LDPR (political party)
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LDPR — Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (russian: ЛДПР — Либерально-демократическая партия России, LDPR — Liberal'no-demokraticheskaya partiya Rossii) is a
right-wing populist Right-wing populism, also called national populism and right-wing nationalism, is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of beliefs or philosophies attributed to a person or group of persons, especially as held for reasons that are no ...
political party in Russia. It succeeded the
Liberal Democratic Party of the Soviet Union The Liberal Democratic Party of the Soviet Union (LDPSU; russian: Либерально-демократическая партия Советского Союза (ЛДПСС), ''Liberal'no-demokraticheskaya Partiya sovetskogo Soyuza'' (''LDPSS'') ...
(LDPSU) in Russia after the
dissolution of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal political, ...
. The party has been led by
Vladimir Zhirinovsky Vladimir Volfovich Zhirinovsky (russian: Владимир Вольфович Жириновский, ''né'' Eidelstein, Эйдельштейн; born 25 April 1946) is a Russian politician and leader of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia. H ...

Vladimir Zhirinovsky
since its inception. Opposing both
communism Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

communism
and Neoliberalism, neoliberal capitalism of the 1990s but promoting monarchism and the restoration of the House of Romanov, Romanov dynasty, albeit in Constitutional monarchy, constitutional form, the party scored a major success in the 1993 Russian legislative election, 1993 Duma elections with almost 23% of the vote, giving it 64 seats of the 450 seats in the State Duma. In the 2021 Russian legislative election, 2021 elections, the party received 7.55% of the vote, giving it 21 seats. Despite the party's name, it is frequently described as "neither liberal nor democratic nor a party". The LDPR is centred around Zhirinovsky, and is often described as right-wing populism, populist, Russian nationalism, nationalist, or ultranationalism, ultranationalist. It has been described as adhering to statism and authoritarianism,Hans-Georg Betz, ''Radical right-wing populism in Western Europe'' (1994). Palgrave Macmillan: p. 23. and has also been described as fascist, though this label has been disputed. The party, part of the "non-system opposition, systemic opposition", is considered to be traditionally loyal to the Kremlin.


History


Creation


Liberal Democratic Party of the Soviet Union

An effectively multi-party system emerged in the Soviet Union in the late 1980s in wake of Mikhail Gorbachev's Perestroika, reforms. A formal law for this purpose was introduced in October 1990. In April 1991, the
Liberal Democratic Party of the Soviet Union The Liberal Democratic Party of the Soviet Union (LDPSU; russian: Либерально-демократическая партия Советского Союза (ЛДПСС), ''Liberal'no-demokraticheskaya Partiya sovetskogo Soyuza'' (''LDPSS'') ...
(LDPSU) became the second officially registered political party in the country. Former KGB General Philipp Bobkov has stated that "in line with Sergei Zubatov, Zubatov's ideas," the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union "proposed creating a pseudo-party controlled by the KGB" to direct the interests and sentiments of certain social groups, however he said that he was against the idea. Former Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Politburo member Alexander Yakovlev (Russian politician), Alexander Yakovlev described how KGB director Vladimir Kryuchkov proposed the creation of the party with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev at a meeting. He also stated that the Central Committee took over which led to the creation of the Liberal Democratic Party. Yakovlev called the creation of the party a joint effort of the Central Committee and the KGB. In the early 1990s, Mayor of St Petersburg Anatoly Sobchak claimed that party leader
Vladimir Zhirinovsky Vladimir Volfovich Zhirinovsky (russian: Владимир Вольфович Жириновский, ''né'' Eidelstein, Эйдельштейн; born 25 April 1946) is a Russian politician and leader of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia. H ...

Vladimir Zhirinovsky
was a "reserve" KGB captain, and a number of key supporters in the LDPR leadership quit the party, accusing Zhirinovsky of KGB ties. The outspoken leader of the party,
Vladimir Zhirinovsky Vladimir Volfovich Zhirinovsky (russian: Владимир Вольфович Жириновский, ''né'' Eidelstein, Эйдельштейн; born 25 April 1946) is a Russian politician and leader of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia. H ...

Vladimir Zhirinovsky
, an effective media performer, gained 8% of votes during the 1991 Russian presidential election, 1991 presidential elections. He also supported the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, August 1991 coup attempt.


Liberal Democratic Party of Russia

In 1992, the LDPSU broke apart into its regional offsprings and the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR) was created as its successor in Russia.


1993–2000

In the 1993 Russian legislative election, 1993 Duma elections, the pro-reform party supporting List of presidents of Russia, President Boris Yeltsin, Democratic Choice of Russia, Russia's Choice, received only 15% of the vote and the new Communist Party of the Russian Federation only 12.4%. The LDPR emerged as the winner with 22.9% of the popular vote. In effect, the Russian population was divided to those who supported Yeltsin's reforms and to those who did not. It is regarded that the popularity of Zhirinovsky and his party arose from the electorate's dissatisfaction with Yeltsin and their desire for a non-communist solution. Zhirinovsky is credited with having successfully identified the problems of ordinary Russians and offering simple remedies to solve them. For example, he has suggested that all leaders of organized crime should be shot and all Chechens deported from Russia. Zhirinovsky also called for territorial expansion of Russia. Many of Zhirinovsky's views are highly controversial and the LDPR's success in the early 1990s shocked observers both inside and outside Russia. The State Duma, Duma elected in 1993 was as interim solution and its mandate expired in 1995. During the two years, Zhirinovsky's popularity waned and his party's support was halved in the 1995 Russian legislative election, 1995 elections (11.2%). The Communists emerged as the winners, with 22.3% of the vote. In the 1996 Russian presidential election, presidential elections of 1996, the LDPR has nominated Vladimir Zhirinovsky as a candidate. Zhirinovsky gained 5.7% of the votes in the first round. In 1999, the party participated in the 1999 Russian legislative election, elections as a "Bloc of Zhirinovsky" since the Central Election Commission of the Russian Federation, Central Election Commission initially refused to register in the election lists of LDPR, which received 6.0% of the votes. In the 3rd State Duma, Zhirinovsky took up the post of List of Deputy Chairmen of the State Duma, Vice Chairman and the post of the head of fraction occupied by his son Igor Lebedev (politician), Igor Lebedev.


2000–2010

In the 2000 Russian presidential election, presidential election of 2000, the party has again put forward Vladimir Zhirinovsky, who won 2.7% of votes. In the 2003 Russian legislative election, parliamentary elections of 2003, the party won 11.5% of the votes and received 36 seats. In the 2004 Russian presidential election, 2004 presidential election, the LDPR nominated Oleg Malyshkin. The party leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky was hoping to take the post of Prime Minister of Russia, Prime Minister in case of Malyshkin's victory on elections. In the end, Malyshkin scored 2% of votes, having lost the election. In the latest 2007 Russian legislative election, legislative elections in 2007, the LDPR received 5,660,823 votes (8.14%) and received 40 seats in the State Duma. In the 2008 Russian presidential election, 2008 presidential election, Zhirinovsky was re-nominated as a candidate and scored 9.4% of the vote.


2010–present

In the 2011 Russian legislative election, parliamentary elections of 2011, the party scored 11.7% of the vote and won 56 seats. In the 6th State Duma, Vladimir Zhirinovsky returned to the post of head of the LDPR faction and his son Igor Lebedev has held the position of Vice Chairman of the State Duma. In these elections the LDPR gained over one-fifth of votes in Russian Far East (e. g. Primorsky Krai). In the 2012 Russian presidential election, presidential elections 2012, the party again put forward by Zhirinovsky, whose campaign slogan for 2012 was "Vote Zhirinovsky, or things will get worse". Proshka, a donkey owned by Zhirinovsky, became prominent during the presidential campaign when he was filmed in an Vladimir Zhirinovsky's donkey video, election advertisement video. On the last episode of debates with Mikhail Prokhorov just before the elections, Zhirinovsky produced a scandal by calling those Russian celebrities which supported Prokhorov, including a pop-diva and a veteran of Russian pop scene Alla Pugacheva, "prostitutes" ("I thought you are an artful person, politician, cunning man, but you are just a clown and a psycho", replied Pugacheva. "I am what I am. And such is my charm", replied Zhirinovsky). As a result, Zhirinovsky gained 6.2% of the votes. In the 2016 Russian legislative election, parliamentary elections in 2016, the party improved its result compared to the previous elections. The LDPR surpassed the Centre-left politics, center-left party A Just Russia, becoming the third largest party in the State Duma. The LDPR won 39 seats, gaining 13.1% of the vote, nearly reaching the second placed Communist Party, which won 13.3% of votes and 42 seats. Also, the party gained single-member constituencies in Russian Far East (notably in Khabarovsk Krai). In 2015, Zhirinovsky expressed a desire to participate in the 2018 Russian presidential election, presidential elections in 2018. In the past, key figures in the LDPR other than Zhirinovsky had been discussed as potential presidential candidates, such as Zhirinovsky's son Igor Lebedev as well as his close associates Mikhail Degtyarev, Yaroslav Nilov and Alexei Didenko. After the parliamentary elections of 2016, Zhirinovsky said he would run himself. On 9 July 2020, the popular governor of the Khabarovsk Krai and member of the LDPR, Sergei Furgal, who defeated the candidate of Putin's United Russia party in elections two years previously, was arrested and flown to Moscow on charges of involvement in the murders of several businessmen in 2004 and 2005. He denied the allegations. Every day since June 11, 2020 Khabarovsk Krai protests, mass protests have been held in the Khabarovsk Krai in support of Furgal. On 20 July, President Vladimir Putin dismissed Sergei Furgal and appointed Moscow-based politician Mikhail Degtyarev, who is also a member of the LDPR, as acting governor. Several regional lawmakers in Khabarovsk opted to leave the LDPR in protest against Furgal's dismissal. The protests included chants of "shame on LDPR".


Political positions

The LDPR seeks "a revival of Russia as a great power". It opposes both the Ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Communism of the Soviet Union and neoliberal capitalism. It prefers a mixed economy with private ownership, but with a strong management role reserved for the state. In foreign policy, the party places a strong emphasis on "Feliks Koneczny#Types of civilizations, according to Koneczny, civilizations". It has supported the restoration of Russia with its "natural borders" (which the party believes include Transcaucasia, Central Asia, Belarus and Ukraine). The LDPR regards the United States and NATO as Russia's main external threats. The party has harshly criticised the Human rights in Estonia, discrimination against ethnic Russians in the Baltic states and demanded that they should be given Citizenship of Russia, Russian citizenship and protected against discriminatory legislation. The LDPR is also against corruption and enlargement of the European Union, identifying as a Eurosceptic party, instead preferring pan-Slavism.IBP USA ''Russia Parliament Encyclopedic Directory Strategic Information and Contacts'' p. 259. The LDPR also identify as Russian imperialism, Russian imperialists both in their support for a restored Russian Empire and support for imperialism. Professor Henry E. Hale lists the party's main policy stands as Russian nationalism, nationalism and a focus in law and order (politics), law and order. Although it often uses radical opposition rhetoric, the LDPR frequently votes for government proposals. This has led to speculation that the party receives funding from the Moscow Kremlin, Kremlin. Political parties in Russia that had broken the 3% voting barrier and entered the parliament (State Duma) are officially financed by government, according to federal law. As such, all opposition parties in the State Duma are largely funded by the federal budget (e. g. in 2018, LDPR received 99.7% of its funding from the government, Communist Party of the Russian Federation, CPRF 90%, and A Just Russia 81%).Summary Financial Reports of Political Parties for 2018 - Central Election Commission of the Russian Federation
/ref> Zhirinovsky has stated that he wants to see a monarch titled "supreme ruler" lead Russia and has promised to shoot his political opponents if elected president.


Structure and membership

The party's organization is almost entirely centered on its leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky. The party is in alliance with several parties in the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics, including Armenia, Belarus, Estonia and Ukraine. In 2003, the party claimed 600,000 members and had issued 475,000 party cards. According to a 2008 survey by Colton, Hale and McFaul, 4% of the Russian population are loyalists of the party.


Electoral results


Presidential


State Duma


See also

* Liberal Democratic Party of Belarus * Liberal Democratic Party of Pridnestrovie * List of Liberal Democratic Party of Russia deputies in the State Duma * Leader (political party), Miflaga Mitkademet Liberalit Demokratit


References


External links


Official Website

Political Program LDPR

Zhirinovsky's 2007 political manifesto

Non-official Website
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