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Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (German: [ˈkɔnʁaːt ˈhɛɐ̯man ˈjoːzəf ˈaːdəˌnaʊ̯ɐ] ( listen); 5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who served as the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
(West Germany) from 1949 to 1963. He led his country from the ruins of World War II to a productive and prosperous nation that forged close relations with France, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the United States.[2] During his years in power West Germany
West Germany
achieved democracy, stability, international respect and economic prosperity ("Wirtschaftswunder", German for "economic miracle").[3] He was the first leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), a Christian Democratic party that under his leadership became one of the most influential parties in the country. Adenauer, who was Chancellor until age 87, was dubbed "Der Alte" ("the elder"). British historian Roy Jenkins
Roy Jenkins
says he was "the oldest statesman ever to function in elected office."[4] He belied his age by his intense work habits and his uncanny political instinct. He displayed a strong dedication to a broad vision of market-based liberal democracy and anti-communism. A shrewd politician, Adenauer was deeply committed to a Western-oriented foreign policy and restoring the position of West Germany
West Germany
on the world stage. He worked to restore the West German economy from the destruction of World War II to a central position in Europe, presiding over the German Economic Miracle. He was a driving force behind West Germany
West Germany
becoming the first German state to re-establish a national military (the Bundeswehr) in 1955. He came to terms with France, which made possible the economic unification of Western Europe. Adenauer opposed rival East Germany
Germany
and made his nation a member of NATO
NATO
and a firm ally of the United States. A devout Roman Catholic, he had been a leading Centre Party politician in the Weimar Republic, serving as Mayor of Cologne
Cologne
(1917–1933) and as president of the Prussian State Council
Prussian State Council
(1922–1933).

Contents

1 The Cologne
Cologne
years

1.1 Early life and education 1.2 Leader in Cologne 1.3 Years under the Nazi government 1.4 After World War II and the founding of the CDU

2 Chancellor of West Germany

2.1 First government 2.2 Second government 2.3 Third government 2.4 Fourth government 2.5 Social policies 2.6 Intelligence services and spying

3 Death and legacy 4 Distinctions

4.1 National orders 4.2 Foreign orders 4.3 Awards

5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography

7.1 Primary sources

8 External links

The Cologne
Cologne
years[edit] Early life and education[edit]

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Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1896)

Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
was born as the third of five children of Johann Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1833–1906) and his wife Helene (née Scharfenberg; 1849–1919) in Cologne, Rhenish Prussia, on 5 January 1876.[5] His siblings were August (1872–1952), Johannes (1873–1937), Lilli (1879–1950) and Elisabeth, who died shortly after birth in c. 1880. One of the formative influences of Adenauer's youth was the Kulturkampf, an experience that as related to him by his parents left him with a lifelong dislike for "Prussianism", and led him like many other Catholic Rhinelanders of the 19th century to deeply resent the Rhineland's inclusion in Prussia.[6] In 1894, he completed his Abitur
Abitur
and began studying law and politics at the universities of Freiburg, Munich
Munich
and Bonn. In 1896, at the age of 20, he was conscripted into the German army, but did not pass the physical exam due to chronic respiratory problems he had experienced since childhood. He was a member of several Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
students' associations under the K.St.V. Arminia Bonn
Bonn
in Bonn. He graduated in 1900,[5] and afterwards worked as a lawyer at the court in Cologne.[7] He was strongly interested in the use of medicinal herbs, according to famous French herbalist Maurice Mességué, whom he met and befriended. Adenauer credited his vigorous health in his later years to the use of an infusion of barley water taken at night, but also maize stigma, mallow, sage, and yellow roses, which he used for the coughs to which he was prone. These were his favorite medicinal plants according to Mességué, though he had extensive knowledge of a wide range of plants. He agreed with Mességué that plants had to be free of sprays and not grown too artificially. He told Mességué that he owed his good health to "the plants, to nature." Adenauer found relaxation and great enjoyment in the Italian game of bocce and spent a great deal of his post political career playing this game. His favorite holiday place to do this was in Cadenabbia, Italy, in a rented villa overlooking Lake Como, which has since been acquired as a conference centre by the Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
Stiftung, the political foundation established by Adenauer's political party Christian Democratic Union (CDU). Leader in Cologne[edit]

In Wilhelmshaven
Wilhelmshaven
in 1928, when a new cruiser was given the name of Adenauer's (centre, with left hand visible) city Köln

Heinrich Hoerle: Zeitgenossen (contemporaries). A 1931 modernist painting with mayor Adenauer (in grey) together with artists and a boxer.

As a devout Catholic, he joined the Centre Party in 1906 and was elected to Cologne's city council in the same year. In 1909, he became Vice-Mayor of Cologne, an industrial metropolis with a population of 635,000 in 1914. Avoiding the extreme political movements that attracted so many of his generation, Adenauer was committed to bourgeois decency, diligence, order, Christian morals and values, and was dedicated to rooting out disorder, inefficiency, irrationality and political immorality.[8] From 1917 to 1933, he served as Mayor of Cologne
Cologne
and became a member of the Prussian House of Lords. Adenauer headed Cologne
Cologne
during World War I, working closely with the army to maximize the city's role as a rear base of supply and transportation for the Western Front. He paid special attention to the civilian food supply, enabling the residents to avoid the worst of the severe shortages that beset most German cities during 1918–19.[9] In the face of the collapse of the old regime and the threat of revolution and widespread disorder in late 1918, Adenauer maintained control in Cologne
Cologne
using his good working relationship with the Social Democrats. In a speech on 1 February 1919 Adenauer called for the dissolution of Prussia, and for the Prussian Rhineland to become a new autonomous Land (state) in the Reich.[10] Adenauer claimed this was the only way to prevent France
France
from annexing the Rhineland.[10] Both the Reich and Prussian governments were completely against Adenauer's plans for breaking up Prussia.[11] When the terms of the Treaty of Versailles were presented to Germany
Germany
in June 1919, Adenauer again suggested to Berlin
Berlin
his plan for an autonomous Rhineland state and again his plans were rejected by the Reich government.[12] He was mayor during the postwar British occupation. He established a good working relationship with the British military authorities, using them to neutralize the workers' and soldiers' council that had become an alternative base of power for the city's left wing.[13] During the Weimar Republic, he was president of the Prussian State Council (Preußischer Staatsrat) from 1921–33, which was the representation of the provinces of Prussia in its legislation. Since 1906, a major debate within the Zentrum concerned the question of whether the Zentrum should "leave the tower" (i.e. allow Protestants to join to become a multi-faith party) or "stay in the tower" (i.e. continue to be a Catholic-only party). Adenauer was one of the leading advocates of "leaving the tower", which led to a dramatic clash between him and Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber
Michael von Faulhaber
at the 1922 Katholikentag, where the Cardinal publicly admonished Adenauer for wanting to take the Zentrum "out of the tower".[14] In mid-October 1923, the Chancellor Gustav Stresemann
Gustav Stresemann
announced that Berlin
Berlin
would cease all financial payments to the Rhineland and that the new Rentenmark, which had replaced the now worthless Mark would not circulate in the Rhineland.[15] To save the Rhineland economy, Adenauer opened talks with the French High Commissioner Paul Tirard
Paul Tirard
in late October 1923 for a Rhenish republic in a sort of economic union with France
France
which would achieve Franco-German reconciliation, which Adenauer called a "grand design".[16] At the same time, Adenauer clung to the hope that the Rentenmark might still circulate in the Rhineland. Adenauer's plans came to nought when Stresemann, who was resolutely opposed to Adenauer's "grand design", which he viewed as borderline treason, was able to negotiate an end to the crisis on his own.[16] In 1926, the Zentrum suggested that Adenauer become Chancellor, an offer that he was interested in but ultimately rejected when the German People's Party
German People's Party
insisted that one of the conditions for entering into a coalition under Adenauer's leadership was that Gustav Stresemann stay on as Foreign Minister.[17] Adenauer, who disliked Stresemann as "too Prussian," rejected that condition, which marked the end of his chance of becoming Chancellor in 1926.[18] Years under the Nazi government[edit]

Adenauer in 1951, reading in his house in Rhöndorf he had built in 1937. It is now a museum.

Election gains of Nazi Party candidates in municipal, state and national elections in 1930 and 1932 were significant. Adenauer, as mayor of Cologne
Cologne
and president of the Prussian State Council, still believed that improvements in the national economy would make his strategy work: ignore the Nazis and concentrate on the Communist threat. Adenauer thought the Nazis should be part of the Prussian and Reich governments based on election returns, even when he was already the target of intense personal attacks.[19] Political manoeuvrings around the aging President Hindenburg
President Hindenburg
then brought the Nazis to power on 30 January 1933. By early February Adenauer finally realized that all talk and any attempts at compromise with the Nazis were futile. Cologne's city council and the Prussian parliament had been dissolved; on 4 April 1933, he was officially dismissed as mayor and his bank accounts frozen. "He had no money, no home and no job."[20] After arranging for the safety of his family, he appealed to the abbot of the Benedictine monastery at Maria Laach for a stay of several months. According to Albert Speer
Albert Speer
in his book Spandau: The Secret Diaries, Hitler expressed admiration for Adenauer, noting his civic projects, the building of a road circling the city as a bypass, and a "green belt" of parks. However, both Hitler and Speer concluded that Adenauer's political views and principles made it impossible for him to play any role in Nazi Germany. Adenauer was imprisoned for two days after the Night of the Long Knives on 30 June 1934, however, on 10 August 1934, maneuvering for his pension, he wrote a ten-page letter to Hermann Göring
Hermann Göring
(the Prussian interior minister). He stated that as Mayor he had violated Prussian laws in order to allow NSDAP events in public buildings and Nazi flags to be flown from city flagpoles and that in 1932 he had declared publicly that the Nazis should join the Reich government in a leading role.[21][22] In 1986 the magazine Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel
reported that at the end of 1932, Adenauer had indeed demanded a joint government by his Zentrum party and the Nazis for Prussia.[23] During the next two years, Adenauer changed residences often for fear of reprisals against him, while living on the benevolence of friends. With the help of lawyers in August 1937 he was successful in claiming a pension; he received a cash settlement for his house, which had been taken over by the city of Cologne; his unpaid mortgage, penalties and taxes were waived. With reasonable financial security he managed to live in seclusion for some years. After the failed assassination attempt on Hitler in 1944, he was imprisoned for a second time as an opponent of the regime. He fell ill and credited Eugen Zander, a former municipal worker in Cologne
Cologne
and communist, with saving his life. Zander, then a section Kapo of a labor camp near Bonn, discovered Adenauer's name on a deportation list to the East and managed to get him admitted to a hospital. Adenauer was subsequently rearrested (as was his wife), but in the absence of any evidence against him, was released from prison at Brauweiler in November 1944. After World War II and the founding of the CDU[edit] Shortly after the war ended, the American occupation forces once again installed him as Mayor of Cologne, which had been heavily bombed. After the city was transferred into the British zone of occupation, however, the Director of its military government, General Gerald Templer, dismissed Adenauer for incompetence in December 1945.[24] The probable reason for this was that Adenauer considered the Germans the equals of the occupying Allies, a view the British did not appreciate, resulting in his sacking.[25] Adenauer's dismissal by the British contributed much to his subsequent political success and allowed him to pursue a policy of alliance with the West in the 1950s without facing charges of being a "sell-out". After being dismissed, Adenauer devoted himself to building a new political party, the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), which he hoped would embrace both Protestants and Roman Catholics in a single party, and thereby achieve his long-standing goal of bringing the Zentrum "out of the tower". According to Adenauer, a Catholic-only party would lead to German politics being dominated by anti-democratic parties yet again.[26] In January 1946, Adenauer initiated a political meeting of the future CDU in the British zone in his role as doyen (the oldest man in attendance, Alterspräsident) and was informally confirmed as its leader. Adenauer had become a leader almost by default. During the Weimar Republic, Adenauer had often been considered a future Chancellor and after 1945, his claims for leadership were even stronger.[27] The other surviving Zentrum leaders were considered unsuitable for the tasks that lay ahead.[28] Reflecting his background as a Catholic Rhinelander who had long chafed under Prussian rule, Adenauer believed that Prussianism was the root cause of National Socialism, and that only by driving out Prussianism could Germany
Germany
become a democracy.[29] In a December 1946 letter, Adenauer wrote that the Prussian state in the early 19th century had become an "almost God-like entity" that valued state power over the rights of individuals.[29] Adenauer's dislike of Prussia even led him to oppose Berlin
Berlin
as a future capital.[30] Adenauer's Sonderweg view of German history, with National Socialism
Socialism
as a natural outgrowth out of Prussianism, sharply contrasted with the views of the Social Democratic leader Kurt Schumacher, who saw National Socialism
Socialism
as a natural outgrowth of capitalism.[31] These two radically differing views of recent German history led Adenauer and Schumacher in turn to recommend very different solutions for a better future. For Schumacher, to banish National Socialism
Socialism
meant replacing the capitalist system with a Marxist socialist system, whereas, for Adenauer, banishing National Socialism
Socialism
meant purging Prussianism. Adenauer viewed the most important battle in the postwar world as between the forces of Christianity
Christianity
and Marxism, especially Communism.[32] In Germany
Germany
during this period, the term Marxism described both the Communists and the Social Democrats as the latter were officially a Marxist party until the Bad Godesberg conference of 1959 when the SPD repudiated its commitment to achieving a Marxist society. The same anti-Marxist viewpoints led Adenauer to denounce the Social Democrats as the heirs to Prussianism and National Socialism.[33] Adenauer's ideology was at odds with many in the CDU, who wished to unite socialism and Christianity.[34] Adenauer worked diligently at building up contacts and support in the CDU over the following years, and he sought with varying success to impose his particular ideology on the party. Adenauer's leading role in the CDU of the British zone won him a position at the Parliamentary Council of 1948, called into existence by the Western Allies to draft a constitution for the three western zones of Germany. He was the chairman of this constitutional convention and vaulted from this position to being chosen as the first head of government once the new "Basic Law" had been promulgated in May 1949. Chancellor of West Germany[edit] First government[edit]

Election poster, 1949: "With Adenauer for peace, freedom and unity of Germany, therefore CDU"

The first election to the Bundestag
Bundestag
of West Germany
West Germany
was held on 15 August 1949, with the Christian Democrats emerging as the strongest party. There were two clashing visions of a future Germany
Germany
held by Adenauer and his main rival, the Social Democrat Kurt Schumacher. Adenauer favored integrating the Federal Republic with other Western states, especially France
France
and the United States
United States
in order to fight the Cold War, even if the price of this was the continued division of Germany. Schumacher by contrast, though an anti-communist, wanted to see a united, socialist and neutral Germany. As such, Adenauer was in favor of joining NATO, something that Schumacher was strongly opposed to. The Free Democrat Theodor Heuss
Theodor Heuss
was elected the first President of the Republic, and Adenauer was elected Chancellor (head of government) on 15 September 1949 with the support of his own CDU, the Christian Social Union, the liberal Free Democratic Party, and the right-wing German Party. It was said that Adenauer was elected Chancellor by the new German parliament by "a majority of one vote - his own".[35] At age 73, it was thought that Adenauer would only be a caretaker Chancellor.[36] However, he would go on to hold this post for 14 years, a period spanning most of the preliminary phase of the Cold War. During this period, the post-war division of Germany
Germany
was consolidated with the establishment of two separate German states, the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
(West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). In the controversial selection for a "provisional capital" of the Federal Republic of Germany, Adenauer championed Bonn
Bonn
over Frankfurt am Main. The British had agreed to detach Bonn
Bonn
from their zone of occupation and convert the area to an autonomous region wholly under German sovereignty; the Americans were not prepared to grant the same for Frankfurt.[37] He also resisted the claims of Heidelberg, which had better communications and had survived the war in better condition; partly because the Nazis had been popular there before they came to power and partly, as he said, because the world would not take them seriously if they set up their state in the city of The Student Prince. As chancellor, Adenauer tended to make most major decisions himself, treating his ministers as mere extensions of his authority. While this tendency decreased under his successors, it established the image of West Germany
West Germany
(and later reunified Germany) as a "chancellor democracy". In a speech on 20 September 1949, Adenauer denounced the entire denazification process pursued by the Allied military governments, announcing in the same speech that he was planning to bring in an amnesty law for the Nazi war criminals and he planned to apply to "the High Commissioners for a corresponding amnesty for punishments imposed by the Allied military courts".[38] Adenauer argued the continuation of denazification would "foster a growing and extreme nationalism" as the millions who supported the Nazi regime would find themselves excluded from German life forever.[39] By January 31, 1951, the amnesty legislation had benefited 792,176 people. They included 3,000 functionaries of the SA, the SS, and the Nazi Party who participated in dragging victims to jails and camps; 20,000 Nazis sentenced for "deeds against life" (presumably murder); 30,000 sentenced for causing bodily injury, and about 5,200 charged with "crimes and misdemeanors in office.[40] The Adenauer government refused to accept the Oder–Neisse line
Oder–Neisse line
as Germany's eastern frontier.[41] This refusal was in large part motivated by his desire to win the votes of expellees and right-wing nationalists to the CDU, which is why he supported Heimatrecht, i.e. the right of expellees to return to their former homes.[42] It was also intended to be a deal-breaker if negotiations ever began to reunite Germany
Germany
on terms that Adenauer considered unfavorable such as the neutralization of Germany
Germany
as Adenauer knew well that the Soviets would never revise the Oder-Neisse line.[42] Privately, Adenauer considered Germany's eastern provinces to be lost forever.[43]

Adenauer speaking in the Bundestag, 1955.

At the Petersberg Agreement
Petersberg Agreement
in November 1949 he achieved some of the first concessions granted by the Allies, such as a decrease in the number of factories to be dismantled, but in particular his agreement to join the International Authority for the Ruhr
International Authority for the Ruhr
led to heavy criticism. In the following debate in parliament Adenauer stated:

The Allies have told me that dismantling would be stopped only if I satisfy the Allied desire for security, does the Socialist Party want dismantling to go on to the bitter end?[44][45]

The opposition leader Kurt Schumacher
Kurt Schumacher
responded by labeling Adenauer "Chancellor of the Allies", accusing Adenauer of putting good relations with the West for the sake of the Cold War
Cold War
ahead of German national interests. After a year of negotiations, the Treaty of Paris was signed on 18 April 1951 establishing the European Coal and Steel Community. The treaty was unpopular in Germany
Germany
where it was seen as a French attempt to take over German industry.[46] The treaty conditions were favorable to the French, but for Adenauer, the only thing that mattered was European integration.[47] Adenauer was keen to see Britain join the European Coal and Steel Community
European Coal and Steel Community
as he believed the more free-market British would counterbalance the influence of the more dirigiste French, and to achieve that purpose he visited London in November 1951 to meet with Prime Minister Winston Churchill.[48] Churchill said Britain would not join the European Coal and Steel Community
European Coal and Steel Community
because doing so would mean sacrificing relations with the U.S and Commonwealth.[49] From the beginning of his Chancellorship, Adenauer had been pressing for German rearmament. After the outbreak of the Korean War
Korean War
on 25 June 1950, the U.S. and Britain agreed that West Germany
West Germany
had to be rearmed to strengthen the defenses of Western Europe
Western Europe
against a possible Soviet invasion. Further contributing to the crisis atmosphere of 1950 was the bellicose rhetoric of the East German leader Walter Ulbricht, who proclaimed the reunification of Germany
Germany
under communist rule to be imminent.[50][51] To soothe French fears of German rearmament, the French Premier René Pleven
René Pleven
suggested the so-called Pleven plan
Pleven plan
in October 1950 under which the Federal Republic would have its military forces function as part of the armed wing of the multinational European Defense Community
European Defense Community
(EDC).[52] Adenauer deeply disliked the "Pleven plan", but was forced to support it when it became clear that this plan was the only way the French would agree to German rearmament.[53]

Adenauer in 1950 at the Ermekeil barracks in Bonn
Bonn
with Adolf Heusinger (right), one of the authors of the Himmerod memorandum

In 1950, a major controversy broke out when it emerged that Adenauer's State Secretary Hans Globke
Hans Globke
had played a major role in drafting anti-semitic laws in Nazi Germany.[54] Adenauer kept Globke on as State Secretary as part of his strategy of integration.[55] Starting in August 1950, Adenauer began to pressure the Western Allies to free all of the war criminals in their custody, especially those from the Wehrmacht, whose continued imprisonment he claimed made West German rearmament impossible.[56] Adenauer had been opposed to the Nuremberg Trials in 1945–46, and after becoming Chancellor, he demanded the release of the so-called " Spandau
Spandau
Seven," as the seven war criminals convicted at Nuremberg and imprisoned at Spandau
Spandau
Prison were known.[57] In October 1950, Adenauer received the so-called "Himmerod memorandum" drafted by four former Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
generals at the Himmerod Abbey
Himmerod Abbey
that linked freedom for German war criminals as the price of German rearmament, along with public statements from the Allies that the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
committed no war crimes in World War II.[58] The Allies were willing to do whatever necessary to get the much-needed German rearmament underway, and in January 1951, General Dwight Eisenhower, commander of NATO
NATO
forces, issued a statement which declared the great majority of the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
had acted honorably.[59] On 2 January 1951, Adenauer met with the American High Commissioner, John J. McCloy, to argue that executing the Landsberg prisoners would ruin forever any effort at having the Federal Republic play its role in the Cold War.[60] In response to Adenauer's demands and pressure from the German public, McCloy on 31 January 1951 reduced the death sentences of most of the 102 men at Landsberg, hanging only 7 of the prisoners while the rest of those condemned to death were spared.[61] By 1951 laws were passed by the Bundestag
Bundestag
ending denazification. Denazification
Denazification
was viewed by the United States
United States
as counterproductive and ineffective, and its demise was not opposed.[62] Adenauer's intention was to switch government policy to reparations and compensation for the victims of Nazi rule (Wiedergutmachung).[63][64] Officials were allowed to retake jobs in civil service, with the exception of people assigned to Group I (Major Offenders) and II (Offenders) during the denazification review process.[64][65] Adenauer pressured his rehabilitated ex-Nazis by threatening that stepping out of line could trigger the reopening of individual de-Nazification prosecutions. The construction of a "competent Federal Government effectively from a standing start was one of the greatest of Adenauer's formidable achievements".[66] Contemporary critics accused Adenauer of cementing the division of Germany, sacrificing reunification and the recovery of territories lost in the westward shift of Poland
Poland
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
with his determination to secure the Federal Republic to the West. Adenauer's German policy was based upon Politik der Stärke (Policy of Strength), and upon the so-called "magnet theory", in which a prosperous, democratic West Germany
West Germany
integrated with the West would act as a "magnet" that would eventually bring down the East German regime.[67] In 1952, the Stalin Note, as it became known, "caught everybody in the West by surprise".[68] It offered to unify the two German entities into a single, neutral state with its own, non-aligned national army to effect superpower disengagement from Central Europe. Adenauer and his cabinet were unanimous in their rejection of the Stalin overture; they shared the Western Allies' suspicion about the genuineness of that offer and supported the Allies in their cautious replies. In this, they were supported by leader of the opposition Kurt Schumacher (a very rare occurrence), and recent (21st century) findings of historical research.[citation needed] Adenauer's flat rejection was, however, still out of step with public opinion; he then realized his mistake and he started to ask questions. Critics denounced him for having missed an opportunity for German reunification. The Soviets sent a second note, courteous in tone. Adenauer by then understood that "all opportunity for initiative had passed out of his hands,"[69] and the matter was put to rest by the Allies. Given the realities of the Cold War, German reunification
German reunification
and recovery of lost territories in the east were not realistic goals as both of Stalin's notes specified the retention of the existing "Potsdam"-decreed boundaries of Germany.

Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
with Israeli President Zalman Shazar, 1966.

Adenauer recognized the obligation of the German government to compensate Israel, as the main representative of the Jewish people, for The Holocaust. Germany
Germany
started negotiations with Israel
Israel
for restitution of lost property and the payment of damages to victims of Nazi persecution. In the Luxemburger Abkommen, Germany
Germany
agreed to pay compensation to Israel. Jewish claims were bundled in the Jewish Claims Conference, which represented the Jewish victims of Nazi Germany. Germany
Germany
then initially paid about 3 billion Mark to Israel and about 450 million to the Claims Conference, although payments continued after that, as new claims were made.[70] In the face of severe opposition both from the public and from his own cabinet, Adenauer was only able to get the reparations agreement ratified by the Bundestag
Bundestag
with the support of the SPD.[71] Israeli public opinion was divided over accepting the money, but ultimately the fledgling state under David Ben-Gurion
David Ben-Gurion
agreed to take it, opposed by more radical groups like Irgun, who were against such treaties. Those treaties were cited as a main reason for the assassination attempt by the radical Jewish groups against Adenauer.[72] On 27 March 1952, a package addressed to Chancellor Adenauer exploded in the Munich
Munich
Police Headquarters, killing one Bavarian police officer. Investigations revealed the mastermind behind the assassination attempt was Menachem Begin, who would later become the Prime Minister of Israel.[73] Begin had been the former commander of Irgun
Irgun
and at that time headed Herut
Herut
and was a member of the Knesset. His goal was to put pressure on the German government and prevent the signing of the Reparations Agreement between Israel
Israel
and West Germany, which he vehemently opposed.[74] The West German government kept all proof under seal in order to prevent antisemitic responses from the German public. Second government[edit]

Man of the Year: Adenauer on the cover of Time (January 4, 1954)

When a rebellion in East Germany
Germany
was harshly suppressed by the Red Army in June 1953, Adenauer took political advantage of the situation and was handily re-elected to a second term as Chancellor.[75] The CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
came up one seat short of an outright majority. Adenauer could thus have governed in a coalition with only one other party, but retained/gained the support of nearly all of the parties in the Bundestag
Bundestag
that were to the right of the SPD. For all of his efforts as West Germany's leader, Adenauer was named Time magazine's Man of the Year in 1953. In 1954, he received the Karlspreis
Karlspreis
(English: Charlemagne Award), an Award by the German city of Aachen
Aachen
to people who contributed to the European idea, European cooperation and European peace. The German Restitution Laws (Bundesentschädigungsgesetz) were passed in 1953 that allowed some victims of Nazi prosecution to claim restitution.[76] Under the 1953 restitution law, those who had suffered for "racial, religious or political reasons" could collect compensation, which were defined in such a way as to sharply limit the number of people entitled to collect compensation.[77] In the spring of 1954, opposition to the Pleven plan
Pleven plan
grew within the French National Assembly.[78] The British Prime Minister Winston Churchill told Adenauer that Britain would ensure that German rearmament would happen, regardless if the National Assembly ratified the EDC treaty or not.[79] In August 1954, the Pleven plan
Pleven plan
died when an alliance of conservatives and Communists in the National Assembly joined forces to reject the EDC treaty under the grounds that German rearmament in any form was an unacceptable danger to France.[80]

Signing the North Atlantic Treaty
North Atlantic Treaty
in Paris, 1954 (Adenauer at the left)

British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden
Anthony Eden
used the failure of the EDC to advocate for independent West German rearmament and West German NATO membership.[80] Thanks in part to Adenauer's success in rebuilding West Germany's image, the British proposal met with considerable approval.[80] In the ensuing London conference, Eden assisted Adenauer by promising the French that Britain would always maintain at least four divisions in the British Army of the Rhine
British Army of the Rhine
as long as there was a Soviet threat, with the strengthened British forces also aimed implicitly against any German revanchism.[81] Adenauer then promised that Germany
Germany
would never seek to have nuclear, chemical and biological weapons as well as heavy warships, strategic bombers, long-range artillery, and guided missiles, though these promises were non-binding.[81] The French had been assuaged that West German rearmament would be no threat to France. Additionally, Adenauer promised that the West German military would be under the operational control of NATO
NATO
general staff, though ultimate control would rest with the West German government; and that above all he would never violate the strictly defensive NATO
NATO
charter and invade East Germany
Germany
to achieve German reunification.[82]

Adenauer inspects formations of the newly created Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
on 20 January 1955

In May 1955, West Germany
West Germany
joined NATO
NATO
and in November a West German military, the Bundeswehr, was founded.[80] Though Adenauer made use of a number of former Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
generals and admirals in the Bundeswehr, he saw the Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
as a new force with no links to the past, and wanted it to be kept under civilian control at all times.[83] To achieve these aims, Adenauer gave a great deal of power to the military reformer Wolf Graf von Baudissin.[84] In November 1954, Adenauer's lobbying efforts on behalf of the " Spandau
Spandau
Seven" finally bore fruit with the release of Konstantin von Neurath.[85] Adenauer congratulated Neurath on his release.[86] President Heuss went even further, telling Neurath of his "martyrdom" at Nuremberg, and strongly implied that Neurath had been framed by the Allies.[87] The statements welcoming Neurath's release by Heuss and Adenauer sparked controversy all over the world.[87] At the same time, Adenauer's efforts to win freedom for Admiral Karl Dönitz
Karl Dönitz
ran into staunch opposition from the British Permanent Secretary at the Foreign Office, Ivone Kirkpatrick, who argued Dönitz would be an active danger to German democracy.[88] Adenauer then traded with Kirkpatrick no early release for Admiral Dönitz with an early release for Admiral Erich Raeder
Erich Raeder
on medical grounds.[89]

Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
with minister of economics Ludwig Erhard, 1956. Adenauer acted more leniently towards the trade unions and employers' associations than Erhard.

Adenauer's achievements include the establishment of a stable democracy in West Germany
West Germany
and a lasting reconciliation with France, culminating in the Élysée Treaty. His political commitment to the Western powers achieved full sovereignty for West Germany, which was formally laid down in the General Treaty, although there remained Allied restrictions concerning the status of a potentially reunited Germany
Germany
and the state of emergency in West Germany. Adenauer firmly integrated the country with the emerging Euro-Atlantic community (NATO and the Organisation for European Economic Cooperation). Adenauer is closely linked to the implementation of an enhanced pension system, which ensured unparalleled prosperity for retired people. Along with his Minister for Economic Affairs and successor Ludwig Erhard, the West German model of a "social market economy" (a mixed economy with capitalism moderated by elements of social welfare and Catholic social teaching) allowed for the boom period known as the Wirtschaftswunder ("economic miracle") that produced broad prosperity. The Adenauer era witnessed a dramatic rise in the standard of living of average Germans, with real wages doubling between 1950 and 1963. This rising affluence was accompanied by a 20% fall in working hours during that same period, together with a fall in the unemployment rate from 8% in 1950 to 0.4% in 1965.[90] in addition, an advanced welfare state was established.[91]

Soviet leaders greeting Adenauer in 1955.

In return for the release of the last German prisoners of war in 1955, the Federal Republic established diplomatic relations with the USSR, but refused to recognize East Germany
Germany
and broke off diplomatic relations with countries (e.g., Yugoslavia) that established relations with the East German régime.[92] Adenauer was also ready to consider the Oder-Neisse line
Oder-Neisse line
as the German border in order to pursue a more flexible policy with Poland
Poland
but he did not command sufficient domestic support for this, and opposition to the Oder-Neisse line
Oder-Neisse line
continued, causing considerable disappointment among Adenauer's Western allies.[93] In 1956, during the Suez Crisis, Adenauer completely supported the Anglo-French-Israeli attack on Egypt, arguing to his Cabinet that Nasser was a pro-Soviet force that needed to be cut down to size.[94] Adenauer was appalled that the Americans had come out against the attack on Egypt alongside the Soviets, which led Adenauer to fear that the United States
United States
and Soviet Union
Soviet Union
would "carve up the world" with no thought for European interests.[95]

Adenauer with the mother of a German POW
POW
brought home in 1955 from the Soviet Union, due to Adenauer's visit to Moscow

Right at the height of the Suez crisis, Adenauer visited Paris to meet the French Premier Guy Mollet
Guy Mollet
in a show of moral support for France.[96] The day before Adenauer arrived in Paris, the Soviet Premier Nikolai Bulganin
Nikolai Bulganin
sent the so-called "Bulganin letters" to the leaders of Britain, France, and Israel
Israel
threatening nuclear strikes if they did not end the war against Egypt.[96] The news of the "Bulganin letters" reached Adenauer mid-way on the train trip to Paris. The threat of a Soviet nuclear strike that could destroy Paris at any moment added considerably to the tension of the summit.[97] The Paris summit helped to strengthen the bond between Adenauer and the French, who saw themselves as fellow European powers living in a world dominated by Washington and Moscow.[98] Adenauer was deeply shocked by the Soviet threat of nuclear strikes against Britain and France, and even more so by the apparent quiescent American response to the Soviet threat of nuclear annihilation against two of NATO's key members.[99] As a result, Adenauer became more interested in the French idea of a European "Third Force" in the Cold War as an alternative security policy.[100] This helped to lead to the formation of the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
in 1957, which was intended to be the foundation stone of the European "Third Force".[101] Adenauer reached an agreement for his "nuclear ambitions" with a NATO Military Committee in December 1956 that stipulated West German forces were to be "equipped for nuclear warfare".[102] Concluding that the United States
United States
would eventually pull out of Western Europe, Adenauer pursued nuclear cooperation with other countries. The French government then proposed that France, West Germany
West Germany
and Italy
Italy
jointly develop and produce nuclear weapons and delivery systems, and an agreement was signed in April 1958. With the ascendancy of Charles de Gaulle, the agreement for joint production and control was shelved indefinitely.[103] President John F. Kennedy, an ardent foe of nuclear proliferation, considered sales of such weapons moot since "in the event of war the United States
United States
would, from the outset, be prepared to defend the Federal Republic."[104] The physicists of the Max Planck Institute for Theoretical Physics at Göttingen
Göttingen
and other renowned universities would have had the scientific capability for in-house development, but the will was absent,[105] nor was there public support. With Adenauer's fourth-term election in November 1961 and the end of his chancellorship in sight, his "nuclear ambitions" began to taper off. Third government[edit]

Adenauer with French president Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
at the Cologne
Cologne
Bonn Airport in 1961

1957 saw the reintegration of the Saarland
Saarland
into West Germany. The election of 1957 essentially dealt with national matters.[105] His re-election campaigns centered around the slogan "No Experiments".[36] Riding a wave of popularity from the return of the last POWs from Soviet labor camps, as well as an extensive pension reform, Adenauer led the CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
to the first—and as of 2018, only—outright majority in a free German election.[106] In 1957, the Federal Republic signed the Treaty of Rome
Treaty of Rome
and became a founding member of the European Economic Community. In September 1958, Adenauer first met President Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
of France, who was to become a close friend and ally in pursuing Franco-German rapprochement.[107] Adenauer saw de Gaulle as a "rock" and the only foreign leader whom he could completely trust.[108] In response to the Ulm Einsatzkommando trial in 1958, Adenauer set up the Central Office of the State Justice Administrations for the Investigation of National Socialist Crimes.[109] On 27 November 1958 another Berlin
Berlin
crisis broke out when Khrushchev submitted an ultimatum with a six-month expiry date to Washington, London and Paris, where he demanded that the Allies pull all their forces out of West Berlin
Berlin
and agree that West Berlin
Berlin
become a "free city", or else he would sign a separate peace treaty with East Germany.[110] Adenauer was opposed to any sort of negotiations with the Soviets, arguing if only the West were to hang tough long enough, Khrushchev would back down.[111] As the 27 May deadline approached, the crisis was defused by the British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, who visited Moscow
Moscow
to meet with Khrushchev and managed to extend the deadline while not committing himself or the other Western powers to concessions.[112] Adenauer believed Macmillan to be a spineless "appeaser", who had made a secret deal with Khrushchev at the expense of the Federal Republic.[113][114]

Adenauer visiting a refugee kindergarten in Berlin
Berlin
in 1958

Adenauer tarnished his image when he announced he would run for the office of federal president in 1959, only to pull out when he discovered that under the Basic Law, the president had far less power than he did in the Weimar Republic. After his reversal he supported the nomination of Heinrich Lübke
Heinrich Lübke
as the CDU presidential candidate whom he believed weak enough not to interfere with his actions as Federal Chancellor. One of Adenauer's reasons for not pursuing the presidency was his fear that Ludwig Erhard, whom Adenauer thought little of, would become the new chancellor. By early 1959, Adenauer came under renewed pressure from his Western allies, to recognize the Oder-Neisse line, with the Americans being especially insistent.[115] Adenauer gave his "explicit and unconditional approval" to the idea of non-aggression pacts in late January 1959, which effectively meant recognising the Oder-Neisse line, since realistically speaking Germany
Germany
could only regain the lost territories through force. After Adenauer's intention to sign non-aggression pacts with Poland
Poland
and Czechoslovakia became clear, the German expellee lobby swung into action and organized protests all over the Federal Republic while bombarding the offices of Adenauer and other members of the cabinet with thousands of letters, telegrams and telephone calls promising never to vote CDU again if the non-aggression pacts were signed.[116] Faced with this pressure, Adenauer promptly capitulated to the expellee lobby.[116] In late 1959, a controversy broke out when it emerged that Theodor Oberländer, the Minister of Refugees since 1953 and one of the most powerful leaders of the expellee lobby had committed war crimes against Jews
Jews
and Poles during World War II.[117] Despite his past, on 10 December 1959, a statement was released to the press declaring that "Dr. Oberländer has the full confidence of the Adenauer cabinet".[118] Other Christian Democrats made it clear to Adenauer that they would like to see Oberländer out of the cabinet, and finally in May 1960 Oberländer resigned.[119] Fourth government[edit]

U.S. President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
visiting Adenauer at the Hammerschmidt Villa

In 1961, Adenauer had his concerns about both the status of Berlin
Berlin
and US leadership confirmed, as the Soviets and East Germans built the Berlin
Berlin
Wall. Adenauer had come into the year distrusting the new US President, John F. Kennedy. He doubted Kennedy's commitment to a free Berlin
Berlin
and a unified Germany
Germany
and considered him undisciplined and naïve.[120] For his part, Kennedy thought that Adenauer was a relic of the past. Their strained relationship impeded effective Western action on Berlin
Berlin
during 1961.[121] The construction of the Berlin
Berlin
Wall in August 1961 and the sealing of borders by the East Germans made Adenauer's government look weak. Adenauer chose to remain on the campaign trail, and made a disastrous misjudgement in a speech on 14 August 1961 in Regensburg
Regensburg
when he engaged in a personal attack on the SPD Mayor of West Berlin, Willy Brandt saying that Brandt's illegitimate birth had disqualified him from holding any sort of office.[122] After failing to keep their majority in the general election on 17 September, the CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
again needed to include the FDP in a coalition government. Adenauer was forced to make two concessions: to relinquish the chancellorship before the end of the new term, his fourth, and to replace his foreign minister.[123] In his last years in office, Adenauer used to take a nap after lunch and, when he was traveling abroad and had a public function to attend, he sometimes asked for a bed in a room close to where he was supposed to be speaking, so that he could rest briefly before he appeared.[124]

Berlin
Berlin
plaque commemorating restoration of relations between Germany and France, showing Adenauer and Charles de Gaulle.

During this time, Adenauer came into conflict with the Economics Minister Ludwig Erhard
Ludwig Erhard
over the depth of German integration to the West. Erhard was in favor of allowing Britain to join to create a trans-Atlantic free trade zone, while Adenauer was for strengthening ties amongst the original founding six nations of West Germany, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and Italy.[125] In Adenauer's viewpoint, the Cold War
Cold War
meant that the NATO
NATO
alliance with the United States
United States
and Britain was essential, but there could be no deeper integration into a trans-Atlantic community beyond the existing military ties as that would lead to a "mishmash" between different cultural systems that would be doomed to failure.[126] Though Adenauer had tried to get Britain to join the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951–52, by the early 1960s Adenauer had come to share General de Gaulle's belief that Britain simply did not belong in the EEC.[127] The Élysée Treaty
Élysée Treaty
was signed in January 1963 to solidify relations with France. In October 1962, a scandal erupted when police arrested five Der Spiegel journalists, charging them with espionage for publishing a memo detailing weaknesses in the West German armed forces. Adenauer had not initiated the arrests, but initially defended the person responsible, Defense Minister Franz Josef Strauss, and called the Spiegel memo "abyss of treason". After public outrage and heavy protests from the coalition partner FDP he dismissed Strauss, but the reputation of Adenauer and his party had already suffered.[128][129]

Adenauer delivering a speech at the March 1966 CDU party rally, one year before his death

Adenauer managed to remain in office for almost another year, but the scandal increased the pressure already on him to fulfill his promise to resign before the end of the term. Adenauer was not on good terms in his last years of power with his economics minister Ludwig Erhard and tried to block him from the chancellorship. In January 1963, Adenauer privately supported General Charles de Gaulle's veto of Britain's attempt to join the European Economic Community, and was only prevented from saying so openly by the need to preserve unity in his cabinet as most of his ministers led by Ludwig Erhard
Ludwig Erhard
supported Britain's application.[130] A Francophile, Adenauer saw a Franco-German partnership as the key for European peace and prosperity and shared de Gaulle's view that Britain would be a disputative force in the EEC.[131] Adenauer failed in his efforts to block Erhard as his successor, and in October 1963 he turned the office over to Erhard. He remained chairman of the CDU until his resignation in December 1966.[132] Adenauer ensured a truly free and democratic society and laid the groundwork for Germany
Germany
to reenter the community of nations and to evolve as a dependable member of the Western world. It can be argued that because of Adenauer's policies, a later reunification of both German states was possible; and unified Germany
Germany
has remained a solid partner in the European Union
European Union
and NATO. The British historian Frederick Taylor argued that Federal Republic under Adenauer retained many of the characteristics of the authoritarian "deep state" that existed under the Weimar Republic, and that in many ways the Adenauer era was a transition period in values and viewpoints from the authoritarianism that characterized Germany
Germany
in the first half of the 20th century to the more democratic values that characterized the western half Germany
Germany
in the second half of the 20th century.[133] Social policies[edit] Adenauer's years in the Chancellorship saw the realization of a number of important initiatives in the domestic field, such as in housing, pension rights, and unemployment provision. A major housebuilding programme was launched, while measures introduced to assist war victims[134] and expellees.[135] A savings scheme for homeownership was set up in 1952,[136] while the Housebuilding Act of 1956 reinforced incentives for owner-occupation. Employer-funded child allowances for three or more children were established in 1954, and in 1957 the indexation of pension schemes was introduced, together with an old age assistance scheme for agricultural workers.[137] The 1952 Maternity Leave Law foresaw 12 weeks of paid leave for working mothers, who were also safeguarded from unfair dismissal,[138] and improvements in unemployment benefits were carried out.[139] The Soldiers’ Law of 1956 laid down that soldiers had the same rights as other citizens, “limited only by the demands of military service.”[140] Following a Federal Act of 1961, social assistance provided a safety net of minimum income “for those not adequately catered for by social insurance.”[141] Controversially, however, a school lunch programme was abolished in 1950.[142] Intelligence services and spying[edit] By the early 1960s, connections between the CDU under Adenauer and the intelligence services ("Bundesnachrichtendienst" / BND) had become significantly closer than would be generally known until many years later. Thanks to the BND, information on the internal machinations of the opposition SPD party were available to the entire CDU leadership, and not merely to Adenauer in his capacity as chancellor. It was Adenauer himself who personally instructed the BND to spy on his SPD rival, the future chancellor Willy Brandt.[143] Death and legacy[edit]

Funeral service for Adenauer in Cologne
Cologne
Cathedral

Adenauer's grave in Rhöndorf.

The monument "Homage to the Founding Fathers of Europe" in front of Robert Schuman's house in Scy-Chazelles
Scy-Chazelles
by Russian artist Zurab Tsereteli, unveiled October 20, 2012. The statues represent the four founders of Europe - Alcide de Gasperi, Robert Schuman, Jean Monnet and Konrad Adenauer.

Adenauer died on 19 April 1967 in his family home at Rhöndorf. According to his daughter, his last words were "Da jitt et nix zo kriesche!" [144] ( Cologne
Cologne
dialect for "There's nothin' to weep about!") Konrad Adenauer's state funeral in Cologne
Cologne
Cathedral was attended by a large number of world leaders, among them United States
United States
President Lyndon B. Johnson, Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
and Heinrich Lübke. After the Requiem Mass and service, his remains were taken upstream to Rhöndorf on the Rhine
Rhine
aboard Kondor, with two more Jaguar class fast attack craft of the German Navy, Seeadler and Sperber as escorts, "past the thousands who stood in silence on both banks of the river".[145] He is interred at the Waldfriedhof ("Forest Cemetery") at Rhöndorf. When, in 1967, after his death at the age of 91, Germans were asked what they admired most about Adenauer, the majority responded that he had brought home the last German prisoners of war from the USSR, which had become known as the "Return of the 10,000". In 2003, Adenauer was voted the 'greatest German of all time' in a contest called Unsere Besten
Unsere Besten
run on German public-service television broadcaster ZDF
ZDF
in which more than three million votes were cast. Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and other Nazis were excluded from the nominations.[146] Adenauer was the main motive for one of the most recent and famous gold commemorative coins: the Belgian 3 pioneers of the European unification commemorative coin, minted in 2002. The obverse side shows a portrait with the names Robert Schuman, Paul-Henri Spaak
Paul-Henri Spaak
and Konrad Adenauer; the three most important figures of the founding fathers of the European Union. Distinctions[edit] This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. National orders[edit]

 West Germany: Grand Cross, Special
Special
Class, of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
(January 1954)  Prussia: 4th class of the Order of the Red Eagle
Order of the Red Eagle
(1918)  Bavaria: Bavarian Order of Merit
Bavarian Order of Merit
(May 1958)

Foreign orders[edit]

 Holy See:

Supreme Order of Christ
Supreme Order of Christ
(September 1963)[147] Order of the Golden Spur
Order of the Golden Spur
(December 1955) Honorary Knight of the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
(1958) Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre
Order of the Holy Sepulchre
(1964)

 France: Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour
(1962)[148]  Spain: Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of Isabella the Catholic (1967)[149]  Austria:

Grand Decoration of Honour of the Order for Services to the Republic of Austria
Austria
(first Austrian republic, 1927) Grand Decoration of Honour in Gold with Sash for Services to the Republic of Austria
Austria
(1956)[150]

 Italy: Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (1953)  United Kingdom: Knight Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of St Michael and St George (1956)[149][151]  Netherlands: Order of the Netherlands
Netherlands
Lion (1960)  Sovereign Military Order of Malta: Knight of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (1951)  Brazil: Order of the Southern Cross (July 1953)  Argentina: Order of the Liberator General San Martin  Peru: Order of the Sun (1953)[149]  Bolivia: Order of the Condor of the Andes
Order of the Condor of the Andes
(1955)[149]  Japan:

Order of the Rising Sun, Grand Cordon (1960)[149] – "because of its long-standing commitment to an understanding of the Japanese–German friendship, and for the peace and prosperity in the world" Order of the Rising Sun
Order of the Rising Sun
with Paulownia Flowers, Grand Cordon (1963)[149]

Awards[edit]

Charlemagne Prize
Charlemagne Prize
(Aachen, May 1954) – as a "powerful promoter of a united Europe" Man of the Year by the Time magazine (1953)

See also[edit]

List of German inventors and discoverers

References[edit]

^ "11.10.63 10:45 - Herr Bundeskanzler zu Herrn Bundespräsident - Übergabe des Rücktrittsschreibens" [Adenauer surrenders his letter of resignation to the head of state]. Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
Stiftung (in German).  ^ " Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1876–1967)".  ^ Richard Hiscocks, The Adenauer era (1975) p. 290 ^ He remains the oldest head of government for a major country. Roy Jenkins (2011). Portraits and Miniatures. A&C Black. p. 56.  ^ a b David W. Del Testa, ed. (2001). "Adenauer, Konrad". Government Leaders, Military Rulers, and Political Activists. Westport, CT: Oryx Press. p. 4.   – via Questia (subscription required) ^ Jenkins, Roy
Jenkins, Roy
Portraits and Miniatures, London: Bloomsbury Reader, 2012 p. 81 ^ "Lebenslauf - Ein kurzer Überblick" (in German). Konrad Adenauer Stiftung. Retrieved 28 December 2017.  ^ Schwarz Vol.1 1995, p. 94. ^ Schwarz Vol.1 1995, pp. 97-99. ^ a b Epstein 1967, p. 539. ^ Epstein 1967, pp. 539-540. ^ Epstein 1967, pp. 540-541. ^ Schwarz Vol.1 1995, pp. 128-131. ^ Mitchell 2012, p. 20. ^ Epstein 1967, pp. 541-542. ^ a b Epstein 1967, p. 542. ^ Jenkins, Roy
Jenkins, Roy
Portraits and Miniatures, London: Bloomsbury Reader, 2012 page 88 ^ Jenkins, Roy
Jenkins, Roy
Portraits and Miniatures, London: Bloomsbury Reader, 2012 pages 81 & 88 ^ Williams, p. 201. ^ Williams, p. 212. ^ Cited by Peter Koch: Adenauer. Reinbek 1985 ^ Letter to the Prussian Interior Minister of 10 August 1934 (after his firing), available online in: http://www.konrad-adenauer.de/index.php?msg=10045. Additional letter of 18 September 1962 that confirms the content of the 1934 letter, both reproduced in: Delmer, Sefton; Die Deutschen und ich; Hamburg 1963, S.751 (1962 Faksimilie), 752-60 (1934) ^ Augstein, Rudolf (29 September 1986). "Ein Hohenzoller oder meinetwegen auch Hitler". Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel
(in German).  ^ Schwarz Vol.1 1995, pp. 322-323. ^ Schwarz Vol.1 1995, pp. 321-323. ^ Schwarz Vol.1 1995, pp. 335-337. ^ Schwarz Vol.1 1995, pp. 345-346. ^ Schwarz Vol.1 1995, pp. 344-346. ^ a b Mitchell 2012, p. 96. ^ Mitchell 2012, p. 97. ^ Herf 1997, pp. 218-219. ^ Mitchell 2012, p. 132. ^ Mitchell 2012, p. 133. ^ Williams, p. 307 ^ Kellen, Konrad (January 1966). "Adenauer at 90". Foreign Affairs. 44 (2): 257. Retrieved 6 July 2014.  ^ a b Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The 1970s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 8. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.  ^ Williams, p. 340 ^ Frei 2002, p. 3. ^ Herf 1997, p. 217. ^ Amnesty and Amnesia By Jeffrey Herf March 10, 2003 Adenauer's Germany
Germany
Nazi Past: The Politics of Amnesty and Integration By Norbert Frei ^ Duffy, Christopher Red Storm on the Reich, Routledge: London, 1991 page 302 ^ a b Schwarz Vol.1 1995, p. 638. ^ Ahonen 1998, p. 48. ^ A Good European Time 5 December 1949 ^ Schwarz Vol.1 1995, p. 450. ^ Schwarz Vol.1 1995, p. 608. ^ Schwarz Vol.1 1995, p. 612. ^ Schwarz Vol.1 1995, pp. 612-613. ^ Schwarz Vol.1 1995, p. 613. ^ Gaddis 1998, p. 124. ^ Large 1996, p. 66. ^ Gaddis 1998, p. 125. ^ Schwarz Vol.1 1995, pp. 592-594. ^ Tetens, T.H. The New Germany
Germany
and the Old Nazis, New York: Random House, 1961 pages 37–40. ^ Herf 1997, pp. 289-290. ^ Goda 2007, pp. 101-149. ^ Goda 2007, p. 149. ^ Large 1996, pp. 97-98. ^ Bickford, Andrew Fallen Elites: The Military Other in Post–Unification Germany, Stanford: 2011 pages 116–117 ^ Frei 2002, p. 157. ^ Frei 2002, pp. 164-165. ^ The Nazi-ferreting questionnaire cited 136 mandatory reasons for exclusion from employment and created red-tape nightmares for both the hapless and the guilty; see The New York Times, 22 February 2003, p. A7. ^ Steinweis, Alan E., Rogers, Daniel E. The Impact of Nazism: New Perspectives on the Third Reich and Its Legacy. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 2003, p. 235 ^ a b Art, David, The politics of the Nazi past in Germany
Germany
and Austria, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 53–55 ^ Gesetz zur Regelung der Rechtsverhältnisse der unter Artikel 131 des Grundgesetzes fallenden Personen – 11 May 1951 (Bundesgesetzblatt I 22/1951, p. 307 ff.)[permanent dead link] ^ Williams, p. 391 ^ Large 1996, p. 70. ^ Williams, p. 376 ^ Williams, p. 378 ^ Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung – Wiedergutmachung ^ Moeller, Robert War Stories: The Search for a Usable Past in the Federal Republic of Germany, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2001 pages 26-27. ^ Harding, Luke (15 June 2006). " Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
'plotted to kill German chancellor'". Guardian. London.  ^ Interview with H. Sietz, investigator (German) ^ Harding, Luke (15 June 2006). " Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
'plotted to kill German chancellor'". London: The Guardian.  ^ Williams, p. 406 ^ Bundesgesetz zur Entschädigung für Opfer der nationalsozialistischen Verfolgung ^ Ludtke, Alf "'Coming to Terms with the Past': Illusions of Remembering, Ways of Forgetting Nazism in West Germany" pages 542–572 from The Journal of Modern History, Volume 65, 1993 pages 564. ^ Large 1996, p. 209. ^ Large 1996, p. 211. ^ a b c d Gaddis 1998, p. 134. ^ a b Large 1996, p. 217. ^ Large 1996, p. 220. ^ Fritz Erler, ‘Politik und nicht Prestige,’ in Erler and Jaeger, Sicherheit und Rustung, 1962, p.82-3, cited in Julian Lider, Origins and Development of West German Military Thought, Vol. I, 1949–1966, Gower Publishing Company Ltd, Aldershot/Brookfield VT, 1986, p.125 ^ Large 1996, pp. 177-178. ^ Goda 2007, pp. 129-131. ^ Goda 2007, pp. 130-131. ^ a b Goda 2007, p. 131. ^ Goda 2007, pp. 149-151. ^ Goda 2007, pp. 152-155. ^ Contemporary World History by William J. Duiker ^ The Emergence of the Welfare State in Britain and Germany, edited by Wolfgang Mommsen ^ Williams, p. 450; this principle became known as the Hallstein Doctrine ^ Ahonen 1998, pp. 44-46. ^ Schwarz Vol. 2 1997, pp. 241-242. ^ Schwarz Vol. 2 1997, p. 242. ^ a b Schwarz Vol. 2 1997, p. 243. ^ Schwarz Vol. 2 1997, p. 244. ^ Schwarz Vol. 2 1997, p. 245. ^ Dietl, Ralph "Suez 1956: A European Intervention?" pp. 259–273 from Journal of Contemporary History, Volume 43, Issue # 2, April 2008 p. 273 ^ Dietl, Ralph "Suez 1956: A European Intervention?" pp. 259–273 from Journal of Contemporary History, Volume 43, Issue # 2, April 2008, pp. 273–274. ^ Dietl, Ralph "Suez 1956: A European Intervention?" pp. 259–273 from Journal of Contemporary History, Volume 43, Issue # 2, April 2008, p. 274. ^ Williams, p. 442 ^ Williams, p. 458 ^ Williams, p. 490 ^ a b Williams, p. 444 ^ Williams, p. 445 ^ Schwarz Vol. 2 1997, pp. 365-366. ^ Schwarz Vol. 2 1997, pp. 402-403. ^ Taylor, Frederick Exorcising Hitler, London: Bloomsbury Press, 2011 page 373. ^ Gaddis 1998, p. 140. ^ Schwarz Vol. 2 1997, p. 399. ^ Gaddis 1998, p. 141. ^ Thorpe, D.R. Supermac, London: Chatto & Windus, 2010 page 428 ^ Schwarz Vol. 2 1997, p. 396. ^ Ahonen 1998, p. 56. ^ a b Ahonen 1998, p. 59. ^ Tetens, T.H. The New Germany
Germany
and the Old Nazis, New York: Random House, 1961 pages 191–192 ^ Tetens, T.H. The New Germany
Germany
and the Old Nazis, New York: Random House, 1961 page 192 ^ Tetens, T.H. The New Germany
Germany
and the Old Nazis, New York: Random House, 1961 pages 192–193 ^ Kempe, Frederick (2011). Berlin
Berlin
1961. Penguin Group (USA). p. 98. ISBN 0-399-15729-8.  ^ Kempe, Frederick (2011). Berlin
Berlin
1961. Penguin Group (USA). p. 101. ISBN 0-399-15729-8.  ^ Granieri 2004, p. 135. ^ Williams, p. 494; Foreign Minister Heinrich von Brentano
Heinrich von Brentano
was considered too subservient to the Chancellor and Gerhard Schröder became foreign minister [Williams, p. 495] ^ John Gunther: Inside Europe Today, Harper and Brothers, New York, 1961; Library of Congress catalog card number: 61-9706 ^ Granieri 2004, p. 153. ^ Granieri 2004, pp. 154-155. ^ Granieri 2004, p. 155. ^ Eleanor L. Turk, The history of Germany
Germany
(1999) p. 154 ^ Ronald F. Bunn, German politics and the Spiegel affair: a case study of the Bonn
Bonn
system (1968) pp. 159–60 ^ Jenkins, Roy
Jenkins, Roy
Portraits and Miniatures, London: Bloomsbury Reader, 2012 page 83 ^ Jenkins, Roy
Jenkins, Roy
Portraits and Miniatures, London: Bloomsbury Reader, 2012 page 97 ^ Granieri 2004, p. 191. ^ Taylor, Frederick Exorcising Hitler, London: Bloomsbury Press, 2011 page 371. ^ "Shouldering the Burdens of Defeat: West Germany
West Germany
and the Reconstruction of Social Justice". The University of North Carolina Press. 1999. p. 87.  ^ "Germans as Victims: Remembering the Past in Contemporary Germany". Palgrave Macmillan. 2006.  ^ "Bridging the Gap Between Social and Market Rented Housing in Six European countries". Delft University Press. 2009. p. 154.  ^ The Federal Republic of Germany: The End of an era edited by Eva Kolinsky ^ "The Politics of Parental Leave Policies: Children, Parenting, Gender and the labour market". The Policy Press. 2009. p. 121.  ^ "Politics of Segmentation: Party Competition and Social Protection in Europe". Routledge. 2012.  ^ " West Germany
West Germany
(RLE: German Politics): Politics and Society". 1981. p. 195.  ^ "Social Work and the European Community: The Social Policy and Practice Contexts". 1996. p. 184.  ^ http://www.ghi-dc.org/files/publications/bulletin/bu048/bu_48_059.pdf ^ klw (29 April 2017). "Spionage für die CDU". Zeitgeschichte. Der Spiegel. 18/2017 (reference is also made to a more detailed article in volume 15/2017): 23.  ^ Colognian (Kölsch) pronunciation: [dɔˑ ˈjɪdət nɪks tsə ˈkʁiːɕə] ^ Williams, p. 537. ^ Kroeger, Alix (29 November 2003). "Adenauer voted Germany's greatest". BBC News Online. Retrieved 31 July 2015.  ^ Konrad Adenauer, Orden und Ehrenzeichen Archived 5 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
Stiftung. ^ de:Ehrenlegion ^ a b c d e f Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
Stiftung Archived 18 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine.: Biographie, Orden und Ehrenzeichen. Archived 5 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Reply to a parliamentary question" (pdf) (in German). p. 26. Retrieved 2 October 2012.  ^ "Dr. Adenauer Grand Cross". Catholic Herald. 11 January 1957. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]

Ahonen, Pertti (March 1998). "Domestic Constraints on West German Ostpolitik: The Role of the Expellee Organizations in the Adenauer Era". Central European History. 31 (1): 31–63. doi:10.1017/S0008938900016034. JSTOR 4546774.  Cudlipp, E. Adenauer (1985) Epstein, Klaus (October 1967). "Adenauer and Rhenish Separatism". The Review of Politics. 29 (4): 536–545. doi:10.1017/s0034670500040614.  Frei, Norbert (2002). Adenauer's Germany
Germany
and the Nazi Past: The Politics of Amnesty and Integration. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11882-1.  Gaddis, John Lewis (1998). We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War
Cold War
History. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-878070-0.  Goda, Norman J. W. (2007). Tales from Spandau: Nazi Criminals and the Cold War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86720-7.  Granieri, Ronald J. (2004). The Ambivalent Alliance: Konrad Adenauer, the CDU/CSU, and the West, 1949–1966. New York: Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-57181-492-0.  Heidenheimer, Arnold J. Adenauer and the CDU: the Rise of the Leader and the Integration of the Party (1960) Herf, Jeffrey (1997). Divided Memory: The Nazi Past in the Two Germanys. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-21303-3.  Hiscocks, Richard. The Adenauer Era (1966) Large, David Clay (1996). Germans to the Front: West German Rearmament in the Adenauer Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4539-6.  Mitchell, Maria (2012). The Origins of Christian Democracy: Politics and Confession in Modern Germany. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-11841-0.  Rovan, Joseph. Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1987) 182 pages excerpt and text search Schwarz, Hans-Peter (1995). Konrad Adenauer: A German Politician and Statesman in a Period of War, Revolution and Reconstruction. Vol. 1: From the German Empire
German Empire
to the Federal Republic, 1876–1952. Oxford: Berghahn Books. ISBN 1-57181-870-7. 

Schwarz, Hans-Peter (1997). Konrad Adenauer: A German Politician and Statesman in a Period of War, Revolution and Reconstruction. Vol. 2: The Statesman: 1952-1967. Providence: Berghahn Books. ISBN 1-57181-960-6. 

Williams, Charles. Konrad Adenauer: The Father of the New Germany (2001), 624pp "Konrad Adenauer" in Encyclopædia Britannica (Macropedia) © 1989 Tammann, Gustav A. and Engelbert Hommel. (1999). Die Orden und Ehrenzeichen Konrad Adenauers = The orders and decorations awarded to Konrad Adenauer. Bad Honnef, ISBN 3-9806090-1-4.

Primary sources[edit]

Adenauer, Konrad. Memoirs, (4 vols. English edition 1966–70)

External links[edit]

The short film A DEFEATED PEOPLE (1946) is available for free download at the Internet Archive The short film Interview with Chancellor Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1957) is available for free download at the Internet Archive Newspaper clippings about Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
German National Library of Economics
(ZBW).

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Konrad Adenauer

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Konrad Adenauer.

Political offices

Preceded by Max Wallraf Mayor of Cologne 1917–1933 Succeeded by Günter Riesen

Vacant Title last held by Dietlof von Arnim-Boitzenburg as President of the Prussian House of Lords President of the Prussian State Council 1921–1933 Succeeded by Robert Ley

Preceded by Willi Suth Mayor of Cologne 1945 Succeeded by Willi Suth

Vacant Title last held by Lutz von Krosigk Acting Chancellor of West Germany 1949–1963 Succeeded by Ludwig Erhard

Minister of Foreign Affairs 1951–1955 Succeeded by Heinrich von Brentano

Party political offices

Position established Chair of the Christian Democratic Union in Rhineland 1946–1951 Succeeded by Wilhelm Johnen

Chair of the Christian Democratic Union 1950–1966 Succeeded by Ludwig Erhard

v t e

Chancellors of Germany

North German Confederation
North German Confederation
Bundeskanzler (1867–1871)

Otto von Bismarck

German Empire
German Empire
Reichskanzler (1871–1918)

Otto von Bismarck Leo von Caprivi Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst Bernhard von Bülow Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg Georg Michaelis Georg von Hertling Prince Maximilian of Baden Friedrich Ebert

Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
Reichskanzler (1919–1933)

Philipp Scheidemann
Philipp Scheidemann
(as Ministerpräsident) Gustav Bauer
Gustav Bauer
(as Ministerpräsident and Chancellor) Hermann Müller Konstantin Fehrenbach Joseph Wirth Wilhelm Cuno Gustav Stresemann Wilhelm Marx Hans Luther Wilhelm Marx Hermann Müller Heinrich Brüning Franz von Papen Kurt von Schleicher

Nazi Germany
Germany
Reichskanzler (1933–1945)

Adolf Hitler Joseph Goebbels Count Schwerin von Krosigk (as Leading Minister)

Federal Republic Bundeskanzler (1949–present)

Konrad Adenauer Ludwig Erhard Kurt Georg Kiesinger Willy Brandt Helmut Schmidt Helmut Kohl Gerhard Schröder Angela Merkel

List of Chancellors of Germany

v t e

Foreign Ministers of Germany

  German Empire
German Empire
(1871–1918)

Thile Balan B. E. von Bülow Radowitz Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst Limburg-Stirum Busch Hatzfeld zu Trachenberg Bismarck Marschall B. von Bülow Richthofen Tschirschky-Bögendorff Schoen Kiderlen-Waechter Jagow Zimmermann Kühlmann Hintze Solf Brockdorff-Rantzau

Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
(1918–33)

Brockdorff-Rantzau Müller Köster Simons Rosen Wirth Rathenau Rosenberg Stresemann Curtius Brüning Neurath

Nazi Germany
Germany
(1933–45)

Neurath Ribbentrop Seyss-Inquart Schwerin von Krosigk

 German Democratic Republic1 (1949–90)

Dertinger Ackermann Bolz Winzer O. Fischer Meckel de Maizière

 Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
(1949–present)

Adenauer von Brentano Schröder Brandt Scheel Genscher Kinkel J. Fischer Steinmeier Westerwelle Steinmeier Gabriel Maas

1 East Germany

v t e

Chairmen of the CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
Group

Konrad Adenauer Heinrich von Brentano
Heinrich von Brentano
di Tremezzo Heinrich Krone Heinrich von Brentano
Heinrich von Brentano
di Tremezzo Rainer Barzel Karl Carstens Helmut Kohl Alfred Dregger Wolfgang Schäuble Friedrich Merz Angela Merkel Volker Kauder

v t e

Chairpeople of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany

Konrad Adenauer Ludwig Erhard Kurt Georg Kiesinger Rainer Barzel Helmut Kohl Wolfgang Schäuble Angela Merkel

v t e

Mayors of Cologne

Oberbürgermeister der Stadt Köln (Lord Mayor)

1815-1933

Karl Joseph von Mylius Franz Rudolf von Monschaw Johann Adolf Steinberger Friedrich Wilhelm Gräff Hermann Joseph Stupp Alexander Bachem Hermann Heinrich Becker Friedrich von Becker Max Wallraf Konrad Adenauer

1933-1945

Günter Riesen Karl Georg Schmidt Peter Winkelnkemper Robert Brandes

since 1945

Konrad Adenauer Willi Suth Hermann Pünder Ernst Schwering Robert Görlinger1 Ernst Schwering Robert Görlinger Ernst Schwering Theo Burauen John van Nes Ziegler Norbert Burger Harry Blum2 Fritz Schramma Jürgen Roters Henriette Reker

1 elected by sortition, after stand-off in city council 2 first directly elected mayor

v t e

Recipients of the Charlemagne Prize

1950–1975

1950 Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi 1951 Hendrik Brugmans 1952 Alcide De Gasperi 1953 Jean Monnet 1954 Konrad Adenauer 1955 1956 Winston Churchill 1957 Paul-Henri Spaak 1958 Robert Schuman 1959 George Marshall 1960 Joseph Bech 1961 Walter Hallstein 1962 1963 Edward Heath 1964 Antonio Segni 1965 1966 Jens Otto Krag 1967 Joseph Luns 1968 1969 European Commission 1970 François Seydoux de Clausonne 1971 1972 Roy Jenkins 1973 Salvador de Madariaga 1974 1975

1976–2000

1976 Leo Tindemans 1977 Walter Scheel 1978 Konstantinos Karamanlis 1979 Emilio Colombo 1980 1981 Simone Veil 1982 King Juan Carlos I 1983 1984 1985 1986 People of Luxembourg 1987 Henry Kissinger 1988 François Mitterrand / Helmut Kohl 1989 Brother Roger 1990 Gyula Horn 1991 Václav Havel 1992 Jacques Delors 1993 Felipe González 1994 Gro Harlem Brundtland 1995 Franz Vranitzky 1996 Queen Beatrix 1997 Roman Herzog 1998 Bronisław Geremek 1999 Tony Blair 2000 Bill Clinton

2001–present

2001 György Konrád 2002 Euro 2003 Valéry Giscard d'Estaing 2004 Pat Cox / Pope John Paul II1 2005 Carlo Azeglio Ciampi 2006 Jean-Claude Juncker 2007 Javier Solana 2008 Angela Merkel 2009 Andrea Riccardi 2010 Donald Tusk 2011 Jean-Claude Trichet 2012 Wolfgang Schäuble 2013 Dalia Grybauskaitė 2014 Herman Van Rompuy 2015 Martin Schulz 2016 Pope Francis 2017 Timothy Garton Ash

1 Received extraordinary prize.

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin
Berlin
Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin
Berlin
Crisis of 1961 Berlin
Berlin
Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin
Berlin
Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

Authority control

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