending) (Court decision pending) LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt.[167] Has no military. Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[1] Transgender
Transgender
persons can change their legal name without surgeries. Judicial permission required. Gender change is not allowed.

El Salvador Legal since the 1800s + UN decl. sign.[1]

(Constitutional ban pending) [84] (Constitutional ban pending) [84] [168] Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[168] Bans hate crimes based on gender identity.[169][170]

Transgender
Transgender
persons can change their legal name. Judicial permission required. Gender change is not allowed.[171]

Guatemala Legal since 1800's + UN decl. sign.[1]

The only exception to this is the Código de la Niñez y la Juventud (Code on Childhood and Youth), approved in 1997, which protects children and youth from experiencing discrimination based on a variety of factors, including their own sexual orientation and that of their parents. Transgender
Transgender
persons can change their legal name without surgeries. Judicial permission required.[172] Gender change is not allowed.

Honduras Legal since 1899 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Constitutional ban since 2005.[173][174] Constitutional ban since 2005.[173][174]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination, including hate speech.[175] Bans hate crimes based on gender identity.[1] Unknown if gender change is legal.

Nicaragua Legal since 2008 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[1]

Panama Legal since 2008 + UN decl. sign.[1] (Court decision pending) (Court decision pending)

Has no military. Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[176] (Anti-discrimination law proposed).[177]

Transgender
Transgender
persons can change their legal gender and name after completion of medical intervention since 2006.[178] Legal name change, without surgeries, is allowed since 2016.[179]

Caribbean

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT
LGBT
people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Anguilla (Overseas territory of the United Kingdom) Legal since 2001 + UN decl. sign.[1]

UK responsible for defense.

Antigua and Barbuda Illegal Penalty: 15-year prison sentence (not enforced).[1]

Aruba (Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands) Legal + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil Unions since 2016[180] (Proposed)/[citation needed] Same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands
Netherlands
recognized.[181] (Proposed) The Netherlands
Netherlands
responsible for defense.

Bahamas Legal since 1991 (age of consent discrepancy) + UN decl. sign.[1]

[1]

Barbados Illegal Penalty: Life imprisonment (not enforced) (Proposed) .[1]

British Virgin Islands (Overseas territory of the United Kingdom) Legal since 2001 + UN decl. sign.[1]

UK responsible for defense. Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[182]

Caribbean Netherlands (Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, Saba; Special
Special
municipalities of the Netherlands) Legal + UN decl. sign.[1] Registered partnership since 2012[183] Legal since 2012[184] [185] The Netherlands
Netherlands
responsible for defense. Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[186] [187]

Cayman Islands (Overseas territory of the United Kingdom) Legal since 2001 (age of consent discrepancy)[1] + UN decl. sign.

/ Same-sex marriage
Same-sex marriage
not expressly prohibited under Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
law, but Constitutional right of a man and a woman to marry a person of the opposite sex since 2009.[188] Same-sex marriages performed in a foreign country are now recognized for immigration purposes. [189]

UK responsible for defense.

Cuba Legal since 1979 + UN decl. sign.[1] (Proposed) Constitutional ban since 1976.

[1] Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[190][191] [192]

Curaçao (Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands) Legal + UN decl. sign.[1] (Proposed)[citation needed] (Proposed)/ Same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands recognized.[181] (Proposed) The Netherlands
Netherlands
responsible for defense.

Dominica Illegal Penalty: 10-year prison sentence or incarceration in a psychiatric institution (Not enforced) + UN decl. sign.[1]

Dominican Republic Legal since 1822 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Constitutional ban since 2010.[193]

[194]

Grenada Male
Male
illegal Penalty: 10-year prison sentence Female
Female
always legal.[1]

Has no military.

Guadeloupe (Overseas department of France) Legal since 1791 + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil solidarity pact
Civil solidarity pact
since 1999[137] Legal since 2013[138] Legal since 2013[139]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[54] Under French law since 2017, sterilization was abolished for gender transitioning.[140]

Guantanamo Bay Naval Base (Extraterritorial jurisdiction of the United States) Legal[citation needed]

Legal Legal USA responsible for defense.[154][157] [195] [196]

Haiti Legal since 1986[1]

Has no military.

Jamaica Male
Male
illegal Penalty: 10 years hard labor (not enforced) Female
Female
always legal.[1]

(Constitutional ban since 1962)

Martinique (Overseas department of France) Legal since 1791 + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil solidarity pact
Civil solidarity pact
since 1999[137] Legal since 2013[138] Legal since 2013[139]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[54] Under French law since 2017, sterilization was abolished for gender transitioning.[140]

Montserrat (Overseas territory of the United Kingdom) Legal since 2001 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Constitutional ban since 2010.[197]

UK responsible for defense. Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[198]

Puerto Rico (Commonwealth of the United States) Legal since 2003 Since 2015 Legal since 2015[199] Legal since 2015 USA responsible for defense.[154][157] Bans hate crimes since 2002 and anti–employment discrimination since 2013. US hate crime laws also apply. Bans hate crimes since 2002 and anti–employment discrimination since 2013. US hate crime laws also apply. Gender change is not legal.

Saint Barthélemy ( Overseas collectivity
Overseas collectivity
of France
France
since 2007) Legal since 1791 + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil solidarity pact
Civil solidarity pact
since 1999[137] Legal since 2013[138] Legal since 2013[139]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[54] Under French law since 2017, sterilization was abolished for gender transitioning.[140]

Saint Kitts and Nevis Male
Male
illegal Penalty: 10 years (not enforced). Female
Female
always legal.[1]

Saint Lucia Male
Male
illegal Penalty: fine and/or 10-year prison sentence Female
Female
always legal.[1]

Has no military.

Saint Martin ( Overseas collectivity
Overseas collectivity
of France
France
since 2007) Legal since 1791 + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil solidarity pact
Civil solidarity pact
since 1999[137] Legal since 2013[138] Legal since 2013[139]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[54] Under French law since 2017, sterilization was abolished for gender transitioning.[140]

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Illegal Penalty: fine and/or 10-year prison sentence.[1]

Has no military.

Sint Maarten (Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands) Legal + UN decl. sign.[1] (Proposed)[citation needed] (Proposed)/ Same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands recognized.[181] (Proposed) The Netherlands
Netherlands
responsible for defense.

Trinidad and Tobago Illegal Penalty: 25-year prison sentence (not enforced) Court decision pending.[1]

Turks and Caicos Islands (Overseas territory of the United Kingdom) Legal since 2001 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Constitutional ban since 2011.[200]

UK responsible for defense. Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[1]

United States
United States
Minor Outlying Islands (Unincorporated organized territory of the United States) Legal

Legal Legal USA responsible for defense.[154][157]

United States
United States
Virgin Islands (Insular area of the United States) Legal since 1985 Since 2015[153] Legal since 2015[153] Legal since 2015[153] USA responsible for defense.[154][157] The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well. The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well. Gender change is not legal.

South America

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT
LGBT
people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Argentina Legal since 1887 + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil union
Civil union
in Buenos Aires (2003)[201] and Rio Negro (2003)[202] Cohabitation union nationwide since 2015[203] Legal since 2010.[204] Legal since 2010 Since 2009[205] / Legal protection in some provinces (federal law pending). Since 2012 is a hate crime killing due to sexual orientation.[206] Transgender
Transgender
persons can change their legal gender and name without surgeries or judicial permission since 2012.[207] Since 2012 is a hate crime killing due to gender identity or expression.[206]

Bolivia Legal + UN decl. sign.[1] Constitutional ban on free unions.[208] (Family life agreement pending)[209] Constitutional ban since 2009.[210] LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt.[211] [212][213][214] Bans all anti-gay discrimination, including hate speech.[1] Transgender
Transgender
persons can change their legal gender and name without surgeries or judicial permission since 2016.[215][216][217][218]

Brazil Legal since 1831 + UN decl. sign.[1] "Stable unions" legal in some states since 2004. All rights as recognized family entities available nationwide since 2011.[219][220] Legal in some states since 2012, nationwide since 2013.[221][222] Legal since 2010[223] Since 1969[224] / All state-sanctioned social discrimination of citizens since 1988. Legal protection for sexual orientation in many jurisdictions (expansion of anti-discrimination (all) national Constitutional amendment discussed in the Senate).[225] Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal since 1999.[226][227] Transgender
Transgender
persons can change their legal gender and name after completion of medical intervention since 2009.[228][229][230]

Chile Legal since 1999 (age of consent discrepancy) + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil union
Civil union
agreement since 2015.[231] (Pending).[232] / (Pending) Same-sex couples may adopt, although only one is recognized as legal parent. LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt (Joint and step-child adoption pending).[233]

Since 2012.[234] Bans all anti-gay discrimination since 2012.[235] Transgender
Transgender
persons can change their legal gender and name after completion of medical intervention since 2007. Judicial permission required.[236] Currently, a broader gender identity law (which would not require any surgeries or judicial permission) is being discussed by the congress.[237]

Colombia Legal since 1981 + UN decl. sign.[1] De facto marital union since 2007.[238] Legal since 2016.[239] Step-child adoption since 2014.[240] Joint adoption since 2015.[241] Since 1999. Since 2009 the military special social security system can be used by same sex couples in the army.[1] Bans all anti-gay discrimination including hate speech since 2011.[242] Since 2015, transgender persons can change their legal gender and name manifesting their solemn will before a notar, no surgeries or judicial order required.[243]

Ecuador Legal since 1997 + UN decl. sign.[1] De facto union since 2009.[244][245] Constitutional ban since 2009.[246] LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt.[247] [248] Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[249] Since 2016, transgender persons are allowed to change their birth name and gender identity (instead of the sex assigned at birth) on legal documents. No surgeries or judicial order required.[250][251][252]

Falkland Islands (Overseas territory of the United Kingdom) Legal since 1989 + UN decl. sign.[1] Legal since 2017.[253] Legal since 2017.[253] Legal since 2017. UK responsible for defense. Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[254]

French Guiana (Overseas department of France) Legal since 1791 + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil solidarity pact
Civil solidarity pact
since 1999.[137] Legal since 2013.[138] Legal since 2013.[139]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[54] Under French law since 2017, sterilization was abolished for gender transitioning.[140]

Guyana Illegal Penalty: Up to life imprisonment (not enforced).[1]

[255] [citation needed]

Paraguay Legal since 1880 (age of consent discrepancy) + UN decl. sign.[1] Constitutional ban since 1992.[256] Constitutional ban since 1992.[257]

(Proposed).[258]

Peru Legal since 1836-1837 + UN decl. sign.[1] (Pending)[259]

Since 2009.[260] [261][262][263][264] Transgender
Transgender
persons can change their legal gender and name after completion of medical intervention since 2016. Judicial permission required.[265][266]

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom) Legal Legal since 2014[267] Legal since 2014[267]

UK responsible for defense Bans some anti-gay discrimination

Suriname Legal since 1869 (age of consent discrepancy) + UN decl.

Bans some anti-gay discrimination, including hate speech since 2015.[268] (Court decision pending).[269][270]

Uruguay Legal since 1934 + UN decl. sign.[1] Concubinage union since 2008.[271] Legal since 2013[272] Legal since 2009[273] Since 2009.[274] Bans all anti-gay discrimination since 2004.[275] Transgender
Transgender
persons can change their legal gender and name since 2009.[276]

Venezuela Legal since 1997 + UN decl. sign.[1] (Proposed) (Proposed).[277] (Proposed)

Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[1]

Asia Main article: LGBT
LGBT
rights in Asia

List of countries or territories by LGBT
LGBT
rights in Asia

This table:

view talk edit

Central Asia

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Kyrgyzstan Legal since 1998[1]

Constitutionally banned since 2016.[278]

[279]

Tajikistan Legal since 1998[1]

[279]

Turkmenistan Male
Male
illegal Penalty: up to 2-year prison sentence Female
Female
always legal[1]

Uzbekistan Male
Male
illegal Penalty: up to 3-year prison sentence Female
Female
always legal[1]

Eurasia

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Abkhazia Legal after 1991

Akrotiri and Dhekelia (Overseas territory of the United Kingdom) Legal since 2000 + UN decl. sign.[1] Since 2005 Legal since 2014

Britain responsible for defence Bans some anti-gay discrimination[280]

Armenia Legal since 2003 + UN decl. sign.[1]

/ Constitutionally banned since 2015.[281][282] Marriages performed abroad recognized since 2017.[283]

/ No explicit ban. However, LGBT
LGBT
persons have been reportedly discharged because of their sexual orientation.[284]

Artsakh Legal since 2000

Constitutionally banned since 2006 [285]

Azerbaijan Legal since 2000[1]

[286]

(Requires sterilization for change).[287]

Cyprus Legal since 1998 + UN decl. sign.[1] Since 2015

(only EU country to ban LGBT
LGBT
people from military service) Bans all anti-gay discrimination[288] Forbids discrimination based on gender identity. Gender change is not legal.

Georgia Legal since 2000 + UN decl. sign.[1]

(Constitutional ban proposed)

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[289] (Requires sterilization for change)[287]

Kazakhstan Legal since 1998[1]

[290]

[279]

Northern Cyprus Legal since 2014[291][292][1]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[291][292] Discrimination
Discrimination
or hate speech banned since 2014.[291][292] Unknown if gender change is legal.

Russia Male
Male
legal since 1993 Female
Female
always legal[293][1] Illegal in practice in Chechnya, where homosexuals are abducted and sent to concentration camps based on their perceived sexual orientation. See Gay
Gay
concentration camps in Chechnya
Chechnya
for more information.

(Constitutional ban proposed)[294]

(Requires sterilization for change)[287]

South Ossetia Legal after 1991

Turkey Legal since 1858[1]

(Proposed)[295] (Proposed)[295] (Legal since 1988, Requires sterilisation for change[296])

West Asia

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Bahrain Legal since 1976 ( Age of consent
Age of consent
discrepancy)[1]

Iran Illegal Penalty: For men 74 lashes for immature men and death penalty for mature men (although there are recorded cases of minors who were executed because of their sexual orientation[297]). For women 50 lashes for women of mature sound mind and if consenting. Death penalty offense after fourth conviction.[1]

Legal gender recognition in Iran
Iran
is legal if accompanied by a medical intervention.[298]

Iraq Legal since 2003[299] Vigilante executions are common. The government and citizens both ignore the legality of same sex relations.

Israel Legal since 1963 (de facto), 1988 (de jure)[300] + UN decl. sign.[1][301] Unregistered cohabitation since 1994. / There are no civil marriages available in Israel
Israel
for same-sex or opposite sex couples, and any non-religious marriage is unrecognized if performed in country. However, foreign same-sex marriages are recognized by the government and recorded in the population registry of the Ministry of the Interior. The country is de-facto preventing adoption by same-sex couples.[302] Since 1993 Bans some anti-gay discrimination;[303][304] Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty
Liberty
applies to homosexuals and bisexuals.[305] Full recognition of gender's ID without a surgery or medical intervention;[306] equal employment opportunity law bars discrimination based on gender identity;[307][308] Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty
Liberty
applies to transgender individuals.[307][309]

Jordan Legal since 1951[1]

Legal since 2014[310]

Kuwait Male
Male
illegal Penalty: Fines or up to 6-year prison sentence Female
Female
always legal[1][311]

Lebanon Legal since 2014[312]

Legal gender change allowed

Oman Illegal Penalty: Fines and prison sentence up to 3 years (Only enforced when dealing with "public scandal")[1]

Palestinian Territories (Gaza Strip) West Bank: Legal since 1951 (As part of Jordan)[1] Gaza: Male
Male
illegal Penalty: (de facto) Death/ Extra judicial Execution, (de jure) Up to 10 years imprisonment Female
Female
always legal[1]

Qatar Illegal Penalty: Fines, prison sentence up to 7 years[1] or death penalty[313].

Saudi Arabia Illegal Penalty: Prison sentences of several months to life, fines and/or whipping/flogging, castration, torture or death can be sentenced on first conviction. A second conviction merits execution.[1]

Syria Illegal Penalty: Prison sentence up to 3 years ( Law
Law
in de-facto suspended)[314][1]

Transsexuals
Transsexuals
allowed to change legal gender

United Arab Emirates Illegal under federal law Penalty: deportation, fines, prison sentences or death penalty[313] Illegal in the emirate of Dubai Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment Illegal in the emirate of Abu Dhabi Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment[1]

Sex reassignment surgery
Sex reassignment surgery
for people whose gender is unclear or whose physical features do not match their physiological, biological and genetic characteristics.[315][316][317]

Yemen Illegal Penalty: Unmarried men punished with 100 lashes of the whip or a maximum of one year of imprisonment, married men with death by stoning. Women punished up to three years of imprisonment; where the offense has been committed under duress, the punishment is up to seven years detention.[1]

South Asia

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Afghanistan Illegal Penalty: Long imprisonment or death penalty (No known cases of death sentences have been handed out for same-sex sexual activity after the end of Taliban
Taliban
rule)[1]

Constitutionally banned since 1971

Bangladesh Illegal Penalty: 10 years to life imprisonment[1]

A third option (hijra) beside male and female[318]

Bhutan Illegal Penalty: Prison sentence up to 1 year (Not enforced)[1]

India Illegal under section 377 of the Indian Penal Code. Penalty: Up to life imprisonment[319][320][321] as well as torture, vigilante executions and fines[322] [323] [324] No explicit recognition. No explicit recognition.[325]

[326] laws not enforced A third option (hijra) beside male and female[327]

Maldives Illegal Penalty: For men the punishment is banishment for nine months to one year or a whipping of 10 to 30 strokes. For women is house arrest for nine months to one year.[1]

[citation needed]

Nepal Legal since 2007 + UN decl. sign.[1] (Proposed: By Supreme Court in 2008) (Proposed: By Supreme Court in 2008) Under consideration

Constitution bans all anti-gay discrimination since 2015. Gender change is legal since 2007. Constitution bans all discrimination.[328]

Pakistan Illegal Penalty: 2 years to life sentence[1]

Right to change gender; transgender and intersex citizens have protection form all discrimination and harassment.[329]

Sri Lanka Illegal (Decriminalization proposed)

[citation needed] (proposed)[330][331] Transgender
Transgender
persons can change their legal gender and name after completion of medical intervention since 2016.[332][333]

East Asia

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

China (People's Republic of) Legal since 1997[1]

Transgender
Transgender
people allowed to change legal gender, but only after sex reassignment surgery.

Hong Kong ( Special administrative region of China) Legal since 1991[1]

LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt.[334]

The People's Republic of China
China
is in charge of Hong Kong's defence affairs. Regardless of sexual orientation, military personnel are not recruited from Hong Kong.[citation needed] Bans some anti-gay discrimination Transgender
Transgender
people allowed to change legal gender, but only after sex reassignment surgery.

Macau ( Special administrative region of China) Legal since 1996[1]

The People's Republic of China
China
is in charge of Macau's defence affairs. Regardless of sexual orientation, military personnel are not recruited from Macau. Bans some anti-gay discrimination

Japan Legal since 1880 + UN decl. sign.[1] / Non-legally binding partnerships in 6 municipal jurisdictions (Shibuya, Setagaya, Iga, Takaraduka, Naha, Sapporo) No explicit recognition. Under consideration Since 2003 / No nationwide protections, but some cities ban some anti-gay discrimination[1] (Nationalwide workplace protections pending) Transgender
Transgender
people allowed to change legal gender, but only after sex reassignment surgery.

Mongolia Legal since 1961 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Due to conscription. Bans some anti-gay discrimination. Transgender
Transgender
people allowed to change legal gender

North Korea Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)[1]

Unknown although there are heavily obeyed gender roles for both male and female. See Let's trim our hair in accordance with the socialist lifestyle

South Korea Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country) + UN decl. sign.[1] (Life partnership proposed)

/ (Protection from discrimination varies by jurisdiction in some area; self-determination pending) Transgender
Transgender
people allowed to change legal gender

Taiwan, Republic of China Legal since 1895[335] Since July 3, 2017.[336] /(Legal since May 24, 2019[337]) (Pending. LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt.) Due to military draft Bans some anti-gay discrimination (in work and education) Transgender
Transgender
people allowed to change legal gender. Surgery no longer a requirement beginning in 2015[338]

Southeast Asia

LGBT
LGBT
rights in Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Brunei Illegal Penalty: Fines and imprisonment up to 10 years or death by stoning[1]

Myanmar
Myanmar
(Burma) Illegal Penalty: Up to life sentence (Not enforced) [1]

Cambodia Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)[1]

There has been at least one recorded case of a legally registered and recognized same-sex marriage. [citation needed]

East Timor Legal since 1975 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Bans hate crimes based on sexual orientation.

Indonesia Legal nationwide, except; Illegal in the provinces of Aceh, South Sumatra, and the city of Palembang
Palembang
(Applies only to Muslims)[339][340][1] (Age of consent discrepancy)

[341]

Transsexuals
Transsexuals
allowed to change legal gender, but only after sex reassignment surgery.

Laos Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)[1]

Malaysia Male
Male
illegal Penalty: fines, prison sentence (2-20 years), or whippings Female
Female
always legal[1]

[342]

Philippines Legal nationwide since 1933 [343][1][344] (Pending)[343] (Pending)[345] LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt.[346] Since 2009 /[347] Cebu[348] Quezon City, Davao[349] and Albay have anti-discrimination ordinances[350] (National bill pending but still not made into law) No legal recognition.[351]

Singapore Male
Male
illegal Penalty: up to 2 years prison sentence (Not enforced since 1999) Female
Female
legal since 2007[1]

/ Due to conscription, but gays are not allowed to go to command school or serve in sensitive units.

Transsexuals
Transsexuals
allowed to change legal gender, but only after sex reassignment surgery.

Thailand Legal since 1956 + UN decl. sign.[1] (Proposed)[352]

Since 2005 Bans some anti-gay discrimination. No legal recognition.[353][354]

Vietnam Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)[1] + UN decl. sign.[1]

Sex-change recognized and legalized by the National Assembly after the Civil Code amended in November 24, 2015 and officially practised from 2017[355][356]. Before 2017, sex-change were only legalized for persons of congenital sex defects and unidentifiable sex.

Europe Main article: LGBT
LGBT
rights in Europe

List of countries or territories by LGBT
LGBT
rights in Europe

Tables:

view talk edit

European Union

Main article: LGBT
LGBT
rights in the European Union

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

European Union Legal in all 28 member states.[357] / Legal in 23/28 member states. / Legal in 13/28 member states. / Step-child adoption legal in 18/28 member states. Joint adoption legal in 14/28 member states. / Legal in 27/28 member states. Membership requires a state to ban anti-gay discrimination in employment. 3/28 states ban some anti-gay discrimination. 25/28 states ban all anti-gay discrimination. / Legal in 26/28 member states.[358]

Central Europe

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Austria Legal since 1971[1] + UN decl. sign. Registered partnership since 2010[359] / (Legal from January 2019)[360] Step-child adoption since 2013. Joint adoption since 2016.[361][362] (+automatic co-parent recognition)[363]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Gender change is legal.[287]

Croatia Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia) + UN decl. sign.[1] Life partnership since 2014[364] Constitutionally banned since a 2013 referendum.[365] / Partner-guardianship since 2014 (parental responsibility and a permanent next-of-kins relationship between a life partner and their partner's child which is registered in the child's birth certificate)

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49][366] Act on the elimination of discrimination bans all types discrimination based on both gender identity and gender expression. Gender change is regulated by special policy issued by Ministry of Health.[367]

Czech Republic Legal since 1962 (As part of Czechoslovakia) + UN decl. sign.[1] Registered partnership since 2006[368]

LGBT
LGBT
individuals in a registered partnership may adopt;[369] step-child adoption pending[370]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Legal recognition is granted and birth certificate is amended[not in citation given] after reassignment surgery (with mandatory sterilisation).[371]

Germany Legal in East Germany
Germany
since 1968 Legal in West Berlin
West Berlin
and West Germany
Germany
since 1969 + UN decl. sign.[1][372] Registered life partnership from 2001 to 2017 (existing partnerships and new foreign partnerships still recognised)[373][374] Legal since 2017.[375] Legal since 2017.[375]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[376][377] Gender change is legal.[378]

Hungary Legal since 1962 + UN decl. sign.[1] Registered partnership since 2009[379] [380][381] Constitutionally banned since 2012.[382][383] LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt; (Joint and step-child adoption pending)[381]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] No legal recognition.[371]

Liechtenstein Legal since 1989 + UN decl. sign.[1] Registered partnership since 2011[384]

LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt.[385] Has no military Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Gender change is not legal.[371]

Poland Legal + UN decl. sign.[1] Unregistered cohabitation since 2012; (Registered partnership proposed 2018) Constitutionally banned since 1997.[386] LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt, joint adoption forbidden.[387]

Bans some anti-gay discrimination[49]

Slovakia Legal since 1962 (As part of Czechoslovakia) + UN decl. sign.[1] (Proposed)[388] Constitutionally banned since 2014[389] LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt.[390]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[391][392] (Requires sterilisation for change[371])

Slovenia Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia) + UN decl. sign.[1] Registered partnership since 2006[393]; Unregistered cohabitation since 2017[394]

/ Step-child adoption since 2011[395]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Gender change is legal.[396]

Switzerland Legal nationwide since 1942 Legal in the cantons of Geneva (as part of France), Ticino, Valais, and Vaud
Vaud
since 1798 + UN decl. sign.[1][397] Registered partnership in Geneva (2001),[398] Zurich (2003),[399] Neuchâtel (2004)[400] and Fribourg (2004)[400] Nationwide since 2007[401] (Pending)[402] / Step-child adoption since 2018[403]

Bans some anti-gay discrimination. (Banning all anti-gay discrimination pending)[404] Legal documents can be issued based on a person's new gender identity. Sterilisation is technically required but has not been enforced since 2012. Registered Partnership can become Marriage between the new opposite-sex couple.[405]

Eastern Europe

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Abkhazia Legal after 1991

Armenia Legal since 2003 + UN decl. sign.[1]

/ Constitutionally banned since 2015.[406][407] Marriages performed abroad recognized since 2017.[408]

/ No explicit ban. However, LGBT
LGBT
persons have been reportedly discharged because of their sexual orientation.[409]

Artsakh Legal since 2000

Constitutionally banned since 2006[410]

Azerbaijan Legal since 2000[1]

[411]

(Requires sterilisation for change[371])

Belarus Legal since 1994[1]

Constitutionally banned since 1994[412]

/ Banned from military service during peacetime, but during wartime homosexuals are permitted to enlist as partially able.[413]

Georgia Legal since 2000 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Constitutionally banned since 2018

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[414] (Requires sterilisation for change[371])

Kazakhstan Legal since 1998[1]

[279]

Moldova Legal since 1995 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Constitutionally banned since 1994[415]

Bans some anti-gay discrimination[49] (Requires sterilisation for change[371])

Romania Legal since 1996 + UN decl. sign.[1] (Civil partnership proposed)[416] (Constitutional ban proposed) LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt.[417]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Legal recognition and birth certificates amended[not in citation given] after reassignment surgery (sterilisation mandatory)[371]

Russia Male
Male
legal since 1993 Female
Female
always legal[418][1] Illegal in practice in Chechnya, where homosexuals are abducted and sent to concentration camps based on their perceived sexual orientation. See Gay
Gay
concentration camps in Chechnya
Chechnya
for more information.

(Constitutional ban proposed)[419]

(Requires sterilisation for change[371])

South Ossetia Legal after 1991

Transnistria Legal since 2002[420]

(Proposed)[421]

Ukraine Legal since 1991 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Constitutionally banned since 1996[422] LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt.[423] / Policies depend on the regional commissioners.[424] Bans some anti-gay discrimination[425] (Requires sterilisation for change[371])

Northern Europe

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Denmark Legal since 1933 + UN decl. sign.[1] Registered partnership from 1989 to 2012 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[426] Legal since 2012[427][428] Step-child adoption since 1999. Joint adoption since 2010.[429] (+automatic co-parent recognition)[430]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Legal gender change and recognition possible without surgery or hormone therapy.[431]

Estonia Legal since 1992 + UN decl. sign.[1] Cohabitation agreement since 2016[432] / Marriage performed abroad recognized since 2016[433] / Step-child adoption since 2016. Couples where both partners are infertile may also jointly adopt non-biological children since 2016

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Gender reassignment legal.[371]

Faroe Islands (Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark) Legal since 1933 + UN decl. sign.[1] Marriage since 2017 Legal since 2017[434][435] (For married couples) ( Denmark
Denmark
responsible for defence) Bans some anti-gay discrimination[436][437] [438]

Finland (includes Åland Islands) Legal since 1971 + UN decl. sign.[1] Registered partnership from 2002 to 2017 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[439] Legal since 2017[440] Step-child adoption since 2009. Joint adoption since 2017.

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Legal change and recognition is possible only with sterilisation.[441]

Iceland Legal since 1940 (As part of Denmark) + UN decl. sign.[1] Registered cohabitation since 2006[442]; Registered partnership from 1996 to 2010 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[443] Legal since 2010[444][445] Legal since 2006[446] (+automatic co-parent recognition)[447] Has no military Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[448][371]

Latvia Legal since 1992 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Constitutionally banned since 2006[449] LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt.[450]

Bans some anti-gay discrimination[49] Documents are amended accordingly, no medical intervention required.[451]

Lithuania Legal since 1993 + UN decl. sign.[1] (Cohabitation agreement pending)[452] Constitutionally banned since 1992[453] Only married couples can adopt.[454]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Gender change is legal since 2003.[455]

Norway Legal since 1972 + UN decl. sign.[1] Registered partnership from 1993 to 2009 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[456] Legal since 2009[457][458] Legal since 2009[459] (+automatic co-parent recognition)[460]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[287]

Sweden Legal since 1944 + UN decl. sign.[1] Registered partnership from 1995 to 2009 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[461] Legal since 2009[462] Legal since 2003[463] (+automatic co-parent recognition)[464] [465] Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] [466]

Southern Europe

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Akrotiri and Dhekelia (Overseas territory of the United Kingdom) Legal since 2000 + UN decl. sign.[1][467][468] (for members of British forces)[469] (for members of British forces)[470]

UK responsible for defence Bans all[citation needed] anti-gay discrimination[471]

Albania Legal since 1995 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.[472] No legal recognition.[371]

Andorra Legal since 1990 + UN decl. sign.[1] Stable union since 2005[473]; Civil union
Civil union
since 2014.[84]

Legal since 2014[474][84][475] Has no military Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] No legal recognition.[371]

Bosnia and Herzegovina Legal since 1998 in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
since 2000 and Brcko District
Brcko District
since 2001 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Protected in hate crime legislation, but requires surgery for change.[476]

Bulgaria Legal since 1968 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Constitutionally banned since 1991[477] LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt.[478]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Forbids discrimination based on gender identity, but requires sterilisation for change[479][480]

Cyprus Legal since 1998 + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil cohabitation since 2015[481]

(The only EU country to ban LGBT
LGBT
people in the military, not enforced)[482] Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.[483] Gender change is not legal.

Gibraltar (Overseas territory of the United Kingdom) Legal since 1993 + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil partnership since 2014[484] Legal since 2016[485] Legal since 2014 UK responsible for defence Bans some anti-gay discrimination (Banning all anti-gay discrimination pending)[486] (Pending)[487]

Greece Legal since 1951 + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil union
Civil union
since 2015[488]

LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt.

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Legal since 2017.[489][490]

Italy Legal since 1890 + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil union
Civil union
since 2016[491][492] /(Pending)[493][494][495][496][497] / Stepchild adoption admitted by the Court of Cassation[498][499]. The Florence Court for Minors has recognised a foreign joint adoption by a gay couple[500]

Bans some anti-gay discrimination[49] Since 1982 legal recognition and documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[501] The Court of Cassation decided in 2015 that sterilisation is not required.[502]

Kosovo Legal since 1994 (as part of Yugoslavia)[1]

[503] LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt.[504][505]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[506] No legal recognition.[371]

Macedonia Legal since 1996 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Malta Legal since 1973 + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil union
Civil union
since 2014[507] Legal since 2017 Legal since 2014

Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[49] Conversion therapy
Conversion therapy
banned since 2016. Surgery not required since 2015.[508]

Montenegro Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia) + UN decl. sign.[1]

Constitutionally banned since 2007[509][510]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Forbids discrimination based on gender identity, but requires sterilisation for change[287][371]

Northern Cyprus Legal since 2014[291][292][1]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[291][292] Discrimination
Discrimination
or hate speech banned since 2014.[291][292] Unknown if gender change is legal.

Portugal Legal since 1983 + UN decl. sign.[1] De facto union since 2001[511][512] Legal since 2010[513] Legal since 2016 (+automatic co-parent recognition)[514][515][516]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[49] Since 2011. All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[517]

San Marino Legal since 1865 + UN decl. sign.[1] / Unregistered cohabitation since 2012 (Only for one entitlement); civil unions proposed[518][173]

Stepchild adoption proposed[173]

Bans some anti-gay discrimination No legal recognition.[287]

Serbia Legal from 1858, when nominally a vassal of Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
to 1860[519] and again since 1994 (As part of Yugoslavia) + UN decl. sign.[1] Proposed by new family law in 2017 Constitutionally banned since 2006[520] LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] No legal recognition.[521]

Spain Legal since 1979 + UN decl. sign.[1] De facto union in Catalonia
Catalonia
(1998),[45] Aragon
Aragon
(1999),[45] Navarre (2000),[45] Castile-La Mancha
Castile-La Mancha
(2000),[45] Valencia
Valencia
(2001),[522] the Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
(2001),[523] Madrid (2001),[45] Asturias
Asturias
(2002),[524] Castile and León
Castile and León
(2002),[525] Andalusia
Andalusia
(2002),[45] the Canary Islands (2003),[45] Extremadura
Extremadura
(2003),[45] Basque Country (2003),[45] Cantabria
Cantabria
(2005),[526] Galicia (2008)[527] and La Rioja (2010)[528] Legal since 2005[529] Legal since 2005[530] (+automatic co-parent recognition)[531]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[532]

Turkey Legal since 1858[1]

(Proposed)[295] (Proposed)[295] (Legal since 1988, Requires sterilisation for change[533])

Vatican City Legal since 1890 (As part of Italy)[1]

Has no military

Western Europe

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Belgium Legal nationwide since 1795 + UN decl. sign.[1] Legal cohabitation since 2000[534] Legal since 2003[535][536][537] Legal since 2006[538] (+automatic co-parent recognition)[539]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Since 2018, name changes does not require sex changes and (legal and physical) sex changes does not require sterilisation[540].

France Legal nationwide since 1791 Legal in Savoy
Savoy
since 1792 + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil solidarity pact
Civil solidarity pact
since 1999[541] Legal since 2013[542] Legal since 2013[543]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Since 2017, sex changes no longer requires sterilisation.[544]

Guernsey ( Crown dependency
Crown dependency
of the United Kingdom) Legal since 1983 + UN decl. sign.[545][546][1] / Civil Partnership performed in UK abroad recognised for succession purposes in inheritance and other matters respecting interests in property since 2012. Civil unions
Civil unions
performed abroad recognised since 2017 (does not apply in Sark)[547][548][549] Legal since 2017 (within Alderney and Guernsey
Guernsey
only)[550] Does not apply in Sark[not in citation given][citation needed] Legal since 2017[551] UK responsible for defence Bans some anti-gay discrimination[552] 2004 anti-discrimination law. Legal gender change since 2007: Case law only. Only allows a new birth certificate to be issued. Does not amend or remove records of existing birth certificates, extension to Alderney and Sark unclear, does extend to Herm.[552][553]

Ireland Male
Male
legal since 1993 Female
Female
always legal + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil partnership from 2011 to 2015. (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[554] Legal since 2015 after a constitutional referendum.[555] Joint adoption since 2017.[556][557][558][559][560] (+automatic co-parent recognition)[561]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[562][563][564] Gender Recognition Act 2015[565]

Isle of Man ( Crown dependency
Crown dependency
of the United Kingdom) Legal since 1992 + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil partnership since 2011[566] Legal since 2016[567] Legal since 2011 UK responsible for defence Bans some anti-gay discrimination[568] Transsexual
Transsexual
persons are allowed to change their legal gender and to have their new gender recognised as a result of the Gender Recognition Act 2009 (c.11).[569][570]

Jersey ( Crown dependency
Crown dependency
of the United Kingdom) Legal since 1990 + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil partnership since 2012[571] (Pending Royal Assent - est. 2018)[572][573] Legal since 2012 UK responsible for defence Bans all anti-gay discrimination[574] Gender Recognition (Jersey) Law
Law
2010[575]

Luxembourg Legal since 1795 + UN decl. sign.[1] Registered Partnership since 2004[576] Legal since 2015[577][578] Legal since 2015[579]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[580] (Requires sterilisation for change[371])

Monaco Legal since 1793 + UN decl. sign.[1] (Pending)[581]

France
France
responsible for defence Bans some anti-gay discrimination[1]

Netherlands Legal since 1811 + UN decl. sign.[1] Registered partnership since 1998[582] Legal since 2001[583] Legal since 2001[584] (+automatic co-parent recognition)[585]

Bans all anti-gay discrimination[586] [587]

United Kingdom Male
Male
legal in England
England
and Wales
Wales
since 1967, in Scotland
Scotland
since 1981, and in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
since 1982 Female
Female
always legal + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil partnership since 2005[588] Legal in England, Wales
Wales
and Scotland
Scotland
since 2014.[174][174] Not performed in Northern Ireland, recognised as Civil Partnership. Legal in England
England
and Wales
Wales
since 2005, in Scotland
Scotland
since 2009 and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
since 2013[589][590] (+automatic co-parent recognition)[591] Since 2000 Bans all anti-gay discrimination[592][1] Gender Recognition Act 2004.

Oceania Main article: LGBT
LGBT
rights in Oceania

List of countries or territories by LGBT
LGBT
rights in Oceania

Tables:

view talk edit

Australasia

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Australia (including territories of  Christmas Island,   Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
and  Norfolk Island) Legal in some states and territories since 1975, nationwide since 1997 + UN decl. sign.[1] Unregistered cohabitation nationally since 2009 Domestic partnership in Tasmania (2004),[593] South Australia (2007),[594] Victoria (2008),[595] New South Wales
Wales
(2010)[596] and Queensland (2012)[597]; Civil union
Civil union
in the Australian Capital Territory (2012)[598]

Legal since 2017[599] Legal in some states and territories since 2002, nationwide since 2018. (+automatic co-parent recognition) Since 1992[600] Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[601] [601] Under state/territory laws the ACT, SA does not require divorce and sexual reassignment surgery to change sex on documents; / However the NT, NSW, TAS, and WA requires both divorce and sexual reassignment surgery to change sex on documents.[602][603] Bills are pending in QLD and VIC to repeal the "trans* forced divorce" laws, but maintain the sexual reassignment surgery requirement. Under federal law, 4/8 jurisdictions of Australia
Australia
that have the trans* forced divorce laws expire on 9 December, 2018.

New Zealand Legal since 1986 + UN decl. sign.[1] Unregistered cohabitation since 2002; Civil union
Civil union
since 2005. Legal since 2013[604] Legal since 2013[604] (+automatic co-parent recognition) Since 1993 Bans all anti-gay discrimination Covered under the "sex discrimination" provision of the Human Rights Act 1993 since 2006.

Melanesia

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Fiji Legal since 2010 + UN decl. sign.[605][1]

Bans some anti-gay discrimination[1]

New Caledonia (overseas collectivity of France) Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the collectivity) + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil solidarity pact
Civil solidarity pact
since 2009 Legal since 2013 Legal since 2013 French responsibility Bans all anti-gay discrimination Since 2017, gender changes do not require sterilisation.

Papua New Guinea Male
Male
illegal Penalty: 3 to 14 years imprisonment (Not enforced) Female
Female
always legal[1]

Solomon Islands Illegal Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment.[1]

Has no military The latest draft of the Constitution (expected to factually replace the existing Constitution by late 2016) explicitly allows for discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation, and also allows for the advocacy of hatred (and incitement to cause harm) on the basis of sexual orientation.[606]

Vanuatu Legal since 2007 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Bans some anti-gay discrimination.

Micronesia

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

Guam (Unincorporated territory of the United States) Legal since 1978 Since 2015 Legal since 2015 Legal since 2002 USA responsible for defense.[154][157] Bans some anti-gay discrimination. The US hate crime laws apply to all US external territories as well Bans some discrimination relating to gender identity or expression. The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well

Federated States of Micronesia Legal + UN decl. sign.[1]

Has no military

Kiribati Male
Male
illegal Penalty: 5-14 years imprisonment Female
Female
legal[1]

Has no military Bans some anti-gay discrimination.

Marshall Islands Legal since 2005 + UN decl. sign.[1]

Has no military

Nauru Legal since 2016[607][608] + UN decl. sign.

Has no military

Northern Mariana Islands (Unincorporated territory of the United States) Legal since 1983 Since 2015 Legal since 2015 Legal since 2015 USA responsible for defense.[154][157] The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well

Palau Legal since 2014 + UN decl. sign.[609]

Constitutional ban since 2008

Has no military

United States
United States
Minor Outlying Islands (Unincorporated organized territory of the United States) Legal

Legal Legal USA responsible for defense.[154][157]

Polynesia

LGBT
LGBT
rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression

American Samoa (Unincorporated territory of the United States)[610] Legal since 1980

[611]

USA responsible for defense.[154][157] The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well

Easter Island ( Special
Special
territory of Chile) Legal since 1999 ( Age of consent
Age of consent
discrepancy) + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil union
Civil union
since 2015.

LGBT
LGBT
individuals may adopt (Pending) Chile
Chile
responsible for defence. Bans all anti-gay discrimination Since 2007.

Cook Islands (Part of the Realm of New Zealand) Male
Male
illegal Penalty: 5-14 years imprisonment (Not enforced) pending new crimes bill which will fully decriminalise [612] Female legal + UN decl. sign.[1]

New Zealand's responsibility Bans some anti-gay discrimination[613]

French Polynesia ( Overseas collectivity
Overseas collectivity
of France) Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the collectivity) + UN decl. sign.[1] Since 2013 Legal since 2013 Legal since 2013 French responsibility Bans all anti-gay discrimination Since 2017, gender changes do not require sterilisation.

Niue (Part of the Realm of New Zealand) Legal since 2007 + UN decl. sign.[1]

New Zealand's responsibility

Pitcairn Islands (Overseas territory of the United Kingdom) Legal since 2001 + UN decl. sign.[1] Since 2015 Legal since 2015[614] Legal since 2015[615] UK responsible for defence Constitutional ban on discrimination.[616]

Samoa Male
Male
illegal Penalty: 5-7 years imprisonment (Not enforced) Female
Female
always legal + UN decl. sign.[1]

Has no military Bans some anti-gay discrimination[617] Samoa
Samoa
has a large transgender or "third-gender" community called the Fa'afafine. This is a recognized part of traditional Samoan customs, and usually refers to trans women.

Tokelau (Part of the Realm of New Zealand) Legal since 2007 + UN decl. sign.[1]

New Zealand's responsibility

Tonga Male
Male
illegal Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment and whipping (Not enforced) Female
Female
always legal[1]

Tuvalu Male
Male
illegal Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment Female
Female
legal + UN decl. sign.[1]

Has no military

United States
United States
Minor Outlying Islands (Unincorporated organized territory of the United States) Legal

Legal Legal USA responsible for defense.[154][157]

Wallis and Futuna ( Overseas collectivity
Overseas collectivity
of France) Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the collectivity) + UN decl. sign.[1] Civil solidarity pact
Civil solidarity pact
since 2009 Legal since 2013 Legal since 2013 French responsibility Bans all anti-gay discrimination Since 2017, gender changes do not require sterilisation.

See also

LGBT
LGBT
portal Human rights
Human rights
portal Geography portal

Buggery Civil union Heterosexism Homophobia Intersex
Intersex
human rights Movements for civil rights Transphobia List of human rights articles by country List of LGBT
LGBT
rights articles by region List of transgender-rights organizations LGBT
LGBT
people in prison Religion and homosexuality Same-sex marriage Sexual revolution Socialism and LGBT
LGBT
rights Societal attitudes toward homosexuality Status of same-sex marriage Yogyakarta Principles

Notes

^ Excluding Aruba, Curaçao
Curaçao
and Sint Maarten ^ Excluding Niue, Tokelau
Tokelau
and the Cook Islands ^ Excluding Northern Ireland, some of the Crown dependencies and some of the British Overseas Territories. ^ Excluding most Native American tribes. ( Same-sex marriage
Same-sex marriage
is legal in at least 24 of them). Application to American Samoa
American Samoa
unclear. ^ Countries with same-sex marriage recognized nationwide are: Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands,[a] New Zealand,[b] Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom,[c] the United States
United States
[d] and Uruguay. ^ These four sub-national jurisdictions are: the provinces of Aceh
Aceh
and South Sumatra
South Sumatra
(Indonesia), the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
(New Zealand) and Gaza (Palestine).

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Mary C. Hurley (31 May 2007). "Sexual Orientation and Legal Rights". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved 21 January 2010.  Jennifer A. Cooper (31 December 2001). "Opinion on Common-Law Relationships". Government of Manitoba. Retrieved 21 January 2010.  " Gay
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2006, c.103" (PDF). New Jersey
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people 'can't serve' in US military". bbc.com. July 26, 2017.  ^ "Judge rules transgender people can enlist in military, denying Trump bid to delay deadline". The Washington Post. December 11, 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Beginning today, transgender individuals can join the US military". ABC News. January 1, 2018.  ^ Geidner, Chris (23 April 2012). " Transgender
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Bans Gay
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Parliament approves civil unions for same-sex couples".  ^ a b c "Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands" (in Dutch). Government of the Netherlands. 10 October 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2010.  ^ The Virgin Islands Constitution Order 2007, sections 9 and 26. ^ Waaldijk, Kees. "Major legal consequences of marriage, cohabitation and registered partnership for different-sex and same-sex partners in the Netherlands" (PDF). INED. Retrieved October 27, 2013.  ^ " Gay
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Marriage Goes Dutch". CBS News. Associated Press. 1 April 2001. Retrieved 21 January 2010.  ^ "Burgerlijk Wetboek, Boek 1 (Civil Code, Book 1)". Government of the Netherlands. Retrieved 19 April 2013.  ^ Veiligheid, Ministerie van Justitie en. "Prohibition of discrimination". www.government.nl.  ^ "The Netherlands
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