Konya (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈkon.ja]; Greek:
Ἰκόνιον Ikónion, Latin: Iconium) is a major city in
south-western edge of the Central Anatolian Plateau and is the
seventh-most-populous city in
Turkey with a metropolitan population of
over 2.1 million. 
Konya is an economically and industrially
developed city and the capital of
After its conquest by Turkish tribes,
Konya became the capital of the
Sultanate of Rum
Sultanate of Rum (Anatolia) (1077–1308) and the Karamanids
2.1 Ancient history
2.2 Seljuk era
2.3 Karamanid era
2.4 Ottoman era
2.5 Turkish War of Independence
2.6 Population exchange between Greece and Turkey
2.7 Republic era
9 Notable people
10 Main sights
13 Twin towns
14 See also
15 Further reading
17 External links
Konya, was known in classical antiquity and during the medieval period
as Ἰκόνιον (Ikónion) in Greek (with regular Medieval Greek
apheresis Kónio(n)) and as Iconium in Latin. This name is commonly
explained as a derivation from εἰκών (icon), as an ancient Greek
legend ascribed its name to the "eikon" (image), or the "gorgon's
(Medusa's) head", with which
Perseus vanquished the native population
before founding the city. In some historic English texts, the
city's name appears as Konia or Koniah.
Sarcophagus (ca. 250–260 AD) at the
Excavations have shown that the region was inhabited during the Late
Copper Age, around 3000 BC. The city came under the influence of
Hittites around 1500 BC. Later it was overtaken by the Sea Peoples
in around 1200 BC.
The Phrygians established their kingdom in central
Anatolia in the 8th
Xenophon describes Iconium, as the city was called, as the
last city of Phrygia. The region was overwhelmed by Cimmerian invaders
c. 690 BC. It was later part of the Persian Empire, until Darius III
was defeated by
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great in 333 BC. Alexander's empire
broke up shortly after his death and the town came under the rule of
Seleucus I Nicator. During the
Hellenistic period the town was ruled
by the kings of Pergamon. As Attalus III, the last king of Pergamon,
was about to die without an heir, he bequeathed his kingdom to the
Roman Republic. Once incorporated into the Roman Empire, under the
rule of emperor Claudius, the city's name was changed to
Claudioconium, and during the rule of emperor Hadrianus to Colonia
According to the Acts of the Apostles, the apostles Paul and Barnabas
preached in Iconium during their first Missionary Journey in about
47–48 AD, having been persecuted in Antioch, and Paul and
Silas probably visited it again during Paul's Second Missionary
Journey in about 50. Their visit to the synagogue of the Jews
in Iconium divided the Jewish and non-Jewish communities between those
who believed Paul and Barnabas' message and those who did not believe,
provoking a disturbance during which attempts were made to stone the
apostles. They fled to
Lystra and Derbe, cities of Lycaonia. This
experience is also mentioned in the Second Letter to Timothy,.
19th century American theologian Albert Barnes suggested that Timothy
had been present with Paul in Iconium,
Antioch and Lystra. The
city became the seat of a bishop, which in ca. 370 was raised to the
status of a metropolitan see for Lycaonia, with
Saint Amphilochius as
the first metropolitan bishop.
In Christian legend, based on the apocryphal Acts of Paul and Thecla,
Iconium was also the birthplace of Saint Thecla, who saved the city
from attack by the Isaurians.
Under the Byzantine Empire, the city was part of the Anatolic Theme.
During the 8th to 10th centuries, the town and the nearby Kabala
(Caballa) Fortress (Turkish: Gevale Kalesi) were a frequent target of
Arab attacks as part of the Arab–Byzantine wars.
Main article: Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate
Ince Minaret Medrese
Ince Minaret Medrese (1279) in Konya
Seljuk Turks first raided the area in 1069, but a period of chaos
Anatolia after the Seljuk victory in the Battle of
Manzikert in 1071, and the Norman mercenary leader Roussel de Bailleul
rose in revolt at Iconium. The city was finally conquered by the
Seljuks in 1084. From 1097 to 1243 it was the capital of the
Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. It was briefly occupied by the Crusaders
Godfrey of Bouillon
Godfrey of Bouillon (August 1097), and
Frederick Barbarossa (May 18,
1190) after the Battle of Iconium (1190). The area was retaken by the
The name of the town was changed to
Konya (in Persian: قونیه
Mesud I in 1134.
Established in 1273, the
Mevlevi Order and its Whirling Dervishes
are among the renowned symbols of
Konya and Turkey.
Konya reached the height of its wealth and influence in the second
half of the 12th century when the Seljuk sultans of Rum also subdued
Anatolian beyliks to their east, especially that of the
Danishmends, thus establishing their rule over virtually all of
eastern Anatolia, as well as acquiring several port towns along the
Mediterranean (including Alanya) and the
Black Sea (including Sinop)
and even gaining a momentary foothold in Sudak, Crimea. This golden
age lasted until the first decades of the 13th century.[citation
Many Persians and
Persianized Turks from
Persia and Central Asia
migrated to Anatolian cities either to flee the invading Mongols or to
benefit from the opportunities for educated Muslims in a newly
established kingdom. By the 1220s, the city of
Konya was filled
with refugees from the Khwarezmid Empire. Sultan
Kayqubad I fortified
the town and built a palace on top of the citadel. In 1228 he invited
Bahaeddin Veled and his son Rumi, the founder of the
Mevlevi order, to
settle in Konya.
In 1243, following the Seljuk defeat in the Battle of Köse Dağ,
Konya was captured by the Mongols as well. The city remained the
capital of the Seljuk sultans, vassalized to the
Ilkhanate until the
end of the century.
A panoramic view of the city from the
Hacıveyiszade Mosque and
Main article: Karamanids
Following the fall of the
Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate
Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate in 1307, Konya
was made the capital of a Turkish beylik (emirate); which lasted until
1322 when the city was captured by the neighbouring Beylik of
Karamanoğlu. In 1420, the Beylik of Karamanoğlu fell to the Ottoman
Empire and, in 1453,
Konya was made the provincial capital of Karaman
Main articles: Ottoman Empire, Karaman Eyalet, and
Vilayet of Konya
Konya carpet, in the collections of the Los Angeles
County Museum of Art (LACMA).
During Ottoman rule,
Konya was administered by the Sultan's sons
(Şehzade), starting with
Şehzade Mustafa and
Şehzade Cem (the sons
of Sultan Mehmed II), and later the future Sultan Selim II. Between
1483 and 1864,
Konya was the administrative capital of Karaman Eyalet.
Tanzimat period, as part of the vilayet system introduced
Konya became the seat of the larger
Vilayet of Konya
Vilayet of Konya which
replaced Karaman Eyalet.
Turkish War of Independence
Greeks from Konya.
Konya had a major air base during the Turkish War of Independence. In
1922, the Air Force was renamed as the Inspectorate of Air Forces
and was headquartered in Konya. The Third Air Wing of the
1st Air Force Command is based at the
Konya Air Base. The wing
controls the four Boeing 737 AEW&C Peace Eagle aircraft of the
Turkish Air Force.
Population exchange between Greece and Turkey
In 1923 in the frame of the Population exchange between Greece and
Turkey, the Greeks that inhabited the town of
Konya left as refugees
and settled in Greece. At the same time a significant influx of
Albanians came and settled in the area.
Konya was a center for agriculture at the turn of the 20th
century. Since the late 20th century, the economy has
Meram highway was constructed in 1950.
Konya National Exhibition and Fair was held in
The Koyunoğlu Museum was donated to the city in 1973 and it reopened
in a new building.
Konya Metropolitan Governorship
The first local administration in
Konya was founded in 1830. This
administration was converted into a municipality in 1876. In March
1989, the municipality became a Metropolitan Municipality. As of that
Konya had three central district municipalities (Meram,
Selçuklu, Karatay) and a Metropolitan Municipality.
Konya is the center of the largest province, the largest plain (Konya
Plain) and is among the largest cities in the country. It is the
seventh most populated city in Turkey.
Konya City is in the southern part of the[ Central
The land is broad and flat with a lot of lowlands and plateaus. The
plateaus are covered with rich steppes, therefore, affecting the
agriculture sector. Additionally, the southernmost part of
largely surrounded by the Taurus Mountains.
Lake Tuz, known in Turkish as Tuz Golu, is the second-largest lake in
all of Turkey. This lake supplies
Turkey with a large amount of
Turkey's salt demand.
Beysehir Lake is on the western part of
Konya and is near the border.
It is known to be the largest fresh water lake in
Turkey and one of
the most important national parks.
Beysehir Lake is important for
Konya and attracts thousands of people each year to its 2
beaches and 22 islands for water and mountain sports.
Meke Lake is on the border of the Karapinar province and is considered
to be a heavily protected natural area.
Konya has a cold semi-arid climate (BSk) under the Köppen
classification and a hot summer continental (Dca) or hot summer
oceanic (Doa) climate under the Trewartha classification.
Summers temperatures average 30 °C (86 °F). The highest
temperature recorded in
Konya was 40.6 °C (105 °F) on 30
July 2000. Winters average −4.2 °C (24 °F). The lowest
temperature recorded was −26.5 °C (−16 °F) on 6
February 1972. Due to Konya's high altitude and its dry summers,
nightly temperatures in the summer months are cool. Precipitation
levels are low, but precipitation can be observed throughout the year.
Climate data for
Konya (1950 - 2014)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Percent possible sunshine
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service
Selçuk University in Konya
Nalçacı Avenue in Selçuk, Konya.
Konya hosts the Tactical Training Center Anatolian Eagle, a center for
NATO Allies and friendly Air Forces. Real Like training
environment with large area and skilled aggressors provides a training
opportunity to reach the maximum combat readiness for Air Force
Fighters. Official Web Site
Konya ranks among the nation's top 10 cities for the average score of
high school graduates. There are various elementary
and secondary schools in the province. The
Meram Fen Lisesi is among
Turkey's first-tier science high schools.
Konya is one of the few cities to contain more than
100,000 college students.
Selçuk University had the largest number of
students, 76,080, of any public university in
Turkey during the
2008-09 academic year. It was founded in 1975. The other public
university is Necmettin Erbakan University which was established in
Konya in 2010.
Private colleges in
Konya include the KTO Karatay University.
Seljuk Tower (2006) is the tallest building in Konya
The city ranks among the Anatolian Tigers. There are a number
of industrial parks. In 2012 Konya's exports reached 130
countries. A number of Turkish industrial conglomerates, such as
Kombassan Holding, have their headquarters in Konya.
While agriculture-based industries play a role, the city's economy has
evolved into a center for the manufacturing of components for the
automotive industry; machinery manufacturing; agricultural tools;
casting industry; plastic paint and chemical industry; construction
materials; paper and packing industry; processed foods; textiles; and
TCDD HT65000 on the Ankara–
Konya line of the Turkish State
Škoda 28 T
Škoda 28 T tram produced for the
Konya Metropolitan Municipality
The bus station has connections to a range of destinations, including
Ankara and İzmir.
Konya has a tramway network in the city center, on which the Škoda 28
T trams are being used.
Konya is connected to Ankara,
Istanbul via the
high-speed railway services of the Turkish State Railways.
Konya Airport is a public airport and military airbase that is also
used by NATO. In 2006,
Konya Airport served 2,924 aircraft and 262,561
Tertius of Iconium, the amanuensis who wrote down Paul the Apostle's
Epistle to the Romans
Amphilochius of Iconium, Christian bishop of the 4rth century
Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi
Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi disciple of
Ibn Arabi and an original thinker in
his own right.
Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, also called Mawlana Balkhi or "Mevlâna",
was the founder of the
Mevlevi order (known for the Whirling
Dervishes). He spent the last fifty years of his life in Konya. His
tomb is located here.
Prokopios Lazaridis, Greek Orthodox metropolitan bishop of the
Metropolis of Iconium
Orkut Büyükkökten, a software engineer who developed the social
networking service Orkut, was born in 1975 in Konya.
Mevlana Museum (1274) is the resting place of the
Sufi mystic and poet
Rumi in Konya, the capital of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate.
Alâeddin Mosque (1235) in Konya
Mevlana Museum, formerly the tekke of Mevlana
Sille. 8 kilometres (5.0 miles) northwest from Mevlana Museum. Antique
village. mosques, churches, cave churches and catakombs on the
historic Kings Road - Silky Road - Pilgrims Road to Jerusalem.
Sillehan, a must see in Konya.
Alâeddin Mosque
Ince Minaret Medrese—Museum
Karatay Medrese—Museum
Aziziye Mosque
Konya Ethnography Museum
Konya Archaeological Museum
Atatürk's House Museum
İzzet Koyunoğlu City Museum
St. Paul's Catholic Church—at Alaeddin Hill
Seljuk Tower, the tallest building in Konya
Konyaspor is the football club of the city, that appear in Turkish
Professional Football League. On May 31, 2017, he won the first
national trophy of his history, winning Türkiye Kupası in the final
against İstanbul Başakşehir in penalty shootout. The team repeated
on 6 August following winning Türkiye Süper Kupası against Turkey's
Etli ekmek is a local dish of Konya
Selimiye Mosque (1558) in Konya
Konya was the final home of
Rumi (Mevlana), whose tomb is in the city.
In 1273, his followers in
Konya established the
Sufi order of
Islam and became known as the Whirling Dervishes.
Konya has the
reputation of being one of the more religiously conservative
metropolitan centers in Turkey. It was once known as the "citadel of
Islam" and its inhabitants are still comparatively more devout than
those from other cities.
Konya produced Turkish carpets that were exported to Europe during the
Renaissance. These expensive, richly patterned textiles were
draped over tables, beds, or chests to proclaim the wealth and status
of their owners, and were often included in the contemporary oil
paintings as symbols of the wealth of the painter's clients.
A Turkish folk songs is named Konyalım,
Konyalıya Güzel Derler and
Konyalım Yaman Çalar Şak Şak Kaşığı, making reference to a
loved one from Konya.
The local cuisine of
Konya includes dishes made of bulgur wheat and
lamb meat. One of the renowned dishes of the city is etli ekmek,
which is similar to lahmacun and pizza.
Etliekmek- flat bread baked with ground meat, peppers, onions, and
Pişmaniye- similar to American cotton candy and resembles a fully
white ball of yarn
Firun Kebab- over-cooked meat (usually lamb)
Konya is known for their sweets. They are famous for
Cezerye, an old Turkish sweet made of carrots.
Tirit- a traditional rice dish that is made with meat and various
Tavak Suyu- a tomato broth based soup made with shredded chicken and
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Turkey
Konya is twinned with:
Tetovo, Republic of Macedonia
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Los Angeles, California
Tijuana, Baja California
Iran (since 2011)
Iran (since 2011)
Al Qadarif, Sudan
Konya Carpets and Rugs
Published in the 19th century
"Konia", Handbook for Travellers in
Turkey (3rd ed.), London: J.
Murray, 1854, OCLC 2145740
Clément Huart (1897). Konia, la ville des derviches tourneurs (in
French). Paris: Leroux.
Published in the 20th century
"Konia", The Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.), New York:
Encyclopædia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424
E. Broadrup (1995). "Konya/Catal Huyuk". International Dictionary of
Historic Places. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn.
Published in the 21st century
C. Edmund Bosworth, ed. (2007). "Konya". Historic Cities of the
Islamic World. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill.
"Konya". Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture. Oxford
University Press. 2009.
"About Konya/ Geography and Transportation".
Konya Sanayi Odasi.
Retrieved November 12, 2016.
Gould, Kevin. "Konya, In a Whirl of its Own". The Guardian. Retrieved
November 12, 2016.
"7 Good Eats in Konya". My Traveling Joys. Retrieved November 12,
References and notes
^ a b "Turkey: Major cities and provinces". citypopulation.de.
^ a b Financial Times: Reports — Anatolian tigers: Regions prove
^ a b root. "Anatolian Tigers". Investopedia. Retrieved 25 May
^ a b Zaman: Anatolian tigers conquering the world
^ a b "Konya". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
^ Acts 13:51
^ Acts 14:1–5
^ Acts 14:21)
^ Acts 16:2
^ see William Ramsay, Cities of St. Paul, 315–384; F. F. Bruce,
Paul: Apostle of the Heart Set Free Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1977.
^ 2 Timothy 3:10-13
^ Barnes, A., Barnes' Notes on the Bible, accessed 6 September 2015
^ a b c d Foss, Clive (1991). "Ikonion". In Kazhdan, Alexander. Oxford
Dictionary of Byzantium. London and New York: Oxford University Press.
p. 985. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.
^ Mango, Andrew, Discovering Turkey, Hastings House, 1972, page 61
^ Turkic:Kuva-yı Havaiye Müfettişliği
^ "Bir Hata Oluştu". Archived from the original on 5 May 2015.
Retrieved 25 May 2015.
^ Utkan Kocatürk, Atatürk ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarihi
kronolojisi, 1918-1938, Türk Tarîh Kurumu Basımevi, 1983, p. 674.
^ Ana Jet Üssü or AJÜ
^ Hava Kuvvet Komutanlığı
^ Mehmet Kayhan YILDIZ- Hasan BÖLÜKBAŞ- Serdar ÖZGÜR- Tolga
YANIK- Hasan DÖNMEZ/ KONYA,(DHA). "TSK yeni yıldızı Barış
Kartalı'na kavuştu". HÜRRİYET - TÜRKİYE'NİN AÇILIŞ SAYFASI.
Retrieved 25 May 2015.
Turkey takes delivery of military aircraft". TodaysZaman. Archived
from the original on February 22, 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
^ " İhtisab Agalıgi" (Islamic-Ottoman office for public regularity)
^ http://www.citypopulation.de/Turkey-RBC20.html December 2012
address-based calculation of the
Turkish Statistical Institute as
presented by citypopulation.de
^ Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification -
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
^ "Meteoroloji" (in Turkish). Retrieved 8 January 2016.
Turkey and Konya,
Konya Livestock Congress, 2014
Konya Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi". Retrieved 25 May
^ "KTO Karatay Üniversitesi". Karatay.edu.tr. Retrieved
^ a b c "General Overview Of The
Konya Economy". Retrieved 25 May
^ "History « Kombassan Holding". Retrieved 25 May 2015.
^ (in English) "Škoda Transportation wins
Konya tram contract".
^ "Opening of
Konya fast line completes strategic link".
Railway Gazette. 24 August 2011. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
^ "Invensys commissions ERTMS solution on Turkish High Speed Line".
European Railway Review. 7 September 2011. Archived from the original
on 20 December 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
^ (in Turkish)
Konya Hava Meydanı at DHMİ (State Airports Authority)
^ Journal Article,
Amphilochius of Iconium
Amphilochius of Iconium and Lycaonian Asceticism,
PETER THONEMANN, The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 101 (2011), pp.
^ Die Soziale Ale Stellung Des Priesters in Griechenland, Demosthenes
Savramides, Leiden, E.J.Bril, 1968
^ Kiminas, Demetrius (2009). The ecumenical patriarchate : a
history of its metropolitanates with annotated hierarch catalogs. San
Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press. p. 100.
^ "Introduction to Orkut". Retrieved 25 May 2015.
^ "BBC NEWS - Europe - '
Islam problem' baffles Turkey". Retrieved 25
^ King, Donald and Sylvester, David. The Eastern Carpet in the Western
World, From the 15th to the 17th century, Arts Council of Great
Britain, London, 1983, ISBN 0-7287-0362-9. pp. 26-27, 52-57.
^ Campbell, Gordon. The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts, Volume
1, "Carpet, S 2; History (pp. 187–193), Oxford University Press US,
2006, ISBN 0-19-518948-5, ISBN 978-0-19-518948-3 Google
books. p. 189.
^ "oldturkishcarpets.com". Retrieved 25 May 2015.
^ "Konyalım". Retrieved 25 May 2015.
^ a b "
Konya Büyükşehir Belediyesi". Retrieved 25 May 2015.
Kyoto İle Kardeş Şehir Protokolü İmzalandı, Heyet Japon
Konya Büyükşehir Belediyesi (2010)
^ a b "
Rumi Remembered in Birthplace of Shams". Archived from the
original on 7 April 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
^ "PAKISTAN – TURKEY JOINT STATEMENT" (Press release). Islamabad,
Pakistan Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2008-10-31. Archived
from the original (HTML) on 2012-02-11. Retrieved 2018-03-30. CS1
maint: Date and year (link)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Konya.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Konya travel guide from Wikivoyage
Encyclopædia Britannica: Konya
More information about Konya
Emporis: Database of highrises and other structures in Konya
Detailed Pictures of Mevlana Museum
Pictures of the city, including
Mevlana Museum and several Seljuk
600 Pictures of the city and sights
Extensive collection of pictures of the Mevlana museum in Konya
Cities of St. Paul, 316-384
ArchNet.org. "Konya". Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: MIT School of
Architecture and Planning.
"Konya". Islamic Cultural Heritage Database. Istanbul: Organization of
Islamic Cooperation, Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and
Culture. Archived from the original on May 16, 2013.
Konya Province of Turkey
List of Provinces by Region
West Black Sea
East Black Sea
Central East Anatolia
Metropolitan municipalities are bolded.
Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey
First Journey of Paul the Apostle
Antioch of Pisidia
Antioch (returns to beginning of journey)
UNESCO Tentative list of World Heritage Sites in Turkey
Aizanoi antique city
Mausolem and Sacred area of Hecatomnus
Archaeological site of Laodikeia
Medieval City of Beçin
Ancient City of
Sardis and the Lydian Tumuli of Bin Tepe
Ancient City of Stratonikeia
Black Sea Region
Mount Harşena and the Rock-tombs of the Pontic Kings
Mahmut Bey Mosque
Sümela Monastery (The Monastery of Virgin Mary)
Archaeological site of Kültepe-Kaneş
Haji Bektash Veli Complex
Ankara Hacı Bayram Mosque
Ince Minaret Medrese
Historical Monuments of Niğde
Konya-A capital of Seljuk Civilization
Lake Tuz SEPA
Odunpazarı historical urban site
Tomb of Ahi Evren
Archaeological Site of Arslantepe
Eshab-ı Kehf Kulliye
Ishak Pasha Palace
The Tombstones of Ahlat the Urartian and Ottoman citadel
Çanakkale (Dardanelles) and Gelibolu (Gallipoli) Battles Zones in the
First World War
Historic Guild Town of Mudurnu
The Bridge of Uzunköprü
Yıldız Palace Complex
Ancient city of Anazarbus
Ancient Cities of Lycian Civilization
Ancient City of Kaunos
Ancient City of Korykos
Archaeological Site of Perge
Termessos National Park
Archaeological Site of Sagalassos
St.Paul Church, St.Paul's Well and surrounding historic quarters (in
St. Pierre Church in Hatay
St. Nicholas Church in Demre
The Theatre and Aqueducts of the Ancient City of Aspendos
Vespasianus Titus Tunnel
Archeological Site of Zeugma
Archaeological Site of Göbeklitepe
Harran and Şanlıurfa
İsmail Fakirullah Tomb
Mardin Cultural Landscape
Yesemek Quarry and Sculpture Workshop
Zeynel Abidin Mosque Complex and Mor Yakup (Saint Jacob) Church
All over Turkey
Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs
Seljuk Caravanserais on the route from Denizli to Dogubeyazit
Trading Posts and Fortifications on Genoese Trade Routes