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thumb|upright=1.5|Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. 1st century BCE. These coins followed the Indo-Greek_module.
Obv:_Deer_standing_right,_crowned_by_two_cobras,_attended_by_[[Lakshmi_holding_a_[[Sacred_lotus.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Lakshmi.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Indo-Greek module.
Obv: Deer standing right, crowned by two cobras, attended by [[Lakshmi">Indo-Greek module.
Obv: Deer standing right, crowned by two cobras, attended by [[Lakshmi holding a [[Sacred lotus">lotus flower. Legend in [[Prakrit]] ([[Brāhmī script|Brahmi]] script, from left to right): ''Rajnah Kunindasya Amoghabhutisya maharajasya'' ("Great King [[Amoghabhuti]], of the Kunindas").
Rev: [[Stupa]] surmounted by the Buddhist symbol triratna, and surrounded by a swastika, a "Y" symbol, and a tree in railing. Legend in Kharoshti script, from right to left: ''Rana Kunidasa Amoghabhutisa Maharajasa'', ("Great King Amoghabhuti, of the Kunindas").]] File:Shiva with trident Kuninda 2nd century.jpg|thumb|Shiva with trident, Kuninda, 2nd century CE. The Kingdom of Kuninda (or Kulinda in ancient literature) was an ancient central Himalayan kingdom documented from around the 2nd century BCE to the 3rd century, located in the modern state of Uttarakhand and southern areas of Himachal in northern India.


Kingdom

The history of the kingdom is documented from around the 2nd century BCE. They are mentioned in Indian epics and Puranas. The subhankar relates they were defeated by Arjuna. One of the first kings of the Kuninda was Amoghbhuti, who ruled in the mountainous valley of the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers (in today's Uttarakhand and southern Himachal in northern India). The Greek historian Ptolemy linked the origin of the Kuninda to the country where the rivers Ganges, Yamuna, and Sutlej originate.Ptolemy, ''Geography'' 7.1.42: ὑπὸ δὲ τὰς Βιβάσιος καὶ τοῦ Ζαράδρου καὶ τοῦ Διαμούνα καὶ τοῦ Γάγγου ἡ Κυλινδρινή, "and enclosed by the Bibasis, the Zaradros, the Diamuna, and the Ganges is Kylindrinē." One of the Edicts of Ashoka on a pillar is also present at Kalsi, in the region of Garhwal, indicating the spread of Buddhism to the region from the 4th century BCE. The Kuninda kingdom disappeared around the 3rd century, and from the 4th century, it seems the region shifted to Shaivite beliefs.

Coinage

There are two types of Kuninda coinage, the first one issued around the 1st century BCE, and the second around the 2nd century CE. The first coins of the Kuninda were influenced by the numismatic model of their predecessor Indo-Greek kingdoms, and incorporated Buddhist and Hindu symbolism such as the triratna and images of Lakshmi. These coins typically follow the Indo-Greek weight and size standards (drachms, of about 2.14 g in weight and 19 mm in diameter), and their coins are often found together with Indo-Greek coins in hoards, such as those of the Yaudheyas, or the Audumbaras. The finds of Kuninda coins have often been associated with finds of Indo-Greek coins, particularly those of Appolodotus.''A pageant of Indian culture: art and archaeology'' by Asoke Kumar Bhattacharyya p.156''ff''
/ref> A very large portion of the Kuninda coins are in the name of king Amoghabhuti, and it is believed that coinage under his name continued after his death. Some later coins of the 2nd century CE bear the symbol of the Hindu god Shiva.

Rulers

* Amoghabhuti (late 2nd century-1st century BCE)

See also

* Indo-Greek Kingdom

References



External links


Scripts in Kuninda coinage
{{Middle kingdoms of India Category:Empires and kingdoms of India Category:History of Uttarakhand Category:Kingdoms in the Puranas Category:2nd-century BC establishments Category:3rd-century disestablishments