Koori
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Koori (also spelt koorie, goori or goorie) is a
demonym A demonym (; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ...
for
Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific ...
s from the approximate region now known as southern
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
and
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
. The word derives from the Indigenous language
Awabakal The Awabakal people , are those Aboriginal Australians who identify with or are descended from the Awabakal tribe and its clans, Indigenous Australians, Indigenous to the coastal area of what is now known as the Mid North Coast region of New So ...
. For some people and groups, it has been described as a reclaiming of Indigenous language and culture, as opposed to relying on European titles such as "Aboriginal". The term is also used with reference to institutions involving Koori communities and individuals, such as the
Koori Court A Koori Court is a division of the Magistrates' Court of Victoria, Magistrates' Court in Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia, that hears selected case where Indigenous Australians have identified as such and requested the case be transferred ...
,
Koori Radio Koori Radio (callsign 2LND), formerly Radio Redfern, is a community radio station based in Redfern, New South Wales, Redfern broadcasting to Sydney on a citywide licence. It is part of the Gadigal Information Service (GIS) and is the only radio ...
and Koori Knockout. The Koori region is home to the largest proportion of Australia's Indigenous population (Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander Torres Strait Islanders () are the Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific cou ...
people), with 40.7% of Indigenous Australians living in either New South Wales or Victoria. Within the region however, Koori-identifying people make up only 2.9% and 0.8% of the overall populations of New South Wales and Victoria respectively. Most of this Koori population speak English in the home, although a small number do report continued usage of traditional Indigenous languages. Koori culture is characterised by a commitment to
the Dreaming The Dreaming, also referred to as Dreamtime, is a term devised by early anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present Society, societ ...
, an overall worldview that believes in and values interconnectedness between the land and community. Koori art and literature continue to be produced in contemporary Australia, often with reference to traditional Indigenous artistic techniques. The first recorded meeting between Koori people and Europeans occurred in 1770. Kooris have since experienced a sharp population decline, influenced by the
colonisation of Australia Colonization, or colonisation refers to large-scale population movements where the migrants maintain strong links with their or their ancestors' former country, gaining significant privileges over other inhabitants of the territory by such links ...
by Europeans. The legacy of colonisation is still strongly felt, and has had ongoing ramifications for Koori life and wellbeing.


Etymology

"Koori" comes from the word ''gurri'', meaning "man" or "people" in the Indigenous language
Awabakal The Awabakal people , are those Aboriginal Australians who identify with or are descended from the Awabakal tribe and its clans, Indigenous Australians, Indigenous to the coastal area of what is now known as the Mid North Coast region of New So ...
, spoken on the mid-north coast of New South Wales. On the far north coast of New South Wales, the term may still be spelt "goori" or "goorie" and pronounced with a harder "g". The term's first documented usage occurred in 1834 in ''
An Australian Grammar ''An Australian grammar : comprehending the principles and natural rules of the language, as spoken by the Aborigines in the vicinity of Hunter's River, Lake Macquarie, &c. New South Wales'' is a book written by L. E. Threlkeld, Lancelot Edward Th ...
'' as "Ko-re", translated to mean man or mankind.


Geography and subgroups

Koori Indigenous Australians inhabit the broad region of southern New South Wales and Victoria. Indigenous subgroups within this region are numerous, including the
Eora The Eora (''Yura'') are an Aboriginal Australian people of New South Wales. Eora is the name given by the earliest European settlers to a group of Aboriginal people belonging to the clans along the coastal area of what is now known as the Sy ...
Nation of modern-day
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
,
Ngunnawal The Ngunnawal people, also spelt Ngunawal, are an Aboriginal people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to ...
Nation of
Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically encompasses the government's offices an ...

Canberra
and
Woiwurrung The Woiwurrung, also spelt Woi Wurrung, Woiwurrong, Woiworung, Wuywurung, are an Aboriginal Australian people of the Woiwurrung language group, in the Kulin people, Kulin alliance. The Woiwurrung people's territory in Central Victoria (Austral ...
Nation of
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Melbourne
.


Knowledge and culture


Art

Like archetypal Indigenous painting, Koori painting is based largely on dot work, done in "earthy colours" such as blacks, whites, reds and browns. Some Koori elders identify this style as a means of reconnecting with traditional Indigenous culture and ancestry. More unique to the Koori population is the prevalence of artistic " shell craft", using shells found in the coastal environment to decorate ornamental pieces. Documents from the 1880s detail Koori women selling shell craft baskets and decorative shoes to settler women at markets in La Perouse and
Circular Quay Circular Quay is a harbour, former working port and now international passenger shipping port, public piazza and tourism precinct, heritage area, and transport node located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia on the northern edge of the Sydn ...

Circular Quay
, a practice that appears unique to the
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
area. Shell craft has continued to be of importance to the modern Koori population, with a 2008 exhibit at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Sydney incorporating Indigenous shell craft. In 2005, Koori shell artist Esme Timbery won the
Parliament of New South Wales The Parliament of New South Wales is a bicameral Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly i ...
Indigenous Art Prize for her shell-adorned model of the
Sydney Harbour Bridge The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a heritage-listed steel through arch bridge in Sydney, spanning Port Jackson, Sydney Harbour from the Sydney central business district, central business district (CBD) to the North Shore (Sydney), North Shore. The vi ...

Sydney Harbour Bridge
. The economic prevalence of Koori shell craft, too, has increased in contemporary Indigenous art history. While in 2005, shell craft shoes retailed for approximately AUD$20, a pair sold for AUD$140 at a Sydney gallery in 2009. Also unique to the Koori region were possum-skin cloaks, traditionally gifted to Koori newborns. The cloaks were embellished with the markings of the newborn's clan and family, and were added to as the child grew, to represent a kind of Koori "autobiography". Although the craft of possum-skin cloaks has declined, it is being revived by contemporary Koori artists such as Kelly Koumalatsos.


Language

The Koori region is home to a number of traditional
Indigenous languages An indigenous language or autochthonous language, is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch o ...
. The state of Victoria has speakers of 38 Aboriginal languages, while New South Wales has historically been home to more than 70. However, the number of Kooris who report speaking an Indigenous language at home is low. Only 0.8% of New South Wales and 1% of Victorian Kooris speak an Indigenous language in the home, being the lowest rates of Indigenous language usage outside of
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
. There are some attempts to revive Koori languages. In New South Wales, the number of Koori families speaking an Indigenous language at home is on the rise. Census data indicates that the number of New South Wales Indigenous language speakers increased by 123% between 2006 and 2016. The New South Wales Government's Aboriginal Languages Act was enacted in 2017 in an attempt to preserve Indigenous languages. In addition to traditional languages, Kooris may also speak "Koori English", the dialect of English spoken by Kooris within their communities. The dialect developed from the
pidgin English Pidgin English is a non-specific name used to refer to any of the many pidgin languages derived from English language, English. Pidgins that are spoken as first languages become creole language, creoles. English-based pidgins that became stable ...
used by Kooris to communicate with settlers at the time of colonisation. It employs nonverbal language cues such as silences, gestures and lip pursing. Some grammatical elements of Koori English may persist from traditional Indigenous languages, such as distinct ways of marking plural nouns.


Birthing rituals

Historical records show Koori birthing rituals involving song, dance and ceremonial practices.
Gunditjmara The Gunditjmara or Gunditjamara, also known as Dhauwurd Wurrung, are an Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native peop ...
Kooris of South West Victoria record the ritualistic use of sand, heated by fire both to warm the infant and welcome it to country. Records also exist detailing Koori use of medical techniques such as natural pain management, and the teaching of these techniques to European settler women. Historically, "birthing trees" were essential to Koori birthing rituals. These were trees used as the sites of births, where mothers, families and communities could congregate to deliver the baby and welcome it to country. Sometimes, the
placenta The placenta is a temporary fetal organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. ...

placenta
would be buried under the birthing tree to symbolise the newborn's
connection to country The concept of country, as an Self-concept, identity or descriptive quality, varies widely across the world, although some elements may be common among several groups of people. Rurality One interpretation is the state or character of being rur ...
. A Koori birthing tree in Western Victoria has received status as a Significant Tree on the Australian Register of the National Trust in recognition of its importance to the Koori population.


History


Before European colonisation

Radiocarbon dating Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter refers to the large source of ...
has identified evidence of Indigenous inhabitancy in the Koori region as early as 50,000–45,000 years ago. Ancient Koori artefacts including human remains and tools have been found at
Lake Mungo Lake Mungo is a dry lake located in New South Wales, Australia. It is about 760 km due west of Sydney and 90 km north-east of Mildura, Victoria, Mildura. The lake is the central feature of Mungo National Park, and is one of seventee ...

Lake Mungo
in New South Wales, dated to be between 50,000 and 46,000 years old. In Western Victoria, structures from ancient Koori populations have been discovered, including stone-walled fishing traps measuring up to six metres in height and three kilometres in length. The traps date to approximately 6,600 years old, making them one of the world's oldest known fish-trapping system. Similarly aged "village" sites have been found in South-Eastern Victoria, featuring wooden structures, garden areas and agricultural wetlands. In New South Wales, small tools used for processing plants and hunting have been discovered to be approximately 10,000 years old. Fishhooks appear to have been widely used across the Koori coastline as early as 1000 years ago. These fishhooks appear to originate from outside of Australia, possibly from the
Torres Strait The Torres Strait (), also known as Zenadh Kes, is a strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both ...

Torres Strait
or
Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" and grc, νῆσος "island") ( to, Faka-Polinisia; mi, Porinihia; haw, Polenekia; fj, Kai-Polinesia; sm, Polenisia; rar, Porinetia; ty, Pōrīnetia; tvl, Polenisia; tkl, Polenihia) is a ...

Polynesia
, indicating a system of regional trade.


Early contact

The first documented contact between Indigenous Australians and Europeans on Koori territory occurred in 1770 during
James Cook Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a milit ...

James Cook
's
HMS ''Endeavour''
HMS ''Endeavour''
expedition. In his journals, Cook documents interactions with Indigenous groups at
Botany Bay Botany Bay (Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, including: ***Aboriginal Australians ****A ...
near modern-day Sydney. During this initial contact, two Indigenous men resisted Cook's landing, causing Cook to open fire and wound one of the men. The ''Endeavour'' remained docked in the bay for the subsequent seven days, meaning that interactions between the explorers and Indigenous Kooris were conducted from a distance. Koori material culture was observed, such as the use of watercraft, weaponry and tools, but there was little European documentation of Koori religious and cultural life during this voyage. The Indigenous groups of Botany Bay did not accept Cook's trade offerings and resisted farther encroachment of the explorers onto Koori territory.


European colonisation and population decline

Following this initial contact, Great Britain established a
penal colony A penal colony or exile colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory. Although the term can be used to refer t ...
at Botany Bay in New South Wales. The first settlers of this colony arrived in 1788 aboard the
First Fleet The First Fleet was a fleet of 11 ships A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, ...
, beginning the official colonisation of Australia by Europeans. Over the century following colonisation, there occurred a steep decline in the Aboriginal population. Approximations of overall Indigenous population decline range from 80 to 96%, with estimates of around 80% in the Koori region in the first 20 years of contact. Generally accepted estimates approximate that 2000 non-Aboriginals (mostly Europeans) and 20,000 Aboriginals were killed in armed conflict between the two groups. This included the Waterloo Creek Massacre on New South Wales Koori territory in 1837, during which an estimated 200–300 Kooris were killed. In the 1830s and 40s, the Western District of Victoria was recorded as one of the two worst regions for violence. Sexual violence also occurred, particularly towards Koori women and children, sometimes resulting in death or infertility. Many Kooris also died from
epidemic An epidemic (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approx ...
s of European diseases to which they had no tolerance. In 1791, all but two of the Koori inhabitants of inner Sydney died of
smallpox Smallpox was an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to the infectious ...

smallpox
or
chickenpox Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious Contagious may refer to: * Contagious disease Literature * Contagious (magazine), a marketing publication * Contagious (novel), ''Contagious'' (novel), a science fiction thriller ...

chickenpox
. Another smallpox epidemic affected the New South Wales and Victoria regions in 1830. Deaths also occurred due to
sexually transmitted infection Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the older term venereal disease, are infections that are Transmission (medicine), spread by Human sexual activity, sexual activity, especial ...

sexually transmitted infection
s, transported to Australia by the settlers. In Port Phillip, Victoria, two-thirds of the Koori population died of sexually transmitted infections.


20th century

The
Aborigines Protection Board Aboriginal Protection Board, also known as Aborigines Protection Board, Aborigines Welfare Board, Board for the Protection of Aborigines and similar names, refers to a number of historical States and territories of Australia, Australian state-run ...
of New South Wales and Victoria enabled the segregation of Kooris onto government-run missions and reserves. In the 1910s, the Board's powers were extended to allow for the removal of Koori children from their families for assimilation into the non-Indigenous population. Some Koori children were placed into white families, while others were sent to labour schools such as the
Cootamundra Domestic Training Home for Aboriginal Girls The Cootamundra Domestic Training Home for Aboriginal Girls, commonly known as "Bimbadeen" and Cootamundra Girls' Home, located at Cootamundra, New South Wales operated by the Government of New South Wales, New South Wales Aboriginal Protectio ...
and Kinchela Aboriginal Boys' Training Home. This process of segregation and child-removal was common throughout Australia and became known as the
Stolen Generations The Stolen Generations (also known as Stolen Children) were the children of Australian Aboriginal Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples of the Mainland Australia, Australian mainland and many of its islands, such as ...
. In 1937, New South Wales Koori activist William Ferguson founded the
Aborigines Progressive Association The Aborigines Progressive Association (APA) was established in 1937 by William Ferguson and Jack Patten John Thomas "Jack" Patten (27 March 1905 – 12 October 1957) was an Aboriginal Australian civil rights activist and journalist. Bio ...
in Sydney to protest the oppression of the Aborigines Protection Board. Approximately 1000 Indigenous Australians attended the organisation's first rally in Sydney on 26 January 1938. From the 1970s, the policies of segregation and assimilation began to shift. New South Wales adopted the Aboriginal Child Placement Principle in 1987, mandating that an Indigenous family be chosen for the rehoming of Koori children wherever possible. In 1997, the premiers of both New South Wales and Victoria apologised for the historic mistreatment of Indigenous Australians, including an apology for the Stolen Generation, and affirmed their commitment to reconciliation.


Current issues

Statistics indicate ongoing divergences between Koori and non-Koori Australians in areas such as health, education, income levels, and incarceration rates. The
Australian National University The Australian National University (ANU) is a national research university located in Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the Federation of Australia, federation of the colonies of Australia as t ...
's Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research ties these statistical divergences to the Indigenous experience of colonialism.


Health

Statistics show that Koori Australians have poorer health than their non-Koori counterparts, reflected in their lower
life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and other demographic Demography (from prefix ''demo-'' from Ancient Greek Ancien ...

life expectancy
. Across New South Wales and Victoria, non-Koori individuals were expected to live 8–10 years longer than Koori individuals between 2015 and 2017. Thus, the Koori population is younger in demographic, with the median age of the New South Wales Koori community being 22, in contrast to 38 for the non-Koori population. In New South Wales, 7.6% of the Indigenous population are profoundly or severely
disabled A disability is any condition that makes it more difficult for a person to do certain activities or effectively interact with the world around them (socially or materially). These conditions, or impairments, may be cognitive Cognition ( ...

disabled
, compared to 5.6% of non-Indigenous individuals, and this gap is widening. Additionally, New South Wales Kooris with a disability tend to be younger: 36% of the Indigenous disabled population in New South Wales is under 25, compared to 12.7% of the non-Indigenous.


Education

Koori Australians also have lower levels of education than their non-Koori counterparts. In New South Wales, Koori children are half as likely to have completed
secondary school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education (ages 11 to 14) and upper secondary educat ...
. In Victoria, only 56.5% of Koori 25–34 year olds have some form of
tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, ...
, compared to 74.9% of non-Koori individuals.


Income

Koori Australians are more likely to be living below or near the
poverty line The poverty threshold, poverty limit, poverty line or breadline is the minimum level of income In microeconomics, income is the Consumption (economics), consumption and saving opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, w ...
. Approximately 32.4% of Koori households in New South Wales earn below A$500/week, compared to 22.3% of non-Indigenous. Less than half of New South Wales Kooris own their homes, compared to 70% of non-Koori residents. New South Wales Kooris are less likely to be in the labour force, with an
underemployment Underemployment is the underuse of a worker because a job Employment is the relationship between two parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview; cro ...
rate of 43% compared to 35.9% of non-Koori residents. The professional services industry has the highest divergence, with non-Koori employees three times as likely to work in this sector.


Incarceration rates

Koori Australians are more likely to be incarcerated in both New South Wales and Victoria. In 2019, Koori adults were 9.3 times more likely to be incarcerated in New South Wales than their non-Koori counterparts. In Victoria, they were 14.5 times more likely. These statistics are mirrored in
youth detention In criminal justice systems a youth detention center, known as a juvenile detention center (JDC),Stahl, Dean, Karen Kerchelich, and Ralph De Sola. ''Abbreviations Dictionary''. CRC Press, 20011202. Retrieved 23 August 2010. , . juvenile det ...
. In New South Wales, Koori children aged 10–17 were sixteen times more likely to be in detention on an average day in 2018 and 2019. In Victoria, they were 10 times as likely.


Government initiatives

New South Wales and Victoria have both introduced initiatives to address these divergences between Koori and non-Koori individuals. In March 2019, both states established a formal partnership with the
Australian Federal Government The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the ...
to address the goals of the
Closing the Gap The Closing the Gap framework is an Australian government strategy that aims to reduce disadvantage among Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, based on seven targets. From adoption in 2008, after meetings with th ...
initiative. The partnership also includes representatives from Indigenous activist groups.


Koori Court

A Koori Court is a division of the
Magistrates' Court of Victoria The Magistrates' Court of Victoria is the lowest court in the Australian States and territories of Australia, state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria. The court possesses original jurisdiction over summary offences and indictable offence, in ...
that sentences Indigenous Australians who plead guilty.


Koori Radio

Koori Radio, a community radio-station based in Redfern, broadcasts to Sydney on a citywide licence. It forms part of the Gadigal Information Service and is the only radio station in Sydney providing full-time broadcasting to the Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander Torres Strait Islanders () are the Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific cou ...
community.


''Koori Mail''

''Koori Mail'' is a national Indigenous newspaper based in
Lismore, New South Wales Lismore is a city in northeastern New South Wales, Australia and the main population centre in the City of Lismore Local government in Australia, local government area; it is also a regional centre in the Northern Rivers region of the State. It ...
.


Koori Knockout

The NSW Koori Rugby League Knockout is one of the largest gatherings of Indigenous people in Australia. A modern-day
corroboree A corroboree is a generic word for a meeting of Australian Aboriginal peoples Australians, colloquially referred to as "Aussies", are the citizens, nationality, nationals and individuals associated with the country of Australia. Betwee ...

corroboree
for the Koori people of NSW, it has been held annually over the October long weekend since 1971.


Koorie Heritage Trust

The Koorie Heritage Trust in Melbourne holds over 100,000 artistic artefacts from Indigenous South-Eastern Australia. The Trust's collection includes prehistoric tools, 19th Century art by Koori artists William Barak and Tommy McRae, and pieces by contemporary Koori artists.


Other names used by Australian Indigenous people

There are a number of other names from
Australian Aboriginal languages The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363 languages belonging to an estimated 28 language families A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Si ...
commonly used to identify groups based on
geography Geography (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is a ...

geography
: * Anangu in northern
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper ...

South Australia
, and neighbouring parts of
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Western Australia
and
Northern Territory The Northern Territory (NT; formally the Northern Territory of Australia) is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, ...
* Pama in northern
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the ...

Queensland
* Murri in southern Queensland and northern New South Wales *
Nunga Nunga is a term of self-identification for Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples ( ...
in southern South Australia *
Nyoongar The Noongar (, also spelt Noongah, Nyungar, Nyoongar, Nyoongah, Nyungah, Nyugah, Yunga) are Aboriginal Australian peoples who live in the South West, Western Australia, south-west corner of Western Australia, from Geraldton, Western Australia ...
in southern Western Australia *
Palawah The Aboriginal Tasmanians (Palawa kani Palawa kani is a constructed language created by the Tasmanian Aboriginal Centre as a composite Tasmanian languages, Tasmanian language, based on reconstructed vocabulary from the limited accounts of ...
(or Pallawah) in
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...


See also

*
List of Australian Aboriginal group names This list of Australian Aboriginal group names includes names and collective designations which have been applied, either currently or in the past, to groups of Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peopl ...


Notes


Citations


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


Bangerang Cultural Centre. Australia's first Aboriginal museum.
{{Authority control Aboriginal peoples of New South Wales Aboriginal peoples of Victoria (Australia) Australian Aboriginal words and phrases