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Lębork
Lębork
([ˈlɛmbɔrk]; Kashubian: Lãbòrg; German:  Lauenburg in Pommern (help·info)) is a town of 37,000 people on the Łeba and Okalica rivers in the Gdańsk Pomerania
Gdańsk Pomerania
region in northwestern Poland. Lębork
Lębork
is also the capital of Lębork County
Lębork County
in Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999, formerly the Słupsk Voivodeship
Słupsk Voivodeship
(1975–1998) and Gdańsk Voivodeship
Gdańsk Voivodeship
(1945-1975).

Contents

1 History 2 Notable residents 3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Demographics 5 International relations

5.1 Twin towns and sister cities

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

History[edit]

14th century Ordensburg
Ordensburg
castle built by the Teutonic Knights

The town was founded on the site of a previous Polish settlement named Łebno, later Germanised to Lewin and then Lewinburg by the invading Teutonic Knights[1][2] In 1341 Dietrich von Altenburg, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, granted 100 Hufen (similar to hides) to Rutcher von Emmerich for the foundation of a town named Lewinburg (Lauenburg) with Kulm rights,[3] presumably to secure the territory around Stolp (Słupsk).[4] East of the original city the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
completed the Ordensburg
Ordensburg
castle in 1363. The castle was partly razed after the 1410 Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
(Tannenberg) in 1410. In 1440 the town joined the Prussian Confederation. The population of Lauenburg
Lauenburg
was composed in large part of Kashubians, later Slovincians. In 1454 after the outbreak of the Thirteen Years' War, troops from Danzig (Gdańsk) occupied Lauenburg
Lauenburg
and Bütow (Bytów); the following year they were turned over to Eric II, Duke of Pomerania, to form an alliance.[3] Because Lauenburg
Lauenburg
remained loyal to the Prussian Confederation and not the Teutonic Order, King Casimir IV Jagiellon
Casimir IV Jagiellon
of Poland
Poland
granted the town three nearby villages.[3] Troops from the Polish-allied city of Gdańsk
Gdańsk
(Danzig) reoccupied Lauenburg
Lauenburg
in 1459 when the mayor, Lorenz Senftopf, entered into negotiations with the Teutonic Knights. Eric replaced the Danzigers with Teutonic Knights the following year, however, when he switched sides during the war. Although the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
were ultimately defeated in the Thirteen Years' War, Lauenburg
Lauenburg
and Bütow passed to Eric and his Pomeranian successors as the Lauenburg and Bütow Land
Lauenburg and Bütow Land
according to the 1466 Second Peace of Thorn.

14th century Church of St. James

Part of the medieval city walls

The Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
was introduced in Lauenburg
Lauenburg
soon after 1519.[3] The territory passed to King Władysław IV Vasa of Poland after the 1637 death of Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania. The Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
was largely ineffective in the Lutheran town. Lauenburg
Lauenburg
was occupied by Swedes in the Northern Wars. To gain an ally against Sweden during The Deluge, King John II Casimir of Poland
Poland
gave the Lauenburg and Bütow Land
Lauenburg and Bütow Land
to Margrave Frederick William of Brandenburg-Prussia
Brandenburg-Prussia
as a hereditary fiefdom in the 1657 Treaty of Bromberg. The Swedish troops burnt Lauenburg
Lauenburg
before their retreat in 1658, destroying seventy houses and the town hall.[3] Frederick William released the town from tax duties for five years to aid in its rebuilding. Lauenburg
Lauenburg
suffered a second fire in 1682. Lauenburg
Lauenburg
became a territory of the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
in 1701. The 1773 Treaty of Warsaw granted full sovereignty over the territory to Prussia after the First Partition of Poland. The Lauenburg
Lauenburg
and Bütow Land, renamed Lauenburg-Bütowscher Kreis, was first included in West Prussia, but was transferred to Prussian Pomerania
Pomerania
in 1777. In 1816 after the Napoleonic Wars, Lauenburg
Lauenburg
was included in Regierungsbezirk Köslin within the Province of Pomerania. When the Lauenburg-Bütowscher Kreis was divided in 1846, Lauenburg became the capital of Landkreis Lauenburg
Lauenburg
i. Pom., a district of Prussia. Lauenburg
Lauenburg
began to develop as an industrial center after its 1852 connection to the Prussian Eastern Railway
Prussian Eastern Railway
to Danzig and Stettin (Szczecin).[3] In 1866, the Masonic Lodge was formed, whose membership was in the main made up of the elite entrepreneurial class. The building survives to this day. The town became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the unification of Germany. After most of former West Prussia
West Prussia
was granted to the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
as the Polish Corridor after World War I, many German migrants resettled in and around Lauenburg.[5] Under the leadership of Willy Fruggel a Hochschule for teacher education was established in the city in 1933.[5] The football club SV Sturm Lauenburg
Lauenburg
played within Gauliga Pommern. During World War II, Lauenburg
Lauenburg
was the location of the Nazi concentration camp Lauenburg, a subcamp of Stutthof. The city was occupied without resistance by the Soviet Red Army
Red Army
on 10 March 1945. Most of the Altstadt
Altstadt
burned in the subsequent Soviet rampage, although the Gothic Church of St. James and the Teutonic castle survived.[5] During this time about 600 people committed suicide.[6] As Lębork, the town was placed under Polish administration in accordance with the post-war Potsdam Agreement. Germans
Germans
remaining in the town were either immediately expelled or were allowed to voluntarily leave in the 1950s, and were replaced with Poles, some of them from Poland's eastern lands annexed after the war by the Soviet Union. Railway stations in the city include Lębork
Lębork
and Lębork
Lębork
Nowy Świat. Notable residents[edit]

Staromiejska Street, one of the most prominent promenades in the town

Leopold Jacoby (1840–95), lyricist Paul Gottlieb Nipkow
Paul Gottlieb Nipkow
(1860–1940), television pioneer Josef Horovitz (1874–1931), orientalist Gerhard Obuch (1884–1960), politician and lawyer Edward Sapir
Edward Sapir
(1884–1939), ethnologist and linguist Erich von dem Bach
Erich von dem Bach
(1899–1972), SS officer Ewa Paradies
Ewa Paradies
(1920–46), concentration camp overseer Jürgen Echternach
Jürgen Echternach
(1937–2006),politician (CDU member) Hilbert Meyer (born 1941), scientist, professor in Oldenburg Peter Roehr
Peter Roehr
(1944–68), artist

Honorary citizen: Chancellor Otto Fürst von Bismarck
Otto Fürst von Bismarck
since 1874 (Note: Bismarck was created Duke of Lauenburg
Duke of Lauenburg
in 1890 after his resignation as Chancellor of the German Empire, but this title refers to the city of Lauenburg/Elbe
Lauenburg/Elbe
in present-day Germany, and should not be confused with Lębork/ Lauenburg
Lauenburg
in Pomerania.)

Anna Fotyga
Anna Fotyga
(born 1957), politician Eugeniusz Geno Malkowski
Eugeniusz Geno Malkowski
(1942–2016), artist and painter Maciej Gołąb (born 1952), professor of musicology

Geography[edit] Climate[edit] The climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[7] Demographics[edit] Before the end of World War II
World War II
the (then German) population of Lauenburg
Lauenburg
was predominantly composed of Protestants.

Number of inhabitants in years

1782: 1,482, incl. 36 Jews.[8] 1794: 1,432, incl. 29 Jews.[8] 1812: 1,548, incl. 48 Catholics and 47 Jews[8] 1831: 2,621, incl. 181 Catholics and 147 Jews.[8] 1843: 3,779, incl. 222 Catholics and 262 Jews.[8] 1861: 5,310, incl. 305 Catholics and 259 Jews.[8] 1900: 10,442, incl. 1,151 Catholics and 276 Jews.[9] 1910: 13,916 1925: 17,161, incl. 1,850 Catholics, 290 Jews and 300 others.[10] 1933: 18,962 1939: 19,108[5] 1960: 21,200 1970: 25,100 1975: 26,600 1980: 29,200 1990: 34,300 1995: 36,300 1998: 37,000 2004: 35,154 2005: 35,000

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Lębork
Lębork
is twinned with:

Lauenburg, Germany Dudelange, Luxembourg Manom, France

See also[edit]

Lauenburg
Lauenburg
and Bütow Land

Notes[edit]

^ Slavia occidentalis: Tomy 46–47 1991, page 371. ^ Słownik etymologiczny miast i gmin PRL Stanisław Rospond – 1984 ^ a b c d e f Schmidt, 229 ^ Schmidt, p. 228 ^ a b c d Schmidt, 230 ^ Lakotta, Beate (2005-03-05). "Tief vergraben, nicht dran rühren" (in German). SPON. Retrieved 2010-08-16.  ^ Climate Summary for Lebork, Poland ^ a b c d e f Kratz, p. 250 ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. 6th edition, vol. 12, Leipzig and Vienna 1908, p. 241 (in German). ^ Der Große Brockhaus. 15th edition, vol. 11, Leipzig 1932, p. 170 (in German).

References[edit]

Schmidt, Roderich (1996). Handbuch der historischen Stätten Deutschlands, Band 12, Mecklenburg/Pommern. Stuttgart: Alfred Kröner Verlag. p. 388. ISBN 3-520-31501-7.  (in German) Gustav Kratz: Die Städte der Provinz Pommern – Abriss ihrer Geschichte, zumeist nach Urkunden (The towns of the Province of Pomerania
Pomerania
– Sketch of their history, mostly according to historical records). Berlin 1865 (reprinted in 2010 by Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1-161-12969-3), pp. 247–251 (in German, online)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lębork.

Municipal website Lębork
Lębork
dawniej i dziś (zdjęcia) reconstruction of the old city

v t e

Gminas of Lębork
Lębork
County

Urban gminas

Lębork
Lębork
(seat) Łeba

Rural gminas

Gmina
Gmina
Cewice Gmina
Gmina
Nowa Wieś Lęborska Gmina
Gmina
Wicko

v t e

Geography of Pomerania

Regions

Current

Western Pomerania West Pomeranian Voivodeship Pomerelia

Kashubia Pomorskie

Pomerania
Pomerania
euroregion

Former

Farther Pomerania Circipania Lauenburg
Lauenburg
and Bütow Land Lands of Schlawe and Stolp

Administration

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern West Pomeranian Voivodeship Pomeranian Voivodeship Złotów County

Towns

Lists

List of towns in Vorpommern List of towns in Farther Pomerania List of placenames in the Province of Pomerania

A–H I–P Q–Z

Largest

>100,000

Tricity

Gdańsk Gdynia Sopot

Szczecin Koszalin

>50,000

Słupsk Stargard Stralsund Greifswald

Islands

Greifswalder Oie Hiddensee Rügen Ummanz Usedom Vilm Wolin

Peninsulae

Fischland-Darß-Zingst Jasmund Hela Mönchgut Wittow

Rivers

Dziwna Grabowa Ina Łeba Oder Parsęta Peene Peenestrom Randow Recknitz Rega Ryck Słupia Świna Tollense Trebel Uecker Vistula Wieprza

Lakes

Lake Dąbie Lake Gardno Kummerower See Lake Łebsko Lake Miedwie

Bays, lagoons

Bay of Gdańsk Bay of Greifswald Bay of Pomerania Szczecin
Szczecin
Lagoon

National parks

Western Pomerania
Pomerania
Lagoon Area National Park Jasmund
Jasmund
National Park Lower Oder
Oder
Valley National Park Wolin
Wolin
National Park Słowiński National Park

v t e

History of Pomerania

10,000 BC – 600 AD 600–1100 1100–1300 1300–1500 1500–1806 1806–1933 1933–1945 1945–present

Administrative

Western Pomerania Farther Pomerania (before 1945)

Billung March Northern March Principality of Rügen Duchy of Pomerania

House of Pomerania List of Dukes Cammin Gützkow Schlawe-Stolp Lauenburg-Bütow Partitions Pomerania-Stolp

Swedish Pomerania Brandenburgian Pomerania
Pomerania
(Draheim) Province of Pomerania
Pomerania
1815–1945

Neumark Köslin Region Stettin Region Stralsund
Stralsund
Region Posen- West Prussia
West Prussia
Region List of placenames

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Zachodniopomorskie (after 1945)

Szczecin
Szczecin
Voivodeship Koszalin
Koszalin
Voivodeship Słupsk
Słupsk
Voivodeship West Pomeranian Voivodeship

Pomerelia
Pomerelia
(Kashubia)

Medieval duchies (Samborides) State of the Teutonic Order Royal Prussia
Royal Prussia
( Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
1466–1772) Free City of Danzig
Free City of Danzig
1807–1814 West Prussia Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
1919–1939 (Polish Corridor) Free City of Danzig
Free City of Danzig
1920–1939 Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia Pomeranian Voivodeship

Ecclesiastical

Roman Catholic

Historical

Conversion of Pomerania Diocese of Kolberg (Congress of Gniezno) Diocese of Cammin Diocese of Culm Diocese of Roskilde Diocese of Włocławek (Leslau) Prelature of Schneidemühl

Extant

Archdiocese of Berlin Archdiocese of Szczecin-Kamień Diocese of Koszalin-Kołobrzeg Diocese of Pelplin

Protestant

Protestant Reformation Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland Pentecostal Church in Poland Evangelical State Church in Prussia
Evangelical State Church in Prussia
(extinct) Pomeranian Evangelical Church
Pomeranian Evangelical Church
(extinct)

Demography

Archaeological cultures

Hamburg Maglemosian Ertebølle-Ellerbek Linear Pottery Funnelbeaker Havelland Corded Ware Comb Ceramic Nordic Bronze Age Lusatian Jastorf Pomeranian Oksywie Wielbark Gustow Dębczyn (Denzin)

Peoples

Gepids Goths Lemovii Rugii Vidivarii Vistula
Vistula
Veneti Slavic Pomeranians Prissani Rani Ukrani Veleti Lutici Velunzani German Pomeranians Kashubians Poles Slovincians

Major demographic events

Migration Period Ostsiedlung WWII flight and expulsion of Germans Post-WWII settlement of Poles
Poles
and Ukrainians

Languages and dialects

West Germanic

Low German

Low Prussian Central Pomeranian Mecklenburgisch-Vorpommersch East Pomeranian West Pomeranian

Standard German

West Slavic

Polabian Polish Pomeranian

Kashubian Slovincian

Treaties

1200–1500

Kremmen (1236) Landin (1250) Kępno (1282) Soldin (1309) Templin (1317) Stralsund
Stralsund
(1354) Stralsund
Stralsund
(1370) Thorn (1411) Soldin (1466) Thorn (1466) Prenzlau (1448 / 1472 / 1479) Pyritz (1493)

1500–1700

Grimnitz (1529) Stettin (1570) Franzburg (1627) Stettin (1630) Westphalia (1648) Stettin (1653) Labiau (1656) Wehlau and Bromberg (1657) Oliva (1660) Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1679) Lund (1679)

1700–present

Stockholm (1719 / 1720) Frederiksborg (1720) Kiel (1814) Vienna (1815) Versailles (1919) Potsdam (1945)

Coordinates: 54°33′N 17°45′E / 54.550°N 17.750°E / 54

.