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Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
(/ˈkwɑːn.zə/) is a celebration held in the United States and in other nations of the African diaspora
African diaspora
in the Americas and lasts a week. The celebration honors African heritage in African-American culture and is observed from December 26 to January 1, culminating in a feast and gift-giving.[1] Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
has seven core principles (Nguzo Saba). It was created by Maulana Karenga
Maulana Karenga
and was first celebrated in 1966–67.

Contents

1 History and etymology 2 Principles and symbols 3 Observance 4 Popularity 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History and etymology[edit] Maulana Karenga, also known as Ronald McKinley Everett, created Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
in 1966, as the first specifically African-American holiday,[2] (but see also Juneteenth). According to Karenga, the name Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
derives from the Swahili phrase matunda ya kwanza, meaning "first fruits of the harvest",[3] although a more conventional translation would simply be "first fruits". The choice of Swahili, an East African language, reflects its status as a symbol of Pan-Africanism, especially in the 1960s, although most of the Atlantic slave trade that brought African people to America originated in West Africa.[4][5] First fruits festivals exist in Southern Africa, celebrated in December/January with the southern solstice, and Karenga was partly inspired by an account he read of the Zulu festival Umkhosi Wokweshwama.[6] It was decided to spell the holiday's name with an additional "a" so that it would have a symbolic seven letters.[7] Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
is a celebration with its roots in the black nationalist movement of the 1960s. Karenga established it to help African Americans reconnect with their African cultural and historical heritage by uniting in meditation and study of African traditions and Nguzo Saba, the "seven principles of African Heritage," which Karenga said "is a communitarian African philosophy." For Karenga, a major figure in the Black Power
Black Power
movement of the 1960s and 1970s, the creation of such holidays also underscored an essential premise "you must have a cultural revolution before the violent revolution. The cultural revolution gives identity, purpose and direction."[8] During the early years of Kwanzaa, Karenga said it was meant to be an alternative to Christmas. He believed Jesus was psychotic and Christianity was a "white" religion black people should shun.[9] However, as Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
gained mainstream adherents, Karenga altered his position so practicing Christians would not be alienated, then stating in the 1997, Kwanzaa: A Celebration of Family, Community, and Culture, " Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
was not created to give people an alternative to their own religion or religious holiday."[10] Many African Americans
African Americans
who celebrate Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
do so in addition to observing Christmas.[11] Principles and symbols[edit]

2003 Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
celebration with its founder and others

Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
celebrates what its founder called the seven principles of Kwanzaa, or Nguzo Saba (originally Nguzu Saba—the seven principles of African Heritage), which Karenga said "is a communitarian African philosophy," consisting of what Karenga called "the best of African thought and practice in constant exchange with the world." These seven principles comprise Kawaida, a Swahili word meaning "common". Each of the seven days of Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
is dedicated to one of the following principles, as follows:[12]

Umoja (Unity): To strive for and to maintain unity in the family, community, nation, and race. Kujichagulia (Self-Determination): To define and name ourselves, as well as to create and speak for ourselves. Ujima (Collective Work and Responsibility): To build and maintain our community together and make our brothers' and sisters' problems our problems and to solve them together. Ujamaa
Ujamaa
(Cooperative Economics): To build and maintain our own stores, shops, and other businesses and to profit from them together. Nia (Purpose): To make our collective vocation the building and developing of our community in order to restore our people to their traditional greatness. Kuumba (Creativity): To do always as much as we can, in the way we can, in order to leave our community more beautiful and beneficial than we inherited it. Imani (Faith): To believe with all our hearts in our people, our parents, our teachers, our leaders, and the righteousness and victory of our struggle.

Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
celebratory symbols include a mat (Mkeka) on which other symbols are placed: a Kinara
Kinara
(candle holder), Mishumaa Saba (seven candles), mazao (crops), Muhindi (corn), a Kikombe cha Umoja (unity cup) for commemorating and giving shukrani (thanks) to African Ancestors, and Zawadi (gifts). Supplemental representations include a Nguzo Saba poster,[13] the black, red, and green bendera (flag), and African books and artworks – all to represent values and concepts reflective of African culture and contribution to community building and reinforcement.[14] Corn
Corn
is the primary symbol for both decoration and celebratory dining. Observance[edit]

A woman lighting kinara candles

Families celebrating Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
decorate their households with objects of art, colorful African cloth such as kente, especially the wearing of kaftans by women, and fresh fruits that represent African idealism. It is customary to include children in Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
ceremonies and to give respect and gratitude to ancestors. Libations
Libations
are shared, generally with a common chalice, Kikombe cha Umoja, passed around to all celebrants. Non- African Americans
African Americans
also celebrate Kwanzaa.[15] The holiday greeting is "Joyous Kwanzaa".[16][17][18] A Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
ceremony may include drumming and musical selections, libations, a reading of the African Pledge and the Principles of Blackness, reflection on the Pan-African colors, a discussion of the African principle of the day or a chapter in African history, a candle-lighting ritual, artistic performance, and, finally, a feast (karamu). The greeting for each day of Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
is Habari Gani?[19] which is Swahili for "How are you?"[20] At first, observers of Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
avoided the mixing of the holiday or its symbols, values, and practice with other holidays, as doing so would violate the principle of kujichagulia (self-determination) and thus violate the integrity of the holiday, which is partially intended as a reclamation of important African values. Today, many African American families celebrate Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
along with Christmas
Christmas
and New Year's.[21] Frequently, both Christmas
Christmas
trees and kinaras, the traditional candle holder symbolic of African American roots, share space in Kwanzaa-celebrating households. For people who celebrate both holidays, Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
is an opportunity to incorporate elements of their particular ethnic heritage into holiday observances and celebrations of Christmas. Cultural exhibitions include the Spirit of Kwanzaa, an annual celebration held at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts featuring interpretive dance, African dance, song and poetry.[22][23][24] Popularity[edit] The National Retail Federation has sponsored a marketing survey on winter holidays since 2004, and in 2015 found that 1.9% of those polled planned to celebrate Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
– about six million people.[25] In a 2006 speech, Maulana Karenga
Maulana Karenga
asserted that 28 million people celebrate Kwanzaa. He has always claimed it is celebrated all over the world.[1] Lee D. Baker puts the number at 12 million.[26] The African American Cultural Center claimed 30 million in 2009.[27][28] According to University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Professor Keith Mayes, the author of Kwanzaa: Black Power
Black Power
and the Making of the African-American Holiday Tradition, the popularity within the U.S. has "leveled off" as the black power movement there has declined, and as of 2009 between 500 thousand and two million Americans celebrated Kwanzaa, or between one and five percent of African Americans. Mayes added that white institutions now celebrate it.[15] Starting in the 1990s, the holiday became increasingly commercialized, with the first Hallmark Card being sold in 1992,[29] and there has been concern about this damaging the holiday's values.[30] The holiday also saw a greater public recognition as the first Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
stamp, designed by Synthia Saint James, was issued by the United States
United States
Post Office in 1997, and in the same year Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
gave the first presidential declaration marking the holiday.[31][32] The holiday has also spread to Canada and is celebrated by Black Canadians in a similar fashion as in the United States.[33] According to the Language Portal
Portal
of Canada, "this fairly new tradition has [also] gained in popularity in France, Great Britain, Jamaica and Brazil".[34] In Brazil, in recent years the term Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
has been applied by a few institutions as a synonym for the festivities of the Black Awareness Day, commemorated on November 20 in honor of Zumbi dos Palmares,[35][36] having little to do with the celebration as it was originally conceived. Stjepan Meštrović, a sociology professor at the Texas A&M University, sees Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
as an example of postmodernism. According to Meštrović, modern society has discarded ancient traditions as racist, sexist or otherwise oppressive, but since living in a world where nothing is true is too terrifying to most people, "nice" and "synthetic" traditions like Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
have been created to cope with the nihilistic, individualistic modern society.[37] Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
narrated a documentary film about Kwanzaa, The Black Candle, written and directed by M.K. Asante, Jr.
M.K. Asante, Jr.
and featuring Chuck D.[38][39] See also[edit]

Dashiki – a shirt or suit worn during Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
celebrations

References[edit]

^ a b "Why Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
Video". "Maulana Karenga". Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ Alexander, Ron (December 30, 1983). "The Evening Hours". New York Times". Retrieved December 15, 2006.  ^ Holly Hartman. " Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
– Honoring the values of ancient African cultures". Infoplease.com. Retrieved October 25, 2017.  ^ "The Atlantic Slave Trade - Herbert S. Klein - Google Books". Books.google.com. April 13, 1999. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ Mugane, John M. (2015-07-15). The Story of Swahili. Ohio University Press. p. 6. ISBN 9780896804890.  ^ Mayes, Keith A. (2009-09-10). Kwanzaa: Black Power
Black Power
and the Making of the African-American Holiday Tradition. Routledge. p. 84. ISBN 9781135284008.  ^ Mayes, Keith A. (2009-09-10). Kwanzaa: Black Power
Black Power
and the Making of the African-American Holiday Tradition. Routledge. p. 228. ISBN 9781135284015.  ^ Mayes, Keith A. (2009). Kwanzaa: Black Power
Black Power
and the Making of the African-American Holiday Tradition. pp. 63–65. ISBN 978-0415998550. Retrieved December 27, 2015.  ^ Karenga, Maulana (1967). "Religion". In Clyde Halisi, James Mtume. The quotable Karenga. Los Angeles: University of Sankore Press. pp. 25. 23769.8. ^ Karenga, Maulana (1997). Kwanzaa: A Celebration of Family, Community and Culture. University of Sankore Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0943412214.  ^ Williams, Lena (December 20, 1990). "In Blacks' Homes, the Christmas and Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
Spirits Meet". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2010.  ^ Karenga, Maulana (2008). "Nguzo Saba". The Official Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
Web Site. Retrieved 2017-12-30.  ^ Angaza, Maitefa (2007). Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
– From Holiday to Every Day: A complete guide for making Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
a part of your life. New York: Dafina Books. p. 56. ISBN 0758216653.  ^ "The Symbols of Kwanzaa". The Official Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
Website. Retrieved January 9, 2016.  ^ a b Scott, Megan K. (December 17, 2009). " Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
celebrations continue, but boom is over, popularity fading". The Plain Dealer. Associated Press. Retrieved December 24, 2017.  ^ Bush, George W. (December 23, 2004). "Presidential Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
Message, 2004". Office of the Press Secretary. Retrieved December 24, 2007.  ^ "Clinton offers holiday messages". CNN. December 23, 1997. Retrieved December 24, 2007.  ^ Gale, Elaine (December 26, 1998). "Appeal of Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
continues to grow; holidays: today marks start of the seven-day celebration of African culture, which began in Watts 32 years ago and is now observed by millions". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 24, 2007.  ^ "The Founder's Message 2000". The Official Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
Web Site. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ "Useful Swahili phrases". Omniglot.com. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ " Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
(until Jan 1) in the United States". Timeanddate.com. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ "The Spirit of Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
- The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts". Kennedy-center.org. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ "Dance Institute of Washington". Web.archive.org. February 21, 2001. Archived from the original on February 21, 2001. Retrieved October 25, 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "KWANZAA FEATURED ON THIS YEAR'S HOLIDAY U.S. POSTAGE STAMP". Web.archive.org. October 19, 2004. Archived from the original on October 19, 2004. Retrieved October 25, 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Prosper Insights & Analytics™, Monthly Consumer Survey, OCT-15" (PDF). National Retail Federation. October 2015.  ^ Manning Marable, Dispatches from the Ebony Tower, p. 224. ^ " Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
celebration unites African-American community", The Post, Ohio University, November 1, 2011. Accessed December 31, 2014. ^ Mayes, Keith A. (2009). Kwanzaa: Black Power
Black Power
and the Making of the African-American Black Holiday Tradition. Taylor & Francis. p. 248. ISBN 9780415998543.  ^ Martin, Douglas (December 20, 1993). "The Marketing of Kwanzaa; Black American Holiday Earns Dollars, Causing Concern". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 24, 2017.  ^ "Commercialized Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
worries enthusiasts". The Billings Gazette. Retrieved December 24, 2017.  ^ "William J. Clinton: Message on the Observance of Kwanzaa, 1997". www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-31.  ^ Pleck, Elizabeth (2001). "Kwanzaa: The Making of a Black Nationalist Tradition, 1966-1990". Journal of American Ethnic History. 20 (4): 3–28.  ^ "The principles of Kwanzaa". CBC. December 28, 1993. Retrieved December 16, 2011.  ^ "Celebrate Kwanzaa!". Government of Canada. February 21, 2011. Retrieved December 16, 2011.  ^ " Portal
Portal
da Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo". Prefeitura.sp.gov.br. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ [1] ^ S. G. Mestrovic (January 2000). "Postemotional Law". Ro.uow.edu.au. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ " Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
Celebration Captured In 'Black Candle'". National Public Radio. December 15, 2008.  ^ " Chuck D
Chuck D
and Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
in Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
Documentary". Essence. December 18, 2009. 

External links[edit]

Official website The Black Candle: a Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
film narrated by Maya Angelou Why Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
was created by Karenga The History Channel: Kwanzaa Interview: Karenga discusses the evolution of the holiday and its meaning. Tavis Smiley (NPR)

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