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Kiowa
Kiowa
(/ˈkaɪəwə, -wɑː, -weɪ/[2][3]) people are a Native American tribe and an indigenous people of the Great Plains. They migrated southward from western Montana
Montana
into the Rocky Mountains in Colorado
Colorado
in the 17th and 18th centuries,[4] and finally into the Southern Plains by the early 19th century.[5] In 1867, the Kiowa
Kiowa
were moved to a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma. Today, they are federally recognized as Kiowa
Kiowa
Tribe of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
with headquarters in Carnegie, Oklahoma.[1] As of 2011[update], there were 12,000 members.[1] The Kiowa language
Kiowa language
(Cáuijògà), part of the Tanoan language family, is still spoken today.[6]

Contents

1 Name 2 Language 3 Government 4 Economic development 5 Traditional culture

5.1 Food 5.2 Transportation and habitation 5.3 Socio-political organization 5.4 Enemies and warrior culture 5.5 Kiowa
Kiowa
calendars

6 History

6.1 Early history and migration south 6.2 Indian wars 6.3 Transition period 6.4 Reservation period 6.5 Modern period 6.6 Longhorn Mountain controversy

7 Humanities

7.1 Ledger art
Ledger art
and hide painting 7.2 Kiowa
Kiowa
Six 7.3 Painters and sculptors 7.4 Bead artists 7.5 Authors 7.6 Musicians and composers 7.7 Photographers 7.8 Image gallery

8 Notable Kiowas 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Name[edit] Kiowa
Kiowa
call themselves Ka'igwu, Cáuigù[7] or Gaigwu, most given with the meaning "Principal People".[4] The first part of the name is the element Kae-, Cáui- or Gai- which means the Kiowa
Kiowa
themselves – it may derive from the word ka' (mother) or from ka-a (a type of spear with feathers along its length). The true origin is lost. Kae-kia means a Kiowa
Kiowa
man; Kae-ma is a Kiowa
Kiowa
woman. The second element -gua refers to "men or people",[8] so the meaning of the two elements is " Kiowa
Kiowa
people"; to express "Principal People" (sometimes "Chief People") or "genuine, real or true People" in Kiowa
Kiowa
is to add the ending -hin. Ancient names were Kútjàu or Kwu-da ("emerging" or "coming out rapidly") and Tep-da, relating to the tribal origin myth of a creator pulling people out of a hollow log until a pregnant woman got stuck. Later, they called themselves Kom-pa-bianta for "people with large tipi flaps", before they met Southern Plains tribes or before they met white men. Another explanation of their name "Kiowa" originated after their migration through what the Kiowa
Kiowa
refer to as "The Mountains of the Kiowa" (Kaui-kope) in the present eastern edge of Glacier National Park, Montana, just south of the border with Canada. The mountain pass they came through was populated heavily by grizzly bear Kgyi-yo and Blackfoot
Blackfoot
people. Other tribes who encountered the Kiowa
Kiowa
used sign language to describe them by holding two straight fingers near the lower outside edge of the eye and moving these fingers back past the ear. This corresponded to the ancient Kiowa hairstyle cut horizontally from the lower outside edge of the eyes to the back of their ears. This was a functional practice to keep their hair from getting tangled as an arrow was let loose from a bow string. George Catlin
George Catlin
painted Kiowa
Kiowa
warriors with this hairstyle.[9] For a time, the Kiowa
Kiowa
are thought to have shared land, mostly in present-day eastern Colorado, with the Arapaho. An Arapaho
Arapaho
name for the Kiowa
Kiowa
is "creek people", and the Arapaho
Arapaho
word for "creek" is koh'owu', which when pronounced carefully has some resemblance to the current name "Kiowa". For example, the Kiowa
Kiowa
are referred to as "creek people" in an oral narrative recited in 1993 by native Arapaho
Arapaho
speaker Paul Moss.[10] Thus, it is possible "Kiowa" may have come from a name by which the tribe was known among the Arapaho. Language[edit] See also: Kiowa
Kiowa
language The Kiowa language
Kiowa language
is a member of the Kiowa-Tanoan
Kiowa-Tanoan
language family. The relationship was first proposed by Smithsonian linguist John P. Harrington in 1910, and was definitively established in 1967.[11] Parker McKenzie, born 1897, was a noted authority on the Kiowa language, learning English only when he began school. He worked with John P. Harrington
John P. Harrington
on the Kiowa
Kiowa
language. He went on to discuss the etymology of words and insights of how the Kiowa language
Kiowa language
changed to incorporate new items of material culture. McKenzie's letters are in the National Anthropological Archives on pronunciation and grammar of the Kiowa
Kiowa
language. Kiowa
Kiowa
/ˈkaɪ.əwə/ or Cáuijògà / Cáuijò:gyà (″language of the Cáuigù (Kiowa)″) is a Tanoan language spoken by the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
in primarily Caddo, Kiowa, and Comanche
Comanche
counties. [12] Additionally, Kiowa
Kiowa
were one of the numerous nations across the US, Canada
Canada
and Mexico that spoke Plains Sign Talk. Originally a trade language, it became a language within its own right that remained in use across North America.[13] Government[edit]

J.T. Goombi, former Kiowa
Kiowa
tribal chairman and first vice-president of the National Congress of American Indians

The Kiowa
Kiowa
Tribe of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
is headquartered in Carnegie, Oklahoma. Their tribal jurisdictional area includes Caddo, Comanche, Cotton, Grady, Kiowa, Tillman, and Washita Counties. Enrollment in the tribe requires a minimum blood quantum of ¼ Kiowa
Kiowa
descent.[1] As of 2011[update], their business committee is:[14]

Chairman: Matthew M.Komalty Vice-chairman: Charles Domebo Eisenberger Secretary: Rhonda J. Ahhaity Treasurer: Renee M. Plata Committeeman: Dave Geimausaddle Committeeman: Anita L. Onco Johnson Committeeman: Thomas Kaulaity Committeeman: Ronald Poolaw Sr.

Economic development[edit] The Kiowa
Kiowa
Tribe issues its own vehicle tags. As of 2011[update], the tribe owns one smoke shop, two casinos,[1] the Kiowa
Kiowa
Red River Casino, Morningstar Steakhouse and Grill, Morningstar Buffet, The Winner's Circle restaurant in Devol, Oklahoma,[15] and Kiowa
Kiowa
Bingo near Carnegie, Oklahoma.[16] Traditional culture[edit] The Kiowa
Kiowa
were patrilineal with a chiefdom living in semi-sedentary structures. They were hunters and gatherers, meaning they did not live in one area long enough to grow plants or crops, but did trade with sedentary tribes that grew crops. The Kiowas migrated with the American bison
American bison
because it was their main food source along with an abundant supply of antelope, deer, wild berries, wild fruit, turkeys and other wild game. Dogs dragged travois and rawhide parfleche that contained camping goods for short moves that were for long periods of time. With the introduction of the horse, the Kiowa
Kiowa
revolutionized their economy and when they arrived on the Plains they were a fully mounted warrior nation. The horses were acquired from Spanish rancherias south of the Rio Grande. The new Kiowa
Kiowa
and Plains Apache homeland lay in the southwestern plains adjacent to the Arkansas River in southeastern Colorado
Colorado
and western Kansas and the Red River drainage of the Texas Panhandle
Texas Panhandle
and western Oklahoma.[5] Food[edit]

Elk
Elk
and Buffalo Grazing among Prairie Flowers 1846–48, painted by George Catlin
George Catlin
in Texas.

Ledger drawing of mounted Kiowa
Kiowa
hunters hunting pronghorn antelope with bows and lance.

Kiowa
Kiowa
hunting elk on horseback.

The Kiowa
Kiowa
were a nomadic hunter-gatherer society which mostly relied directly upon food available from the surrounding wilderness. The food hunted and gathered by the Kiowa
Kiowa
was largely identical to that of other plains Indians such as the Comanche. The most important food source for the Kiowa
Kiowa
and all other great plains nations is the American bison
American bison
or buffalo. Before the introduction of horses bison were hunted on foot and required the hunter to get as close as possible to their target before rushing quickly in and shooting it with arrows or lancing it. Occasionally the skins of wolves or coyotes were worn to hide their approach towards the bison herds. Hunting bison became far easier after the Kiowa
Kiowa
acquired horses. Bison were hunted on horseback with bows and arrows, as well as long lances used to pierce the heart of the animals. Bison meat was eaten roasted, boiled, and dried. Dried meat was prepared into pemmican which was eaten while the people were on the move. Pemmican
Pemmican
is made by grinding dried lean meat into a powder, then mixing a near equal weight of melted fat or tallow and sometimes berries; the pemmican was then shaped into bars and kept in pouches until ready to eat. Certain parts of the bison were sometimes eaten raw. Other animals hunted to supplement their main diet of bison included deer, elk, pronghorn, wild mustang, wild turkey, and bears. During times of scarce game, the Kiowa
Kiowa
would eat small animals such as lizards, waterfowl, skunks, snakes, armadillos, and other animals that could be found and eaten. The Kiowa's horses, mules, and camp dogs were eaten during desperate situations when no other sources of food were available. Longhorn cattle and horses from American and Mexican ranches were also eaten during hard times. Most of the hunting was done by men in Kiowa
Kiowa
society. Women were responsible for gathering wild edibles such as berries, tubers, seeds, nuts, vegetables, and wild fruit but could choose to hunt if they wanted to. Important specific food gathered by the Kiowa
Kiowa
included pecans, prickly pear, mulberries, persimmons, acorns, plums, and wild onions. Domesticated crops such as squash, maize, and pumpkin were acquired by means of trading with and raiding various Indian peoples living on the eastern edge of the great plains such as the Pawnee that grew crops in addition to hunting and gathering. Before the use of metal pots acquired through trade and raid meat and vegetables were boiled in a hole dug in the ground, filed with water, and lined with a thick layer of animal hides. Heated rocks kept under a fire were added and removed to the boiling hole until the water came to a boil.[17] Transportation and habitation[edit]

Four Kiowa
Kiowa
tipis with designs. From top left to right: design featuring bison herd and pipe-smoking deer, porcupine design, design featuring arms and legs with pipes and lizard, and design featuring mythical water monsters.

The main form of shelter used by the Kiowa
Kiowa
was the tipi or skin lodge. Tipis were made from bison hides shaped and sewn together in a conical shape. Wooden poles called lodge poles from 12–25 feet (3.7–7.6 m) in length are used as support for the lodge. Lodge poles are harvested from red juniper and the lodgepole pine.[18] Tipis have at least one entrance flap as well as smoke flaps at the top, allowing the construction of a fire pit within. The floor of the tipi is lined with animal pelts and skins for warmth and comfort. The tipi is designed to be warm inside during the cold winter months and cool inside during the warm summer. Tipis are easily collapsed and can be raised in only minutes, making it an optimal structure for a nomadic people like the Kiowa
Kiowa
and other great plains Indian nations. The poles of the tipi were used to construct a travois during times of travel. Hide paintings often adorn the outside and inside of the tipis, with special meanings attached to certain designs.

Ledger drawing of Kiowas engaging in horse mounted warfare with traditional enemy forces.

Before the introduction of the horse to North America, the Kiowa
Kiowa
and other plains peoples used domestic dogs to carry and pull their belongings. Tipis and belongings as well as small children were carried with the use of travois, a frame structure utilizing the tipi poles and pulled by dogs and later horses. The introduction of the horse to Kiowa
Kiowa
society revolutionized their way of life. Horses were acquired by raiding rancheros south of the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
into Mexico as well as from raiding other Indian peoples who already had horses such as the Navajo and the various Pueblo people. The horse allowed them to pull larger loads, hunt more game, hunt game easier, and travel longer and farther. The horse also transformed the Kiowa
Kiowa
into powerful and skilled mounted warriors who performed long distance raids on their enemies. The Kiowa
Kiowa
were considered among the finest horsemen in history along with other plains Indians such as the Comanche
Comanche
and Cheyenne. Horses became a vital part of the Kiowa
Kiowa
economy and a man's wealth was measured primarily by size of his horse herd with particularly wealthy individuals having herds numbering in the hundreds. Horses became a much targeted object during raids, capturing and stealing horses from enemies was considered a great honor to Kiowa warriors and often served as a rite of passage for young warriors. Horses were adorned with body paint from the medicine man for ritual and spiritual purposes such as good fortune and protection during battle. Kiowa
Kiowa
horses were often decorated with beaded masks (sometimes with bison horns attached to the sides) and feathers in their manes. In addition to horses, mules and donkeys were also used as means of transportation and wealth however they were not as esteemed. Socio-political organization[edit] The Kiowas had a well structured tribal government like most tribes on the Northern Plains. They had a yearly Sun Dance
Sun Dance
gathering and an elected head-chief who was considered to be a symbolic leader of the entire nation. There were warrior societies and religious societies that made up the Kiowa
Kiowa
society. Kiowa
Kiowa
government was democratic with the election of chiefs based on bravery and courage in battle as well as intelligence, generosity, experience, communication skills, and kindness to others. The ideal personality of the Kiowas was that of the young fearless warrior. The entire tribe was structured around this individual. The warrior was the ideal to which young men aspired. Because of these factors, the Kiowa
Kiowa
was of utmost importance in the history of the Southern Plains.[19] The women gain prestige through the achievements of their husbands, sons, and fathers or through their own achievements in the arts. Kiowa women tanned, skin-sewed, quilled, painted geometric designs on parfleche and later beaded hides.[20] The Kiowa
Kiowa
women took care of the camp while the men were away. They gathered and prepared food for winter months and participated in events. Kiowa
Kiowa
men lived in the families of their wives extended families in residence local groups (jōfàujōgáu or jōdáu) led by the jōfàujōqì, which merged to become a band (topadoga). These bands were led by a chief, the Topadok'i (′main chief′). The Kiowa
Kiowa
had two political subdivisions (particularly with regard to their relationship with the Comanche):

To-kinah-yup or Thóqàhyòp /Thóqàhyòi (″Northerners″, lit. ‘Men of the Cold’ or ′Cold People′, ‘northern Kiowa’, lived along the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
and the Kansas border, comprising the more numerous northern bands) Sálqáhyóp or Sálqáhyói (″Southerners″, lit. ′Hot People′, ‘southern Kiowa’, lived in the Llano Estacado
Llano Estacado
(Staked Plains), Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Panhandle and Texas Panhandle, allies of the Comanche).

As the pressure on Kiowa
Kiowa
lands increased in the 1850s the regional divisions changed and a new regional grouping emerged:

the Gwa-kelega or Gúhàlēcáuigú (‘Wild Mustang Kiowa’ or ′Gúhàlē Kiowa′, they were named for the large mustang herds in the territory of the Kwahadi (Quohada) Band of the Comanche, this Comanche
Comanche
Band was known to them as Gúhàlēgáu – ′Wild Mustang People′′, with which they were living in close proximity during the last resistance to white settlement on the Southern Plains).

After the death of the high chief Dohäsan
Dohäsan
in 1866 the Kiowa
Kiowa
split politically in a peace fraction and a war fraction, the distinction between war-bands and peace-bands depended on their proximity to Fort Sill (Xóqáudáuhága – ′At Medicine Bluff′, lit. ′Rock Cliff Medicine At Soldiers Collective They Are′) and their degree of interaction.[21] Kiowa
Kiowa
bands within the tipi ring during the annual Sun Dance
Sun Dance
(called Kc-to):[22]

Kâtá or Qáutjáu (‘Biters’, lit. Arikara, because they had a strong trading history with the Arikara
Arikara
people and some families have had Arikara
Arikara
kins, most powerful and largest Kiowa
Kiowa
band) Kogui or Qógûi (‘Elks Band’) Kaigwa or Cáuigú (‘ Kiowa
Kiowa
Proper’) Kinep / Kí̱bi̱dau / Kíbìdàu (′Big Shields′) or Khe-ate / Kí̱ːet / Kíèt (‘Big Shield’), also known as Káugyabî̱dau / Kāugàbîdāu (′Big Hides / Robes′) Semat / Sémhát (‘Stealers’ or ′Thieves′, Kiowa
Kiowa
name for their allies, the Kiowa
Kiowa
Apache, during the Sun Dance
Sun Dance
also called Taugûi – ′Sitting (at the) Outside′) Soy-hay-talpupé / Sáuhédau-talyóp (‘Blue Boys’) or Pahy-dome-gaw / Pái-dome-gú (‘Under-the-Sun-Men’) (smallest Kiowa
Kiowa
Band)

During the Sun Dance, some bands had a special obligation which was traditionally defined: The Kâtá had the traditional right (duty or task) to supply the Kiowa
Kiowa
during the Sun Dance
Sun Dance
with enough bison meat and other means. This band was particularly wealthy in horses, tipis and other goods. The famous Principal Kiowa
Kiowa
chiefs Dohäsan
Dohäsan
(Little Mountain) and Guipago
Guipago
(Lone Wolf) were members of this band. The Kogui were responsible for conducting the war ceremonies during the Sun Dance. Many famous families and leaders because of their military exploits and bravery, like Ad-da-te (‘Islandman’), Satanta (White Bear), Kicking Bird
Kicking Bird
and the war chiefs Big Bow (Zepko-ete) and Stumbling Bear (Set-imkia), and others belonged to this band. The Kaigwu were the guardians of the Sacred or Medicine bundle (Tai-mé, Taimay) and the holy lance. Therefore, they were very respected by the other groups and enjoyed a special prestige. The Kinep or Khe-ate were often called ‘ Sun Dance
Sun Dance
Shields’ because during the dance, they observed police duties and ensured security. The chief Woman's Heart (Manyi-ten) belonged to this band. The Semat were allowed to participate equally, but had no specific duties and obligations during the Sun Dance. The Soy-hay-talpupé were often called Montalyui or Kó̱tályop / Kṓtályóp / Kṓtályôi (‘Black Boys’, Black Boy Band); they were also named after the Kiowa
Kiowa
cultural hero Séndè / Sindi and therefore called Séndèiyòi (Séndè / Sainday's Children). To this band belonged the medicine man Maman-ti. Like the Semat, they had no specific duties or responsibilities.[citation needed] Enemies and warrior culture[edit] See also: Koitsenko

Ledger drawings featuring a collection of Kiowa
Kiowa
shield designs by Silver Horn.

Typical of all plains Indian people, the Kiowa
Kiowa
were a warrior people who fought frequently with enemies both neighboring and far beyond their territory. The Kiowa
Kiowa
were notable even among plains Indians for their long-distance raids, including raids far south into Mexico and north onto the northern plains. Almost all warfare took place while mounted on horses after the introduction of horses into Kiowa
Kiowa
society. Enemies of the Kiowa
Kiowa
include the Cheyenne, Arapaho, Navajo, Ute, and occasionally Lakota to the north and west of Kiowa
Kiowa
territory. East of Kiowa
Kiowa
territory they fought with the Pawnee, Osage, Kickapoo, Kaw, Caddo, Wichita, and Sac and Fox. To the south they fought with the Lipan Apache, Mescalero
Mescalero
Apache, and Tonkawa. The Kiowa
Kiowa
also came into conflict with Indian nations from the American south and east displaced to Indian Territory during the Indian Removal period including the Cherokee, Choctaw, Muskogee, and Chickasaw. Eastern tribes found that Indian Territory, the place they were sent, was already occupied by plains Indians, most notably the Kiowa
Kiowa
and Comanche. The Cheyenne
Cheyenne
and Arapaho
Arapaho
would later make peace with the Kiowa
Kiowa
and form a powerful alliance with them, the Comanche, and the Plains Apache
Plains Apache
to fight invading settlers and U.S soldiers as well as Mexicans and the Mexican Army.[23]

Ledger drawing depicting a meeting between a Kiowa- Comanche
Comanche
war party and a Pawnee war party (right side).

Like other plains Indians, the Kiowa
Kiowa
had specific warrior societies. Young men who proved their bravery, skill, or displayed their worth in battle were often invited to one of the warrior societies. In addition to warfare, the societies worked to keep peace within the camps and tribe as a whole. There were six warrior societies among the Kiowa.[24] The Po-Lanh-Yope (Little Rabbits) was for boys; all young Kiowa
Kiowa
boys were enrolled and the group served mostly social and education purposes involving no violence or combat. The Adle-Tdow-Yope (Young Sheep), Tsain-Tanmo (Horse Headdresses), Tdien-Pei-Gah (Gourd Society), and Ton-Kon-Gah (Black Legs or Leggings), were adult warrior societies,[25][26] as was the Koitsenko
Koitsenko
(Qkoie-Tsain-Gah, Principle Dogs or Real Dogs),[27] which consisted of the ten most elite warriors of all the Kiowa
Kiowa
and were democratically elected by the members of the other four adult warrior societies.[28] Kiowa
Kiowa
warriors used a combination of traditional and nontraditional weapons, including long lances, bows and arrows, tomahawks, knives, and war-clubs as well as rifles, shotguns, revolvers, and cavalry swords. Shields were made from tough bison hide stretched over a wooden frame or made from the skull of bison which made a small but strong shield. Shields and weapons were adorned with feathers, furs, and animal parts such as eagle claws for ceremonial purposes.

Calendar of 37 months, 1889–92, kept on a skin by Anko, ca. 1895

Kiowa
Kiowa
calendars[edit] Further information: Winter count The Kiowa people
Kiowa people
told James Mooney
James Mooney
that the first calendar keeper in their tribe was Little Bluff, or Tohausan, who was the principal chief of the tribe from 1833 to 1866. Mooney also worked with two other calendar keepers, Settan, or Little Bear, and Ankopaingyadete, In the Middle of Many Tracks, commonly known as Anko. Other Plains tribes kept pictorial records, known as "winter counts", however the Kiowa calendar system is unique, recording two events for each year, offering a finer-grained record of the passage of time and twice as many entries for any given period. Silver Horn
Silver Horn
(1860–1940), or Haungooah, was the most highly esteemed artist of the Kiowa
Kiowa
tribe in the 19th and 20th century and a respected religious leader in his later years.[29] History[edit] As members of the Kiowa-Tanoan
Kiowa-Tanoan
language family, the Kiowa
Kiowa
must clearly, at some time in their prehistory, have had a close relationship with – and probably shared an ethnic origin with – the other Amerindian
Amerindian
nations of this small language family (Tiwa, Tewa, Towa and others). However, the traditional lifestyle of these peoples – agricultural, settled in permanent villages ('pueblos') – was radically unlike that of the hunter-gatherer economy of the Kiowa
Kiowa
in historic times, though the Kiowa
Kiowa
did retain certain 'advanced' characteristics – their complex ceremonial life and probably the nearest approach to writing among any Plains tribe in their 'Winter counts'. Nonetheless, the relationship between the 'Puebloan' and 'Plains' branches of this linguistic family has faded from the memory of both branches, and the earliest memories of the Kiowa
Kiowa
remember them as living, not near the Arizona/New Mexico homeland of their linguistic 'brethren', but far to the north near the Missouri River, and the Black Hills, whence they were driven south by pressure from the Sioux. For the earliest recorded – and remembered – history of the Kiowas, see further below.

Guipago, Kiowa
Kiowa
chief

Satanta, Kiowa
Kiowa
chief

Following A'date, famous Kiowa
Kiowa
leaders were Dohäsan
Dohäsan
(Tauhawsin, Over-Hanging Butte, alias Little Mountain, alias Little Bluff); Satank (Set-ankea, Sitting Bear), Guipago
Guipago
(Gui-pah-gho, Lone Wolf The Elder, alias Guibayhawgu, Rescued From Wolves), Satanta (Set-tainte, White Bear), Tene-angopte
Tene-angopte
(Kicking Bird), Zepko-ete (Big Bow), Set-imkia (Stumbling Bear), Manyi-ten (Woman's Heart), Napawat (No Mocassin), Mamanti (Walking-above), Tsen-tainte
Tsen-tainte
(White Horse), Ado-ete
Ado-ete
(Big Tree).[30] Dohasan, who is also known as Touhason,[31] is considered by many to be the greatest Kiowa
Kiowa
Chief (1805–1866), who unified and ruled the Kiowa
Kiowa
for 30 years. He signed several treaties, including the Fort Atkinson Treaty of July 27, 1852, and the Little Arkansas Treaty of 1865.[31] Guipago
Guipago
became the head chief of the Kiowa
Kiowa
when Dohosan (Little Bluff) named him as his successor to become the Principal Chief of the Kiowa
Kiowa
people. Guipago
Guipago
and Satanta, along with old Satank, led the warring faction of the Kiowa
Kiowa
nation, while Tene-angopte
Tene-angopte
led the peaceful party.[30] In 1871 Satank, Satanta and Big Tree (translated in some documents as Addo-etta[30]) helped lead the Warren Wagon Train Raid. They were arrested by United States
United States
soldiers and transported to Jacksboro, Texas. En route, near Fort Sill, Indian Territory, Satank
Satank
killed a soldier with a knife and was shot by cavalry troops while trying to escape. Satanta and Big Tree were later convicted of murder by a "cowboy jury". In September 1872, Guipago
Guipago
met with Satanta and Ado-ete, the visit being one of Guipago's conditions for accepting a request to travel to Washington and meet President Grant for peace talks. Guipago eventually got the two captives released in September 1873. Guipago, Satanta, Set-imkia, Zepko-ete, Manyi-ten, Mamanti, Tsen-tainte
Tsen-tainte
and Ado-ete
Ado-ete
led Kiowa
Kiowa
warriors during the "Buffalo war" along the Red River, together with the Comanche
Comanche
allies, in the summer (June–September) 1874, and surrendered after the Palo Duro Canyon fight. Tene-angopte
Tene-angopte
had to select 26 Kiowa
Kiowa
chiefs and warriors to be deported to Fort Marion, Florida; Satanta was sent back to Huntsville, while Guipago, Manyi-ten, Mamanti and Tsen-tainte
Tsen-tainte
were chosen to be deported to Fort Marion.[30] Tene-angopte, damned by the "medicine-man" Mamanti, died in May 1875; Satanta committed suicide at Huntsville in October 1878; Guipago, having fallen sick with malaria, was jailed in Fort Sill, where he died in 1879. The sculptor of the Indian Head nickel, James Earle Fraser, is reported to have said that Chief Big Tree (Adoeette) was one of his models for the U.S. coin that was minted from 1913 through 1938.[32]

Big Tree, a Kiowa
Kiowa
chief and warrior

Early history and migration south[edit]

The original Southern Plains territory of the Kiowa
Kiowa
Nation.

Red sandstone cliffs in the Black Hills
Black Hills
Wyoming, former Kiowa territory which remains a sacred area to them in modern times.

Southern plains of the Llano Estacado
Llano Estacado
in the Texas Panhandle.

The Kiowa
Kiowa
emerged as a distinct people in their original homeland of the northern Missouri River
Missouri River
Basin. Searching for more lands of their own, the Kiowa
Kiowa
traveled southeast to the Black Hills
Black Hills
in present-day South Dakota
South Dakota
and Wyoming
Wyoming
around 1650. In the Black Hills
Black Hills
region, the Kiowa
Kiowa
lived peacefully alongside the Crow Indians, with whom they long maintained a close friendship, organized themselves into 10 bands, and numbered around 3000. Pressure from the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
in the north woods and edge of the great plains in Minnesota forced the Cheyenne, Arapaho, and later the Sioux
Sioux
westward into Kiowa
Kiowa
territory around the Black Hills. The Kiowa
Kiowa
were pushed south by the invading Cheyenne
Cheyenne
who were then pushed westward out of the Black Hills
Black Hills
by the Sioux. Eventually the Kiowa
Kiowa
obtained a vast territory on the central and southern great plains in western Kansas, eastern Colorado, most of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
including the panhandle, and the Llano Estacado
Llano Estacado
in the Texas Panhandle
Texas Panhandle
and eastern New Mexico.[33] In their early history, the Kiowa
Kiowa
traveled with dogs pulling their belongings until horses were obtained through trade and raid with the Spanish and other Indian nations in the southwest. In the early spring of 1790 at the place that would become Las Vegas, New Mexico, a Kiowa
Kiowa
party led by war leader Guikate, made an offer of peace to a Comanche
Comanche
party while both were visiting the home of a mutual friend of both tribes. This led to a later meeting between Guikate and the head chief of the Nokoni Comanche. The two groups made an alliance to share the same hunting grounds and entered into a mutual defense pact and became the dominant inhabitants of the Southern Plains. From that time on, the Comanche
Comanche
and Kiowa
Kiowa
hunted, traveled, and made war together. In addition to the Comanche, the Kiowa
Kiowa
formed a very close alliance with the Plains Apache (Kiowa-Apache), with the two nations sharing much of the same culture and participating in each other's annual council meetings and events. The strong alliance of southern plains nations kept the invading Spanish from gaining a strong colonial hold on the southern plains and eventually forced them completely out of the area, pushing them eastward and south past the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
into present day Mexico. Indian wars[edit] In closing years of the 18th century and in the first quarter of the 19th century, the Kiowa
Kiowa
feared little from European neighbors. Kiowa ranged north of the Wichita Mountains. The Kiowa
Kiowa
and Comanche controlled a vast expanse of territory from the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
to the Brazos River. The enemies of the Kiowa
Kiowa
were usually the enemies of the Comanche. To the east there was warfare with the Osage and Pawnee. In the early 18th[dubious – discuss] century , the Cheyenne
Cheyenne
and Arapaho
Arapaho
began camping on the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
and new warfare broke out. In the south of the Kiowa
Kiowa
and Comanche
Comanche
were Caddoan speakers, but the Kiowa
Kiowa
and Comanche
Comanche
were friendly toward these bands. The Comanche
Comanche
were at war with the Apache
Apache
of the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
region.[19]

Cut-Throat Massacre, 1833. A picture from the Dohasan winter count.

They warred with the Cheyenne
Cheyenne
and Arapaho, Pawnee, Sac & Fox and Osages. In summer 1833, the Osage attacked an exposed Kiowa
Kiowa
camp near Head Mountain, Oklahoma. The Kiowa
Kiowa
lost many aged people, children and women. The heads were cut off and placed in kettles. During this "Cut-Throat Massacre", the Osage captured the sacred Tai-may doll (the Sun Dance
Sun Dance
figure of the Kiowa) as well. The Kiowa
Kiowa
were unable to perform the Sun Dance
Sun Dance
until the return of the Tai-may in 1835.[34]:33 Dohasan replaced the old Kiowa
Kiowa
chief, since he had failed to anticipate danger.[35]:259 The Kiowa
Kiowa
traded with the Wichita south along Red River and with Mescalero
Mescalero
Apache
Apache
and New Mexicans to the southwest. After 1840 they and their former enemies the Cheyenne, as well as their allies the Comanche
Comanche
and the Apache, fought and raided the Eastern natives moving into the Indian Territory.[36] Transition period[edit]

Ma-may-dayte

The years from 1873 to 1878 marked a drastic change in Kiowa lifestyle. In June 1874, the Kiowa, along with a group of Comanche
Comanche
and Cheyenne
Cheyenne
warriors, made their last protest against the invasion of white men at the Battle of Adobe Walls in Texas, which proved futile. In 1877, the first homes were constructed for the Indian chiefs and a plan was initiated to employ Indians at the Agency. Thirty Indians were hired to form the first police force on the Reservation.[37] The Kiowa
Kiowa
agreed to settle on a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma. Some bands of Kiowas remained at large until 1875. Some of the Lipan Apache
Apache
and Mescalero
Mescalero
Apache
Apache
bands with some Comanche
Comanche
in their company held out in northern Mexico until the early 1880s, when Mexican and U.S. Army forces drove them onto reservations or into extinction. By the Treaty of Medicine Lodge in 1867, the Kiowas settled in Western Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and Kansas.[38] They were forced to move south of the Washita River to the Red River and Western Oklahoma
Oklahoma
with the Comanches and the Kiowa Apache
Kiowa Apache
Tribe. The transition from the free life of Plains people to a restricted life of the reservation was more difficult for some families than others.[38] Reservation period[edit] The reservation period lasted from 1868 to 1906. In 1873, the first school among the Kiowa
Kiowa
was established by Quaker Thomas C. Battey. In 1877, the federal government built the first homes for the Indian chiefs and initiated a plan to employ Indians. 30 Indians were hired to form the first police force on the reservation. In 1879, the agency was moved from Ft. Sill to Anadarko.[39] The 1890 Census showed 1,598 Comanche
Comanche
at the Fort Sill
Fort Sill
reservation, which they shared with 1,140 Kiowa
Kiowa
and 326 Kiowa
Kiowa
Apache.[40] An agreement made with the Cherokee
Cherokee
Commission signed by 456 adult male Kiowa, Comanche, and Kiowa- Apache
Apache
on Sept. 28, 1892, cleared the way for the opening of the country to white settlers. The agreement provided for an allotment of 160 acres (65 ha) to every individual in the tribes and for the sale of the reservation lands (2,488,893 acres or 1,007,219 ha) to the United States
United States
– was to go into effect immediately upon ratification by Congress, even though the Medicine Lodge treaty of 1867 had guaranteed Indian possession of the reservation until 1898. The Indian signers wanted their names stricken but it was too late. A'piatan, as the leader, went to Washington to protest. Chief Lone Wolf (the Younger) immediately file proceedings against the act in the Supreme Court, but the Court decided against him on June 26, 1901.[41] Agents were assigned to the Kiowa
Kiowa
people. Modern period[edit] Since 1968, the Kiowa
Kiowa
have been governed by the Kiowa
Kiowa
Tribal Council, which presides over business related to health, education, and economic and industrial development programs.[42] On March 13, 1970, the Constitution and Bylaws of the Kiowa
Kiowa
Tribe of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
was drafted. On May 23, 1970, it was ratified by voters of the Kiowa
Kiowa
Tribe and remains in force.[43] In 1998, a significant legal development occurred with a landmark decision. In Kiowa
Kiowa
Tribe of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
v Manufacturing Technologies, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Indian tribes retain their sovereign immunity from suit without their consent even in off-reservation transactions where they do not waive that immunity.[44] As of 2000[update], over 4,000 of 12,500 Kiowa
Kiowa
lived near the towns of Anadarko, Fort Cobb, and Carnegie, in Caddo
Caddo
and Kiowa
Kiowa
counties, Oklahoma. Kiowas also reside in urban and suburban communities throughout the United States. World War II rekindled the Kiowa
Kiowa
warrior spirit and urbanization and modernization occurred in the war's aftermath. Each year Kiowa
Kiowa
veterans commemorate the warlike spirit of the 19th century leaders with dances performed by the Kiowa
Kiowa
Gourd Clan and Kiowa
Kiowa
Black Leggings Warrior Society. Kiowa
Kiowa
cultural identity and pride is apparent in their expressive culture and strong influence on the Gourd Dance
Gourd Dance
and southern plains art.[42] Longhorn Mountain controversy[edit] Longhorn Mountain near Carnegie, Oklahoma, a sacred site and source of cedar for the Kiowa, was leased to rock-crushing company Stewart Stone, Inc., of Cushing, Oklahoma, which announced intentions to begin to mine gravel in 2013. Humanities[edit]

Donna Standing Steinberg, Kiowa-Wichita and Josephine Parker, Kiowa, with their beadwork

Documentation of the history and development of contemporary Kiowa
Kiowa
art formulates one of the most unusual records in Native American culture. As early as 1891, Kiowa
Kiowa
artists were being commissioned to produce works for display at international expositions. The " Kiowa
Kiowa
Six" were some of the earliest Native Americans to receive international recognition for their work in the fine art world. They influenced generations of Indian artists among the Kiowa, and other Plains tribes. Traditional craft skills are not lost among the Kiowa
Kiowa
people today and the talented fine arts and crafts produced by Kiowa
Kiowa
Indians helped the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Indian Arts and Crafts Cooperative flourish over its 20-year existence.[39] Ledger art
Ledger art
and hide painting[edit] Further information: Ledger art
Ledger art
and Plains hide painting Early Kiowa
Kiowa
ledger artists were those held in captivity by the U.S. Army at Fort Marion
Fort Marion
in St. Augustine, Florida
St. Augustine, Florida
(1875–1878), at the conclusion of the Red River War, which also is known as the Southern Plains Indian War.[45] Ledger art
Ledger art
emerges from the Plains hide painting tradition. These Fort Marion
Fort Marion
artists include Kiowas Etadleuh Doanmoe and Zotom, who was a prolific artist who chronicled his experiences before and after becoming a captive at the fort. After his release from Fort Marion, Paul Zom-tiam (Zonetime, Koba) studied theology from 1878 until 1881, when he was ordained as a deacon in the Episcopal church.[46]

A Kiowa
Kiowa
ledger drawing possibly depicting the Buffalo Wallow battle in 1874, a fight between Southern Plains Indians and the U.S. Army during the Red River War.

Kiowa
Kiowa
Six[edit] Following in Silver Horn's footsteps were the Kiowa
Kiowa
Six,[47] or, as they have been known in the past, the Kiowa
Kiowa
Five. They are Spencer Asah, James Auchiah, Jack Hokeah, Stephen Mopope, Lois Bougetah Smoky, and Monroe Tsatoke[48] Coming from the area around Anadarko, Oklahoma, these artists studied at the University of Oklahoma. Lois Smoky left the group in 1927, but James Auchiah took her place in the group. The Kiowa Six gained international recognition as fine artists by exhibiting their work in the 1928 International Art Congress in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and then participated in the Venice Biennale
Venice Biennale
in 1932.[49] Painters and sculptors[edit] Besides the Kiowa Five and Silver Horn, Kiowa
Kiowa
painters active in the 20th and 21st centuries include Sharron Ahtone Harjo; Homer Buffalo; Charley Oheltoint; Michael C. Satoe Brown; T. C. Cannon; Wilson Daingkau; George Geionty; Bobby Hill (1933–1984); Harding Bigbow (1921–1997); Jim Tartsah; Mirac Creepingbear (1947–1990); Herman Toppah; Ernie Keahbone; C.E. Rowell; Dixon Palmer; Roland Whitehorse; Blackbear Bosin; Woody Big Bow (1914–1988); Parker Boyiddle, Jr. (1947–2007); Dennis Belindo (1938–2009); Clifford Doyeto (1942–2010); Al Momaday; George Keahbone; Joe Lucero (Hobay); Ladonna Tsatoke Silverhorn; R.G. Geionty; Huzo Paddelty; Keri Ataumbi, David E. Williams; Micah Wesley; Thomas Poolaw,; Tennyson Reid; Sherman Chaddlesone (1947–2013; Cruz McDaniels; Robert Redbird (b. 1939); Gus Hawziptaw; Gerald Darby; Lee Tsatoke Jr., N. Scott Momaday; and Barthell Little Chief. Bead artists[edit] Noted Kiowa
Kiowa
beadwork artists include Donna Jean Tsatoke, Alice Littleman, Nettie Standing, Marilyn Yeahquo, Edna Hokeah Pauahty, Leona Geimasaddle, Barry D. Belindo, Kathy Littlechief, Katherine Dickerson, Charlie Silverhorn, Paul McDaniels, Jr., Kiowa
Kiowa
J. Taryole, Grace Tsontekoy, Richard Aitson, Judy Beaver, Vanessa Paukeigope Jennings, Leatrice Geimasaddle, and Teri Greeves. Authors[edit] Kiowa- Cherokee
Cherokee
author N. Scott Momaday
N. Scott Momaday
won the 1969 Pulitzer Prize for his novel House Made of Dawn. Richard Aitson
Richard Aitson
(Kiowa- Kiowa
Kiowa
Apache) is a published poet. Other Kiowa
Kiowa
authors include playwright Hanay Geiogamah, poet and filmmaker Gus Palmer, Jr., Alyce Sadongei, Marian Kaulaity Hansson, Tocakut and Tristan Ahtone. Musicians and composers[edit] Kiowa music often is noted for its hymns that traditionally were accompanied by dance or played on the flute. Noted Kiowa
Kiowa
composers of contemporary music include James Anquoe, noted for his contributions to Native American culture.[50] Contemporary Kiowa
Kiowa
musicians include Cornel Pewewardy, Tom Mauchahty-Ware, and Terry Tsotigh. Photographers[edit] Kiowa
Kiowa
photographer Horace Poolaw
Horace Poolaw
(1906–1984) was one of the most prolific Native American photographers of his generation. He documented the Kiowa people
Kiowa people
living near his community in Mountain View, Oklahoma, beginning the 1920s. His legacy is continued today by his grandson, Thomas Poolaw, a prominent Kiowa
Kiowa
photographer and digital artist.[51] Image gallery[edit]

Kiowa
Kiowa
parfleche, ca. 1890, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History Center

Kiowa
Kiowa
beaded moccasins, ca. 1920, OHS

Detail of painting by Silver Horn
Silver Horn
(Kiowa), ca. 1880

Kiowa
Kiowa
ledger art, ca. 1874

Notable Kiowas[edit]

Lone Wolf, Kiowa
Kiowa
chief, ca. 1907

Micah Wesley, enrolled Kiowa
Kiowa
artist and DJ[52][53]

Ahpeahtone
Ahpeahtone
(1856–1931), chief Richard Aitson
Richard Aitson
(b. 1953), bead artist and poet Russell Bates (b. 1941) writer and actor Spencer Asah, painter, one of the Kiowa
Kiowa
Six James Auchiah, painter, one of the Kiowa
Kiowa
Six Big Bow, (1833–ca. 1900) war chief Blackbear Bosin
Blackbear Bosin
(1921–1980), painter and sculptor T. C. Cannon, painter and printmaker Cozad Singers, drum group and NAMMY winners Jesse Ed Davis (1944–1988), Kiowa- Comanche
Comanche
guitarist Dohäsan
Dohäsan
(ca. 1785–1866), chief of Kata band and Principal Chief of the Kiowas, artist, calendar keeper Teri Greeves (b. 1970), bead artist Sharron Ahtone Harjo
Sharron Ahtone Harjo
(b. 1945), painter, ledger artist Jack Hokeah, painter, one of the Kiowa
Kiowa
Six Vanessa Paukeigope Jennings
Vanessa Paukeigope Jennings
(b. 1952), bead artist, clothing and regalia maker Kicking Bird
Kicking Bird
(1835–1875), war chief Lone Wolf (Kiowa), Gui-pah-gho, The Elder and Principal Chief Tom Mauchahty-Ware, musician and dancer Parker McKenzie (1897–1999), traditionalist and linguist Arvo Mikkanen, attorney N. Scott Momaday, Pulitzer Prize Winner, author, painter, and activist Stephen Mopope, painter, one of the Kiowa
Kiowa
Six Horace Poolaw
Horace Poolaw
(1906–1984), photographer Pascal Poolaw (1922–1967), Native American war hero Red Warbonnet (d. 1849), traditionalist Satanta (Set'tainte) (ca. 1820–1878), war chief Silver Horn
Silver Horn
(1860–1940), artist and calendar keeper Sitting Bear
Sitting Bear
(Set-Tank, Set-Angia, called Satank) (ca. 1800—1871), warrior and medicine man Lois Smoky, bead artist and painter, one of the Kiowa
Kiowa
Six Monroe Tsatoke, painter, one of the Kiowa
Kiowa
Six White Horse (Tsen-tainte) (d. 1892), chief Chris Wondolowski, US professional soccer player

See also[edit]

Indigenous peoples of North America portal

Gourd Dance Koitsenko, Kiowa
Kiowa
warrior society

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e 2011 Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Indian Nations Pocket Pictorial Directory. Archived May 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Indian Affairs Commission. 2011: 20. Retrieved 4 Jan 2012. ^ "Kiowa". Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster
Dictionary.  ^ "Kiowa". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House.  ^ a b Pritzker 326 ^ a b Kracht, Benjamin R. "Kiowa". Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History Society's Encyclopedia of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
History and Culture. Retrieved 21 June 2012. ^ " Kiowa
Kiowa
Tanoan". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 June 2012. ^ Kiowa
Kiowa
dictionary ^ LIVING KIOWA SURVIVAL DICTIONARY ^ [1] ^ Andrew Cowell and Alonzo Moss, Sr., eds. and trans.: "Arapaho Historical Traditions", (Winnipeg, 2003: University of Manitoba Press), pp. 194–195. The stories in this volume are bilingual in Arapaho
Arapaho
and English. ^ Mithun, Marianne (2001). The Languages of Native North America (First paperback ed.). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 441. ISBN 0-521-23228-7.  ^ A Guide to the Kiowa
Kiowa
Collections at the Smithsonian Institution by Merrill, Hansson, Greene and Reuss, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., 1997. ^ Davis, Jeffrey. 2006. “A historical linguistic account of sign language among North American Indian groups.” In Multilingualism and Sign Languages: From the Great Plains to Australia; Sociolinguistics of the Deaf community, C. Lucas (ed.), Vol. 12, pp. 3–35. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press ^ " Kiowa
Kiowa
Business Committee" Archived October 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Kiowa
Kiowa
Tribe. (retrieved 26 August 2011) ^ " Kiowa
Kiowa
Red River Casino." 500 Nations. Retrieved 4 Jan 2011. ^ " Kiowa
Kiowa
Bingo." Archived October 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. 500 Nations. Retrieved 4 Jan 2011. ^ Rollings 2004, p. 22-28. ^ Wishart, David J.. Encyclopedia of the Great Plains Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2007. 89. ^ a b A History and Culture of the Southern Plains Tribes with an Introduction to the Study of North American Indians by Dick Swift, Carnegie Public Schools, 1972 ^ The Kiowa
Kiowa
by U.S. Department of the Interior, Southern Plains Indian Museum, 1994 ^ William C. Meadows: Kiowa
Kiowa
Ethnogeography, University of Texas Press 2008, ISBN 978-0-292-71878-4, Kiowa
Kiowa
Homeland, pages 122 – 123 ^ Kiowa
Kiowa
Ethnohistory and Historical Ethnography Archived March 30, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Kiowas". Encyclopedia of the Great Plains. Retrieved 2013-06-23.  ^ Boyd, 71 ^ "The Kiowa
Kiowa
Tribe of Oklahoma". Spottedbird Publishing, LLC. Retrieved 1 August 2017.  ^ Attocknie, Dana (November 11, 2010). " Kiowa
Kiowa
Black Leggings Warrior Society". Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Native Times Magazine. Retrieved 1 August 2017.  ^ Boyd, 73 ^ Mayhall, Mildred P. " Kiowa
Kiowa
Indians". The Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 2008-01-17.  '^ Greene, Candace S. One Hundred Summers: A Kiowa
Kiowa
Calendar Record. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2008. ^ a b c d WARREN WAGONTRAIN RAID The Handbook of Texas Online Texas State Historical Association (TSHA) ^ a b Tanner, Beccy (2013-02-05). "Betty Nixon dies; helped found Mid-America All-Indian Center". Wichita Eagle. Retrieved 2013-02-09.  ^ "Which Indian Really Modeled?" by Robert R. Van Ryzin, Numismatic News, 1990. ^ "The Kiowa
Kiowa
Indians". Retrieved 2013-06-23.  ^ Boyd, Maurice (1981): Kiowa
Kiowa
Voices. Ceremonial Dance, Ritual and Song. Part I. Fort Worth. ^ Mooney, James (1898): Calendar History of the Kiowa
Kiowa
Indians. Smithsonian Institution. 17th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Part I. Washington. ^ Kiowa
Kiowa
History by Evans R. Satepauhoodle, TU, 2004 ^ The Kiowa, U.S. Department of the Interior, Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Southern Plains Indian Museum and Crafts Center ^ a b Swift, Dick. 1972. ^ a b The Kiowa
Kiowa
by U.S. Department of the Interior, Southern Plains Indian Museum, 1994. ^ Texas Beyond History – The Passing of the Indian Era ^ Anadarko Daily News, Aug. 3 & 4, 1996 ^ a b B.R.Kracht by Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Historical Society ^ Kiowa
Kiowa
Tribe of Oklahoma, Constitution and Bylaws of the Kiowa
Kiowa
Indian Tribe by the Kiowa
Kiowa
Tribe, 1970. ^ Walter Echo-Hawk, NARF Annual Report, 1998 ^ Southern Plains Indian war Archived 2006-08-30 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Viola 16 ^ "About the Kiowa
Kiowa
Six". Jacobson House. Retrieved 8 January 2017.  ^ "About the Kiowa
Kiowa
Five" Archived March 7, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. Jacobson House Native Art Center. (retrieved 10 Nov 2010) ^ Dunn 240 ^ The Kiowa
Kiowa
by U.S. Department of Interior, Southern Plains Indian Museum, 1994. ^ "Urban 5 Show at USD" Archived November 23, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.. American Indian Journalism Institute. (retrieved 7 Oct 2010) ^ Native American Rights Fund. Visions for the Future: A Celebration of Young Native American Artists, Volume 1. Boulder, CO: Native American Rights Fund, 2007: 82. ISBN 978-1-55591-655-8. ^ "Native American Week Planned at UNM-Gallup" Archived July 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. University of New Mexico
New Mexico
Today. 8 November 2007 (retrieved 25 February 2010)

References[edit]

Boyd, Maurice. Kiowa
Kiowa
Voices: Ceremonial Dance, Ritual, and Song. Fort Worth: Texas Christian University, 1981. ISBN 978-0-912646-67-1. Dunn, Dorothy. American Indian Painting of the Southwest and Plains Areas. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico
New Mexico
Press, 1968. ASIN B000X7A1T0. Greene, Candace S. Silver Horn: Master Illustrator of the Kiowas. Norman: University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8061-3307-4. Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Rollings, William H; Deer, Ada E (2004). The Comanche. Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7910-8349-9.  Viola, Herman (1998). Warrior Artists: Historic Cheyenne
Cheyenne
and Kiowa Indian Ledger Art Drawn By Making Medicine and Zotom. National Geographic Society. ISBN 0-7922-7370-2

Further reading[edit]

Library resources about Kiowa

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Boyd, Maurice (1983). Kiowa
Kiowa
Voices: Myths, Legends and Folktales. Texas Christian University Press. ISBN 0-912646-76-4. Corwin, Hugh (1958). The Kiowa
Kiowa
Indians, their history and life stories. Hoig, Stan (2000). The Kiowas and the Legend of Kicking Bird. Boulder: The University Press of Colorado. ISBN 0-87081-564-4. Meadows, William C. (1999) "Kiowa, Apache, and Comanche
Comanche
Military Societies." University of Texas Press, Austin. ____ (2006) “Black Goose’s Map of the Kiowa, Apache, and Comanche Reservation in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Territory.” Great Plains Quarterly 26(4):265–282. ____ (2008) " Kiowa
Kiowa
Ethnogeography." University of Texas Press, Austin. ____ (2010) " Kiowa
Kiowa
Military Societies: Ethnohistory and Ritual." University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press, Norman. ____ (2013) Kiowa
Kiowa
Ethnonymy of Other Populations. Plains Anthropologist, 58(226):3–28. Meadows, William C. and Kenny Harragarra (2007 )“The Kiowa
Kiowa
Drawings of Gotebo (1847–1927): A Self Portrait of Cultural and Religious Transition.” Plains Anthropologist 52(202):229–244. Mishkin, Bernard (1988). Rank and Warfare Among The Plains Indians. AMS Press. ISBN 0-404-62903-2. Nye, Colonel W.S. (1983). Carbine and Lance: The Story of Old Fort Sill. Norman: University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press. ISBN 0-8061-1856-3. Momaday, N. Scott (1977). The Way to Rainy Mountain. University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-0436-2. Richardson, Jane (1988). Law & Status Among the Kiowa
Kiowa
Indians (American Ethnological Society Monographs; No 1). AMS Press. ISBN 0-404-62901-6. US Department of the Interior (1974). "The Kiowa". Southern Plains Indian Museum and Crafts Center. Walter Echo-Hawk, In the Courts of the Conqueror: The 10 Worst Indian Law Cases Ever Decided (2010).

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kiowa.

Kiowa
Kiowa
Tribe of Oklahoma, official website Kiowa, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Historical Society Kiowa
Kiowa
Drawings, National Museum of Natural History

v t e

Native American tribes in  Oklahoma

Federally recognized tribes

Absentee Shawnee Alabama-Quassarte Apache Caddo Cherokee Cheyenne
Cheyenne
and Arapaho Chickasaw Choctaw Citizen Potawatomi Comanche Delaware Nation Delaware Tribe Eastern Shawnee Fort Sill
Fort Sill
Apache Iowa Kaw Kialegee Kickapoo Kiowa Miami Modoc Muscogee (Creek) Osage Otoe-Missouria Ottawa Pawnee Peoria Ponca Quapaw Sac and Fox Seminole Seneca-Cayuga Shawnee Thlopthlocco Tonkawa United Keetoowah Wichita Wyandotte

Tribal languages (still spoken)

Alabama Arapaho Caddo Cayuga Cherokee Cheyenne Chickasaw Chiwere (Iowa and Otoe) Choctaw Comanche Delaware Koasati Hitchiti-Mikasuki Mescalero-Chiricahua Mesquakie (Fox, Kickapoo, and Sauk) Muscogee Osage Ottawa Pawnee Ponca Potawatomi Quapaw Seneca Shawnee Wichita Wyandot Yuchi

v t e

Indigenous peoples of Colorado

Overview

Outline of Colorado
Colorado
prehistory Prehistory of Colorado

Contemporary peoples native to Colorado

People

Arapaho Cheyenne Comanche Jicarilla Apache Kiowa Pawnee Shoshone Ute

Reservations

Southern Ute Indian Reservation Ute Mountain Ute Tribe

Major events

Battle of Beecher Island Colorado
Colorado
War Comanche
Comanche
Campaign Sand Creek massacre

Prehistoric cultures in Colorado

Paleo-Indian

Clovis culture Cody complex Folsom tradition Goshen complex Hell Gap complex Plainview complex Plano cultures

Archaic

Apex complex Basketmaker culture Mount Albion complex Oshara Tradition Picosa culture

Post-Archaic

Ancient Pueblo Peoples Apishapa culture Dismal River culture Fremont culture Panhandle culture Sopris Phase Tipi
Tipi
ring

Noted archaeologists

Cynthia Irwin-Williams Paul Sidney Martin Waldo Rudolph Wedel Joe Ben Wheat

Related articles

List of ancient dwellings of Pueblo peoples in Colorado List of prehistoric sites in Colorado Trail of the Ancients

v t e

Native Americans in the Black Hills
Black Hills
of South Dakota
South Dakota
and Wyoming

Historic and present tribes

Cheyenne Lakota Arapaho Arikara Crow Kiowa

Historic figures

Sitting Bull Crazy Horse Lone Horn Red Cloud Spotted Tail Black Elk

Historic native spiritual places

Inyan Kara Mountain Bear Butte

Traditional narratives

Devils Tower Great Race

Historic events

History of the Black Hills Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851) Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) Black Hills
Black Hills
War (Great Sioux
Sioux
War of 1876)

Historic reservations

Great Sioux
Sioux
Reservation

Modern events and places

Black Hills
Black Hills
Land Claim The Journey Museum and Gardens United States
United States
v. Sioux
Sioux
Nation of Indians Lakota Nation Invitational

Modern people

JoAnn Tall Charmaine White Face

For more information, see History of Native Americans in the United States. Nearby modern reservations are Pine Ridge

.