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Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko (/tʃɜːrˈnɛŋkoʊ/;[1] Russian: Константи́н Усти́нович Черне́нко, IPA: [kənstɐnˈtʲin usˈtʲinɐvʲɪtɕ tɕɨrˈnʲenkə], 24 September 1911 – 10 March 1985)[2] was a Soviet
Soviet
politician and the fifth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet
Soviet
Union. He led the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 13 February 1984 until his death thirteen months later, on 10 March 1985. Chernenko was also Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet from 11 April 1984 until his death.

Contents

1 Early life and political career

1.1 Origins 1.2 Rise to the Soviet
Soviet
leadership

2 Leader of the Soviet
Soviet
Union 3 Death and legacy 4 Honors and awards 5 Personal life 6 References 7 Sources 8 External links

Early life and political career[edit] Origins[edit] Chernenko was born to a poor family in the Siberian
Siberian
village of Bolshaya Tes (now in Novosyolovsky District, Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
Krai) on 24 September 1911.[3] His father, Ustin Demidovich (of Ukrainian origin), worked in copper mines and gold mines[4] while his mother took care of the farm work. Chernenko joined the Komsomol
Komsomol
(Communist Youth League) in 1929, and became a full member of the Communist Party in 1931. From 1930 to 1933, he served in the Soviet
Soviet
frontier guards on the Soviet–Chinese border. After completing his military service, he returned to Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
as a propagandist. In 1933 he worked in the Propaganda Department of the Novosyolovsky District
Novosyolovsky District
Party Committee. A few years later he was promoted to head of the same department in Uyarsk Raykom. Chernenko then steadily rose through the Party ranks, becoming the Director of the Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
House of Party Enlightenment, then in 1939 the Deputy Head of the Agitprop
Agitprop
Department of Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
Territorial Committee, and finally in 1941 Secretary of the Territorial Party Committee for Propaganda. In the 1940s he established a close relationship with Fyodor Kulakov.[5] In 1945, he acquired a diploma from a party training school in Moscow, and in 1953 he finished a correspondence course for schoolteachers.

Rise to the Soviet
Soviet
leadership[edit] Chernenko's Party card following his promotion to the CPSU's Central Committee. The turning point in Chernenko’s career was his assignment in 1948 to head the Communist Party’s propaganda department in the Moldavian Soviet
Soviet
Socialist Republic. There, he met and won the confidence of Leonid Brezhnev, the first secretary of the Moldavian SSR from 1950 to 1952 and future leader of the Soviet
Soviet
Union. Chernenko followed Brezhnev in 1956 to fill a similar propaganda post in the CPSU Central Committee in Moscow. In 1960, after Brezhnev was named chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Soviet
(titular head of state of the Soviet Union), Chernenko became his chief of staff. In 1964, Soviet
Soviet
leader Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
was deposed, and succeeded by Brezhnev. During Brezhnev's tenure as Party leader, Chernenko's career continued successfully. He was nominated in 1965 as head of the General Department of the Central Committee, and given the mandate to set the Politburo agenda and prepare drafts of numerous Central Committee decrees and resolutions. He also monitored telephone wiretaps and covert listening devices in various offices of the top Party members. Another of his jobs was to sign hundreds of Party documents daily, a job he did for the next 20 years. Even after he became General Secretary of the Party, he continued to sign papers referring to the General Department (when he could no longer physically sign documents, a facsimile was used instead). In 1971, Chernenko was promoted to full membership in the Central Committee: Overseeing Party work over the Letter Bureau, dealing with correspondence. In 1976, he was elected secretary of the Letter Bureau. He became Candidate in 1977, and in 1978 a full member of the Politburo, second to the General Secretary in the Party hierarchy. During Brezhnev's final years, Chernenko became fully immersed in ideological Party work: heading Soviet
Soviet
delegations abroad, accompanying Brezhnev to important meetings and conferences, and working as a member of the commission that revised the Soviet Constitution in 1977. In 1979, he took part in the Vienna arms limitation talks. After Brezhnev's death in November 1982, there was speculation that the position of General Secretary would fall to Chernenko, but he was unable to rally enough support for his candidacy within the Party. Ultimately, KGB
KGB
chief Yuri Andropov, who had been more mindful of Brezhnev's failing health, succeeded to the position.

Leader of the Soviet
Soviet
Union[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Konstantin Chernenko" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR
JSTOR
(February 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Original CIA file on Chernenko, seized from the former US Embassy in Tehran. Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
died in February 1984, after just 15 months in office. Chernenko was then elected to replace Andropov even though Andropov himself stated he wanted Gorbachev to succeed him. Additionally, Chernenko was terminally ill himself. Despite these factors, Yegor Ligachev
Yegor Ligachev
writes in his memoirs that Chernenko was elected general secretary without a hitch. At the Central Committee plenary session on 13 February 1984, four days after Andropov's death, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, Premier, and Politburo member Nikolai Tikhonov
Nikolai Tikhonov
moved that Chernenko be elected general secretary, and the Committee duly voted him in. Arkady Volsky, an aide to Andropov and other general secretaries, recounts an episode that occurred after a Politburo meeting on the day following Andropov's demise: As Politburo members filed out of the conference hall, either Andrei Gromyko
Andrei Gromyko
or (in later accounts) Dmitriy Ustinov is said to have put his arm round Nikolai Tikhonov's shoulders and said: "It's okay, Kostya is an agreeable guy (pokladisty muzhik), one can do business with him...." The Politburo failed to pass the decision for Gorbachev, who was nominally Chernenko's second in command, to run the meetings of the Politburo itself in the absence of Chernenko; the latter due to his declining health began to miss those meetings with increasing frequency. As Nikolai Ryzhkov
Nikolai Ryzhkov
describes it in his memoirs, "every Thursday morning he (Mikhail Gorbachev) would sit in his office like a little orphan – I would often be present at this sad procedure – nervously awaiting a telephone call from the sick Chernenko: Would he come to the Politburo himself or would he ask Gorbachev to stand in for him this time again?" At Andropov's funeral, he could barely read the eulogy. Those present strained to catch the meaning of what he was trying to say in his eulogy. He spoke rapidly, swallowed his words, kept coughing and stopped repeatedly to wipe his lips and forehead. He ascended Lenin's Mausoleum by way of a newly installed escalator and descended with the help of two bodyguards. Chernenko represented a return to the policies of the late Brezhnev era. Nevertheless, he supported a greater role for the labour unions, and reform in education and propaganda. The one major personnel change Chernenko made was the dismissal of the Chief of the General Staff, Marshal Nikolai Ogarkov, who had advocated less spending on consumer goods in favor of greater expenditures on weapons research and development.[citation needed] Ogarkov was subsequently replaced by Marshal Sergey Akhromeyev. In foreign policy, he negotiated a trade pact with China. Despite calls for renewed détente, Chernenko did little to prevent the escalation of the Cold War
Cold War
with the United States. For example, in 1984, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
prevented a visit to West Germany
West Germany
by East German leader Erich Honecker. However, in late autumn of 1984, the U.S. and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
did agree to resume arms control talks in early 1985. In November 1984 Chernenko met with Britain's Labour Party leader, Neil Kinnock.[6] In 1980, the United States
United States
had boycotted the Summer Olympics held in Moscow
Moscow
in protest at the Soviet
Soviet
invasion of Afghanistan. The following 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
were due to be held in Los Angeles, California. On 8 May 1984, under Chernenko's leadership, the USSR announced its intention not to participate, citing security concerns and "chauvinistic sentiments and an anti- Soviet
Soviet
hysteria being whipped up in the United States".[7] The boycott was joined by 14 Eastern Bloc countries and allies, including Cuba
Cuba
(but not Romania). The action was widely seen as revenge for the U.S. boycott of the Moscow Games. The boycotting countries organised their own "Friendship Games" in the summer of 1984.

Death and legacy[edit] Chernenko's grave at the Kremlin Wall Necropolis
Kremlin Wall Necropolis
in Moscow. Chernenko started smoking at the age of nine,[8] and he was always known to be a heavy smoker as an adult.[9] Long before his election as general secretary, he had developed emphysema and right-sided heart failure. In 1983 he had been absent from his duties for three months due to bronchitis, pleurisy and pneumonia. Historian John Lewis Gaddis
John Lewis Gaddis
describes him as "an enfeebled geriatric so zombie-like as to be beyond assessing intelligence reports, alarming or not" when he succeeded Andropov in 1984.[10] In early 1984, Chernenko was hospitalised for over a month but kept working by sending the Politburo notes and letters. During the summer, his doctors sent him to Kislovodsk
Kislovodsk
for the mineral spas, but on the day of his arrival at the resort Chernenko's health deteriorated, and he contracted pneumonia. Chernenko did not return to the Kremlin until later in 1984. He awarded Orders to cosmonauts and writers in his office, but was unable to walk through the corridors of his office and was driven in a wheelchair. By the end of 1984, Chernenko could hardly leave the Central Clinical Hospital, a heavily guarded facility in west Moscow, and the Politburo was affixing a facsimile of his signature to all letters, as Chernenko had done with Andropov's when he was dying. Chernenko's illness was first acknowledged publicly on 22 February 1985 during a televised election rally in Kuibyshev Borough of northeast Moscow, where the General Secretary stood as candidate for the Supreme Soviet
Soviet
of the Russian SFSR, when Politburo member Viktor Grishin revealed that the General Secretary was absent in accordance with doctors' advice.[11] Two days later, in a televised scene that shocked the nation,[12] Grishin dragged the terminally ill Chernenko from his hospital bed to a ballot box to vote. On 28 February 1985, Chernenko appeared once more on television to receive parliamentary credentials and read out a brief statement on his electoral victory: "the election campaign is over and now it is time to carry out the tasks set for us by the voters and the Communists who have spoken out".[11] Emphysema
Emphysema
and the associated lung and heart damage worsened significantly for Chernenko in the last three weeks of February 1985. According to the Chief Kremlin doctor, Yevgeny I. Chazov, Chernenko had also developed both chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver.[7] On 10 March at 15:00, Chernenko fell into a coma and died later that evening at 19:20. He was 73 years old. An autopsy revealed the cause of death to be a combination of chronic emphysema, an enlarged and damaged heart, congestive heart failure and liver cirrhosis. Chernenko became the third Soviet
Soviet
leader to die in less than three years. Upon being informed in the middle of the night of his death, U.S. President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
is reported to have remarked "How am I supposed to get anyplace with the Russians if they keep dying on me?"[13] Chernenko was honored with a state funeral and was buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis. He is the last person to have been interred there. The impact of Chernenko—or the lack thereof—was evident in the way in which his death was reported in the Soviet
Soviet
press. Soviet
Soviet
newspapers carried stories about Chernenko's death and Gorbachev's selection on the same day. The papers had the same format: page 1 reported the party Central Committee session on 11 March that elected Gorbachev and printed the new leader's biography and a large photograph of him; page 2 announced the demise of Chernenko and printed his obituary. After the death of a Soviet
Soviet
leader it was customary for his successors to open his safe. When Gorbachev had Chernenko's safe opened, it was found to contain a small folder of personal papers and several large bundles of money; a large amount of money was also found in his desk. It is not known where he had obtained the money or what he intended to use it for.[14]

Honors and awards[edit] Chernenko was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labour, 1976, in 1981 and in 1984 he was awarded Hero of the Socialist Labour: on the latter occasion, Minister of Defence Ustinov underlined his rule as an "outstanding political figure, a loyal and unwavering continuer of the cause of the great Lenin"; in 1981 he was awarded with the Bulgarian Order of Georgi Dimitrov
Order of Georgi Dimitrov
and in 1982 he received the Lenin Prize
Lenin Prize
for his "Human Rights in Soviet
Soviet
Society".

Hero of Socialist Labour, three times Order of Lenin, four times Order of the Red Banner of Labour, three times Medal "For Valiant Labour in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" Lenin Prize
Lenin Prize
(1982) USSR State Prize
USSR State Prize
(1982) Order of Karl Marx
Order of Karl Marx
(East Germany) Order of Georgi Dimitrov
Order of Georgi Dimitrov
(Bulgaria) Order of Klement Gottwald
Order of Klement Gottwald
(Czechoslovakia) Personal life[edit] Chernenko's first marriage produced a son, Albert, who became a noted Soviet
Soviet
legal theorist.[15] His second wife, Anna Dmitrevna Lyubimova (1913–2010), who married him in 1944, bore him two daughters, Yelena (who worked at the Institute of Party History) and Vera (who worked at the Soviet
Soviet
Embassy in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
in the United States), and a son, Vladimir, who was a Goskino editorialist.[15] In 2015, archival documents were published, according to which Konstantin Chernenko
Konstantin Chernenko
had many more wives, and many more children with them; this circumstance, perhaps, was the reason for the slowing of Chernenko's career growth in the 1940s.[16] He had a gosdacha (state-owned vacation house) named Sosnovka-3 in Troitse-Lykovo by the Moskva River
Moskva River
with a private beach, while Sosnovka-1 was used by Mikhail Suslov.

References[edit]

^ "Chernenko". Collins English Dictionary.

^ Profile of Konstantin Chernenko

^ Jessup, John E. (1998). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945-1996. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 121..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em  – via Questia (subscription required)

^ " Konstantin Chernenko
Konstantin Chernenko
– Russiapedia Leaders Prominent Russians". Russiapedia. RT. Retrieved 21 January 2017.

^ Hough, Jerry F. (1997). Democratization and revolution in the USSR, 1985–1991. Brookings Institution Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-8157-3748-3.

^ "SUCCESSION IN MOSCOW: A PRIVATE LIFE, AND A MEDICAL CASE; Briton Is Optimistic On Gorbachev Views". The New York Times. 1985. Retrieved 5 June 2018.

^ a b Altman, Lawrence K., "Succession in Moscow: A Private Life, and a Medical Case; Autopsy Discloses Several Diseases", New York Times, 25 March 1985.

^ Post, Jerrold M. (2004). Leaders and Their Followers in a Dangerous World: The Psychology of Political Behavior. Psychoanalysis & Social Theory. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. 87. ISBN 0-8014-4169-2.

^ Burns, John F. (16 February 1984). "World Attention Turns To Chernenko's Health". The New York Times.

^ John Lewis Gaddis
John Lewis Gaddis
(2005). The Cold War: A New History. Penguin Press. p. 228. ISBN 978-1594200625.

^ a b Mydans, Seth (1 March 1985). "A Halting Chernenko is on TV Again". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 September 2012.

^ Dmitri Volkogonov. (1998), Autopsy for an Empire: The Seven Leaders Who Built the Soviet
Soviet
Regime. (page 72). ISBN 0684834200

^ Maureen Dowd, "Where's the Rest of Him?" The New York Times, 18 November 1990.

^ Dmitri Volkogonov. (1998), The Rise and Fall of the Soviet
Soviet
Empire. Harper Collins. p. 430. (ISBN 9780006388180]

^ a b "Prominent Russians: Konstantin Chernenko". Russiapedia. Retrieved 3 September 2013.

^ Леонид Максименков. Человек одного года // «Огонёк», 16 March 2015.

Sources[edit] Brown, Archie (April 1984). "The Soviet
Soviet
Succession: From Andropov to Chernenko". World Today. 40: 134–141. Daniels, Robert V. (20 February 1984). "The Chernenko Comeback". New Leader. 67: 3–5. Halstead, John (May – June 1984). "Chernenko in Office". International Perspectives: 19–21. Meissner, Boris (April 1985). " Soviet
Soviet
Policy: From Chernenko to Gorbachev". Aussenpolitik. Bonn. 36 (4): 357–375. Pribytkov, Victor (December 1985). "Soviet-U.S. Relations: The Selected Writings and Speeches of Konstantin U. Chernenko". American Political Science Review. 79 (4): 1277. JSTOR 1956397. Urban, Michael E. (1986). "From Chernenko to Gorbachev: A Repolitization of Official Soviet
Soviet
Discourse". Soviet
Soviet
Union/Union Soviétique. 13 (2): 131–161. External links[edit] Human Rights in Soviet
Soviet
Society by Chernenko. Quotations related to Konstantin Chernenko
Konstantin Chernenko
at Wikiquote

Party political offices

Preceded byYuri Andropov

General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet
Soviet
Union13 February 1984 – 10 March 1985

Succeeded byMikhail Gorbachev

Government offices

Preceded byYuri Andropov

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet11 April 1984 – 10 March 1985

Succeeded byAndrei Gromyko

Sporting positions

Preceded by Jean Doré

President of Organizing Committee for Summer Olympic Games1980

Succeeded by Peter Ueberroth

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Yuri Andropov
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Konstantin Chernenko
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UnionHeads of state Kalinin (1922–1946) Shvernik (1946–1953) Voroshilov (1953–1960) Brezhnev (1960–1964) Mikoyan (1964–1965) Podgorny (1965–1977) Brezhnev (1977–1982) Andropov (1983–1984) Chernenko (1984–1985) Gromyko (1985–1988) Gorbachev (1988–1991) Vice heads of state Kuznetsov (1977–1986) Demichev (1986–1988) Lukyanov (1988–1990) Yanayev (1990–1991)

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Soviet Union

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vtePolitics of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
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bombings 1977 Soviet
Soviet
Constitution 1978 Georgian demonstrations Cambodian–Vietnamese War Soviet–Afghan War 1980 Summer Olympics Reaction to 1980–1981 Polish crisis Exercise Zapad Death and state funeral of Leonid Brezhnev Legacy of Leonid Brezhnev Events (1982–1985) RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 1983 false nuclear alarm incident Able Archer 83 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
boycott Friendship Games Politburo members 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th Aliyev Andropov Brezhnev Chebrikov Chernenko Demichev Dolgikh Efremov Gorbachev Grechko Grishin Gromyko Kirilenko Kiselyov Kunaev Kosygin Kulakov Kuznetsov Masherov Mazurov Mikoyan Mzhavanadze Pelše Podgorny Polyansky Ponomarev Rashidov Romanov Shcherbytsky Shelepin Shelest Shevardnadze Shvernik Solomentsev Suslov Tikhonov Ustinov Voronov Vorotnikov Leaders The Troika (Brezhnev Kosygin Podgorny) Yuri Andropov Konstantin Chernenko Governments Kosygin's 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Tikhonov's 1st 2nd National economyReforms OGAS 1965 1973 1979 Food Programme 1984 Five-year plans 8th plan 9th plan 10th plan 11th plan Brezhnev's family Churbanov (son-in-law) Galina (daughter) Lyubov (niece) Viktoria (wife) Yakov (brother) Yuri (son) Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal vteCold War USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II 1940s Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Jamaican conflict Dekemvriana Percentages agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Al-Wathbah uprising 1947–1949 Palestine war 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine 1948 Arab–Israeli War 1948 Palestinian exodus Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion 1950s Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Algerian War Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Jebel Akhdar War Vietnam War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Cyprus Emergency Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Yemeni–Adenese clan violence Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Ifni War Operation Gladio Arab Cold War Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising 1959 Mosul uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino- Soviet
Soviet
split 1960s Congo Crisis Simba rebellion 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Iraqi–Kurdish conflict First Iraqi–Kurdish War Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Portuguese Colonial War Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence Cuban Missile Crisis El Porteñazo Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Assassination of John F. Kennedy Cyprus crisis of 1963–64 Vietnam War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War Rhodesian Bush War South African Border War Transition to the New Order
Transition to the New Order
(Indonesia) Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ Conflict Greek military junta of 1967–1974 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Biafran War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution 1969 Libyan coup d'état Goulash Communism Sino- Soviet
Soviet
border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move 1970s Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Western Sahara conflict Nicaraguan Revolution Cambodian Civil War Vietnam War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Corrective Revolution (Egypt) 1971 Turkish military memorandum 1971 Sudanese coup d'état Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 Communist insurgency in Bangladesh Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Uruguayan coup d'état 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Second Iraqi–Kurdish War Turkish invasion of Cyprus Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Western Sahara War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Libyan–Egyptian War Uganda–Tanzania War German Autumn Korean Air Lines Flight 902 NDF Rebellion Chadian–Libyan conflict Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution Sino-Vietnamese War New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet
Soviet
Union 1980s Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
boycotts Peruvian conflict 1980 Turkish coup d'état Gulf of Sidra incident Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident South Yemen Civil War Toyota War 1988 Black Sea bumping incident Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity Soviet
Soviet
reaction Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende 1990s Mongolian Revolution of 1990 Gulf War German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of Czechoslovakia Dissolution of the Soviet
Soviet
Union Frozen conflicts Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Puerto Rico Kosovo Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute Foreign policy Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War IdeologiesCapitalism Liberalism Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism Communism Socialism Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism Other Imperialism Anti-imperialism Nationalism Ultranationalism Chauvinism Ethnic nationalism Racism Zionism Fascism Neo-Nazism Islamism Totalitarianism Authoritarianism Autocracy Liberal democracy Illiberal democracy Guided democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy White nationalism White separatism Apartheid Organizations NATO Warsaw Pact ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi Propaganda Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia Races Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race See also Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War List of Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
agents in the United States Soviet
Soviet
espionage in the United States Soviet
Soviet
Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II Russian Revolution War on terror

Category Commons Timeline List of conflicts

vteSoviet–Afghan War Part of the War in Afghanistan and the Cold War BelligerentsAlliance Soviet
Soviet
Union Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Mujahideen Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen Jamiat-e Islami Shura-e Nazar Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin Maktab al-Khidamat Hezb-e Islami Khalis Hezb-e Wahdat Ittehad i-Islami LeadersAlliance Leonid Brezhnev Yuri Andropov Konstantin Chernenko Mikhail Gorbachev Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Mujahideen Ahmad Shah Massoud Abdul Ali Mazari Abdullah Yusuf Azzam Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Abdul Haq Abdul Rahim Wardak Burhanuddin Rabbani Events by year 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 Military operations Operation Storm-333 3 Hoot uprising Siege of Khost Panjshir offensives Siege of Urgun Battle of Maravar Pass Badaber uprising Battles of Zhawar Battle of Jaji Battle of Arghandab (1987) Operation Magistral Battle for Hill 3234 Operation Arrow Soviet
Soviet
withdrawal from Afghanistan Related topics Soviet
Soviet
aircraft losses War in popular culture Military equipment used by Mujahideen Afghanistan War Memorial, Kiev Films about war The 9th Company Afghan Breakdown Afghantsi All Costs Paid The Beast Cargo 200 Charlie Wilson's War The Kite Runner The Living Daylights The Magic Mountain Peshavar Waltz Rambo III

Category Portal Multimedia

vteRevolutions of 1989Internalbackground Era of Stagnation Communism Anti-communism Criticism of communist party rule Eastern Bloc Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
economies Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
politics Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
media and propaganda Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
emigration and defection KGB Nomenklatura Shortage economy Totalitarianism Eastern European anti-Communist insurgencies Internationalbackground Active measures Cold War List of socialist states People Power Revolution Predictions of the dissolution of the Soviet
Soviet
Union Reagan Doctrine Soviet
Soviet
Empire Terrorism and the Soviet
Soviet
Union Vatican Opposition Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia Reforms Uskoreniye Perestroika Democratization in the Soviet
Soviet
Union Khozraschyot 500 Days Sinatra Doctrine Glasnost Socialism
Socialism
with Chinese characteristics Đổi mới Governmentleaders Ramiz Alia Nicolae Ceaușescu Mikhail Gorbachev Károly Grósz Erich Honecker Miloš Jakeš Egon Krenz Wojciech Jaruzelski Slobodan Milošević Mathieu Kérékou Mengistu Haile Mariam Ne Win Denis Sassou Nguesso Heng Samrin Deng Xiaoping Todor Zhivkov Siad Barre Oppositionmethods Civil resistance Demonstrations Human chains Magnitizdat Polish underground press Protests Samizdat Strike action Oppositionleaders Lech Wałęsa Václav Havel Alexander Dubček Ion Iliescu Liu Gang Wu'erkaixi Chai Ling Wang Dan Feng Congde Tank Man Joachim Gauck Sali Berisha Sanjaasürengiin Zorig Vladimir Bukovsky Boris Yeltsin Viacheslav Chornovil Vytautas Landsbergis Zianon Pazniak Zhelyu Zhelev Aung San Suu Kyi Meles Zenawi Isaias Afwerki Viktor Orbán Ronald Reagan George H. W. Bush Pope John Paul II Oppositionmovements Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation Charter 77 New Forum Civic Forum Democratic Party of Albania Democratic Russia Initiative for Peace and Human Rights Sąjūdis Peaceful Revolution People's Movement of Ukraine Solidarity Popular Front of Latvia Popular Front of Estonia Public Against Violence Belarusian Popular Front National League for Democracy National Salvation Front Unification Church political activities Union of Democratic Forces Eventsby locationCentral and Eastern Europe Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania Soviet
Soviet
Union Yugoslavia Czechoslovakia Soviet
Soviet
Union Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Chechnya Estonia Georgia Latvia Lithuania Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Moldova Russia Tajikstan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan Elsewhere Afghanistan Angola Benin Burma Cambodia China Congo-Brazzaville Ethiopia Mongolia Mozambique Somalia South Yemen Individualevents 1987–89 Tibetan unrest 1988 Polish strikes Polish Round Table Agreement April 9 tragedy Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria Hungarian Round Table Talks Pan-European Picnic Baltic Way Monday Demonstrations Alexanderplatz demonstration Fall of the Berlin Wall Malta Summit Black January Helsinki Summit German reunification January Events in Lithuania January Events in Latvia 1991 protests in Belgrade Dissolution of the Warsaw Pact August Coup Dissolution of the Soviet
Soviet
Union Later events Colour revolution Decommunization Lustration Democratization Economic liberalization Post- Soviet
Soviet
conflicts Neo-Sovietism Neo-Stalinism Post-communism Yugoslav Wars Pink Tide

Authority control BIBSYS: 90208192 BNE: XX887258 BNF: cb12017771s (data) GND: 118638300 ISNI: 0000 0001 0881 4728 LCCN: n79115293 LNB: 000153000 NDL: 00435862 NKC: jn20000700349 SELIBR: 229818 SNAC: w6c32rsf SUDOC: 028316754 VIAF: 27077285 WorldCat Identities
WorldCat Identities
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