Kinshasa (/kɪnˈʃɑːsə/; French: [kɛ̃ʃaza]; formerly
Léopoldville (French: Léopoldville or Dutch
Leopoldstad (help·info))) is the capital and the largest
city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is beside the Congo
Once a site of fishing and trading villages,
Kinshasa is now a
megacity with an estimated population of more than 11 million. It
faces Brazzaville, the capital of the neighbouring Republic of the
Congo, which can be seen in the distance across the wide Congo River,
making them the two closest capital cities on Earth after
Rome and the
Vatican City. The city of
Kinshasa is also one of the DRC's 26
provinces. Because the administrative boundaries of the city-province
cover a vast area, over 90 percent of the city-province's land is
rural in nature, and the urban area occupies a small but expanding
section on the western side.
Kinshasa is Africa's third-largest urban area after
Lagos. It is also the world's largest
Francophone urban area
Paris in population), with French
being the language of government, schools, newspapers, public
services, and high-end commerce in the city, while
Lingala is used as
a lingua franca in the street.
Kinshasa hosted the 14th
Francophonie Summit in October 2012.
Kinshasa are known as Kinois (in French and sometimes in
English) or Kinshasans (English). The indigenous people of the area
include the Humbu and Teke.
2.1 Administrative divisions
5 Government and politics
7 Social issues
7.1 Crime and punishment
7.2 Street children
9 Health and medicine
11 Buildings and institutions
Infrastructure and housing
13.3 External transport
14 Notable people
15 Twin towns – sister cities
16 See also
16.1 Films about Kinshasa
18 External links
Main articles: History of Kinshasa, Timeline of Kinshasa, and Kinshasa
(commune) § History
View of Léopoldville station and port (1884)
Kinshassa village (1912)
The city was founded as a trading post by
Henry Morton Stanley
Henry Morton Stanley in
1881. It was named Léopoldville in honour of King Leopold II of
Belgium, who controlled the vast territory that is now the Democratic
Republic of the Congo, not as a colony but as a private property. The
post flourished as the first navigable port on the
Congo River above
Livingstone Falls, a series of rapids over 300 kilometres (190 miles)
below Leopoldville. At first, all goods arriving by sea or being sent
by sea had to be carried by porters between Léopoldville and Matadi,
the port below the rapids and 150 km (93 mi) from the coast.
The completion of the Matadi-
Kinshasa portage railway, in 1898,
provided an alternative route around the rapids and sparked the rapid
development of Léopoldville. In 1914, a pipeline was installed so
that crude oil could be transported from
Matadi to the upriver
steamers in Leopoldville. By 1923, the city was elevated to capital
of the Belgian Congo, replacing the town of Boma in the Congo
estuary. The town, nicknamed "Léo" or "Leopold", became a
commercial centre and grew rapidly during the colonial period.
Limete and monument to Lumumba
After gaining its independence on June 30, 1960, following riots in
Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo elected its first prime minister,
Patrice Lumumba. Lumumba's determination to have full control over
Congo's resources to improve the living conditions of his people was
perceived as a threat to western interests. This being the height of
the Cold War, the U.S. and Belgium did not want to lose control of the
strategic wealth of the Congo, in particular its uranium. Less than a
year after Lumumba's election, the Belgians and the U.S. bought the
support of his Congolese rivals and set in motion the events that
culminated in Lumumba's assassination. In 1965, with
the help of the U.S. and Belgium, Joseph-Désiré Mobutu seized power
in the Congo. He initiated a policy of "Africanizing" the names of
people and places in the country. In 1966, Léopoldville was renamed
Kinshasa, for a village named
Kinchassa that once stood near the site,
Kinshasa (commune). The city grew rapidly under Mobutu, drawing
people from across the country who came in search of their fortunes or
to escape ethnic strife elsewhere, thus adding to the many ethnicities
and languages already found there.
In the 1990s, a rebel uprising began, which, by 1997, had brought down
the regime of Mobutu.
Kinshasa suffered greatly from Mobutu's
excesses, mass corruption, nepotism and the civil war that led to his
downfall. Nevertheless, it is still a major cultural and intellectual
centre for Central Africa, with a flourishing community of musicians
and artists. It is also the country's major industrial centre,
processing many of the natural products brought from the interior. The
city has recently[when?] had to fend off rioting soldiers, who were
protesting the government's failure to pay them.
Joseph Kabila, president of the Congo 2001–present, is not
enormously popular in Kinshasa. Violence broke out following the
announcement of Kabila’s victory in the contested election of 2006;
the European Union deployed troops (EUFOR RD Congo) to join the UN
force in the city. The announcement in 2016 that a new election would
be delayed two years led to large protests in September and in
December which involved barricades in the streets and left dozens of
people dead. Schools and businesses were closed down.
Down at the banks of the
Congo River in
Residential area next to cultivated land in an area at the city's
Kinshasa is a city of sharp contrasts, with affluent residential and
commercial areas and three universities alongside sprawling slums. It
is located along the south bank of the Congo River, downstream on the
Pool Malebo and directly opposite the city of Brazzaville, capital
of the Republic of the Congo. The Congo river is the second longest
river in Africa after the Nile, and has the continent's greatest
discharge. As a waterway it provides a means of transport for much of
the Congo basin; it is navigable for large river barges between
Kinshasa and Kisangani, and many of its tributaries are also
navigable. The river is an important source of hydroelectric power,
and downstream from
Kinshasa it has the potential to generate power
equivalent to the usage of roughly half of Africa's population.
The older and wealthier part of the city (ville basse) is located on a
flat area of alluvial sand and clay near the river, while many newer
areas are found on the eroding red soil of surrounding hills.
Older parts of the city were laid out on a geometric pattern, with de
facto racial segregation becoming de jure in 1929 as the European and
African neighborhoods grew closer together.
City plans of the
1920s–1950s featured a cordon sanitaire or buffer between the white
and black neighborhoods, which included the central market as well as
parks and gardens for Europeans.
Urban planning in post-independence
Kinshasa has not been extensive.
The Mission Française d'Urbanisme drew up some plans in the 1960s
which envisioned a greater role for automobile transportation but did
not predict the city's significant population growth. Thus much of the
urban structure has developed without guidance from a master plan.
According to UN-Habitat, the city is expanding by eight square
kilometers per year. It describes many of the new neighborhoods as
slums, built in unsafe conditions with inadequate infrastructure.
Nevertheless spontaneously developed areas have in many cases extended
the orthogonal streets from the original city.
Main article: Communes of Kinshasa
Kinshasa is both a city (ville in French) and a province, one of the
26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Its status is
thus similar to that of
Paris which is both a city and one of the 101
departments of France. The ville-province of
Kinshasa is divided into
four districts which are further divided into 24 communes
(municipalities), which in turn contain various quarters (332 in
total). Maluku, the rural province to the east of the urban area,
accounts for 79% of the 9.965 km2 total land area of the
ville-province, with a population of 200,000–300,000.
Mont Amba District
The 24 communes of Kinshasa
Abbreviations : Kal. (Kalamu), Kin. (Kinshasa), K.-V.
(Kasa-Vubu), Ling. (Lingwala), Ng.-Ng. (Ngiri-Ngiri)
Under the Köppen climate classification,
Kinshasa has a Tropical wet
and dry climate. Its lengthy rainy season spans from October through
May, with a relatively short dry season, between June and September.
Kinshasa lies south of the equator, so its dry season begins around
its "winter" solstice, which is in June. This is in contrast to
African cities further north featuring this climate where the dry
season typically begins around January. Kinshasa's dry season is
slightly cooler than its wet season, though temperatures remain
relatively constant throughout the year.
Climate data for Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Climate-Data.org (tempetature) Weatherbase
Danish Meteorological Institute (precipitation, sun, and
Kinshasa in 2016
An official census conducted in 1984 counted 2.6 million
residents. Since then, all estimates are extrapolations. The
estimates for 2005 fell in a range between 5.3 million and 7.3
According to UN-Habitat, 390,000 people immigrate to Kinshasa
annually, fleeing warfare and seeking economic opportunity. Many float
on barges down the Congo River.
Government and politics
The head of
Kinshasa ville-province has the title of Gouverneur.
André Kimbuta has been governor since 2007. Each commune has its own
Although political power in the DRC is fragmented,
Kinshasa as the
national capital represents the official center of sovereignty, and
thus of access to international organizations and financing, and of
political powers such as the right to issue passports.
also the primate city of the DRC with a population several times
larger than the next-largest city, Lubumbashi.
The United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the
Democratic Republic of the Congo, known by its French acronym MONUSCO
(formerly MONUC) makes its headquarters in Kinshasa. In 2016 the UN
placed more peacekeepers on active duty in
Kinshasa in response to the
recent unrest against Kabila. Critics, including recently[when?]
the US ambassador to the UN, have accused the peacekeeping mission
of supporting a corrupt government.
Other non-governmental organizations play significant roles in local
governance. The Belgian development agency (Coopération technique
belge; CTB) since 2006 sponsors the Programme d’Appui aux
Initiatives de Développement Communautaire (Paideco), a
6-million-euro program aimed at economic development. It began work in
Kimbanseke, a hill commune with population verging on one million.
Kinshasa in 2013
Big manufacturing companies such as Marsavco S.A.R.L., All Pack
Industries and Angel Cosmetics are located in the centre of town
(Gombe) in Kinshasa.
There are many other industries, such as Trust Merchant Bank, located
in the heart of the city. Food processing is a major industry, and
construction and other service industries also play a significant role
in the economy.
Although home to only 13% of the DRC’s population,
for 85% percent of the Congolese economy as measured by gross domestic
product. A 2004 investigation found 70% of inhabitants employed
informally, 17% in the public sector, 9% in the formal private sector,
and 3% other, of a total 976,000 workers. Most new jobs are classified
People’s Republic of China
People’s Republic of China has been heavily involved in the
Congo since the 1970s, when they financed the construction of the
Palais du Peuple and backed the government against rebels in the Shaba
war. In 2007–2008
China and Congo signed an agreement for an $8.5
billion loan for infrastructure development. Chinese entrepreneurs
are gaining an increasing share of local marketplaces in Kinshasa,
displacing in the process formerly successful Congolese, West African,
Indian, and Lebanese merchants.
Mean household spending in 2005 was the equivalent of US $2,150,
amounting to $1 per day per person. The median household spending was
$1,555, 66 cents per person per day. Among the poor, more than half of
this spending goes to food, especially bread and cereal.
Crime and punishment
Since the Second Congo War, the city has been striving to recover from
disorder, with many youth gangs hailing from Kinshasa's slums. The
U.S. State Department in 2010 informed travelers that
other major Congolese cities are generally safe for daytime travel,
but to beware of robbers, especially in traffic jams and in areas near
hotels and stores.
Some sources say that
Kinshasa is extremely dangerous, with one source
giving a homicide rate of 112 per 100,000 people per year. Another
source cites a homicide rate of 12.3 per 100,000. By some
accounts, crime in
Kinshasa is not so rampant, due to relatively good
relations among residents and perhaps to the severity with which even
petty crime is punished.
While the military and National Police operate their own jails in
Kinshasa, the main detention facility under the jurisdiction of the
local courts is the
Kinshasa Penitentiary and Re-education center in
Malaka. This prison houses more than double its nominal capacity of
1,000 inmates. The Congolese military intelligence organization,
Détection Militaire des Activités Anti-Patrie (DEMIAP) operates the
Ouagadougou prison in
Kintambo commune with notorious cruelty.
By 2017 the population of Malaka prison was reported at 7,000–8,000.
Of these, 3,600–4,600 escaped in a jailbreak in May.
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to
reflect recent events or newly available information. (March 2016)
Street children or “Shegués”, often orphaned, are subject
to abuse by the police and military. Of the estimated 20,000 children
living on Kinshasa's streets, almost a quarter are beggars, some are
street vendors and about a third have some kind of employment.
Some have fled from physically abusive families, notably step-parents,
others were expelled from their families as they were believed to be
witches, and have become outcasts. Previously a
significant number were civil war orphans.
Street children are mainly boys, but the percentage of girls is
increasing according to UNICEF. Ndako ya Biso provides support for
street children, including overnight accommodation for girls.
There are also second generation street children: "they referred
to their sub-culture of violence as kindoubill".
These children have been the object of considerable outside study.
The University of Kinshasa
Kinshasa is home to several higher-level education institutes,
covering a wide range of specialities, from civil engineering to
nursing and journalism. The city is also home to three large
universities and an arts school:
Académie de Design (AD)
Institut Supérieur d'Architecture et Urbanisme
Université Panafricaine du Congo (UPC)
University of Kinshasa
Université Libre de Kinshasa
Université Catholique du Congo
Congo Protestant University
National Pedagogy University
National Institute of Arts
Institut Supérieur de Publicité et Médias
Prins van Luik School / Lycée Prince de Liège (primary and secondary
education, Belgian curriculum)
Centre for Health Training (CEFA)
In 2005, 93% of children over six attended school and 70% of people
over 15 were literate in French.
Health and medicine
There are twenty hospitals in Kinshasa, plus various medical centres
and polyclinics. In 1997,
Dikembe Mutombo built a 300-bed hospital
near his home town of Kinshasa.
Since 1991, Monkole Hospital is operating as a non-profit health
institution collaborating with the Health Department as district
hospital in Kinshasa. Directed by Pr Léon Tshilolo, paediatrician and
haematologist, Monkole Hospital opened a 150-bed building in 2012 with
improved clinical services as laboratory, diagnostic radiology,
intensive care, neonatal unit, family medicine, emergencies unit and a
larger surgical area.
Kinoi sapeur in 2015 wearing a beaded outfit incorporate an homage to
Kinshasa is the home to much of the Congo’s intelligentsia,
including a political class which developed during the Mobutu era.
Kinshasa has a flourishing music scene which since the 1960s has
operated under the patronage of the city's elite. The Orchestre
Symphonique Kimbanguiste, formed in 1994, began using improved musical
instruments and has since grown in means and reputation.
The Rumble in the Jungle
The Rumble in the Jungle boxing match between
Muhammad Ali and George Foreman, in which Ali defeated Foreman, to
regain the World
A pop culture ideal type in
Kinshasa is the mikiliste, a fashionable
person with money who has traveled to Europe. Adrien Mombele, a.k.a.
Stervos Niarcos, and musician Papa Wemba, were an early exemplar of
the mikiliste style. La Sape, a linked cultural trend also
described as dandyism, involves wearing of flamboyant clothing.
Many Kinois have a negative view of the city, expressing nostalgia for
the rural way of life, and a stronger association with the Congolese
nation than with Kinshasa.
See also: List of television stations in Kinshasa
Office of the Agence Congolaise de Presse (ACP)
Congolese journalists protesting in Kinshasa, 2009.
Kinshasa is home to a large number of media outlets, including
multiple radio and television stations that broadcast to nearly the
entire country, including state-run Radio-Television Nationale
Congolaise (RTNC) and privately run Digital Congo and Raga TV. The
private channel RTGA is also based in Kinshasa.
Several national radio stations, including La Voix du Congo, which is
operated by RTNC, MONUC-backed
Radio Okapi and Raga FM are based in
Kinshasa, as well as numerous local stations. The BBC is also
Kinshasa on 92.6 FM.
The state-controlled Agence Congolaise de Presse news agency is based
in Kinshasa, as well as several daily and weekly newspapers and news
websites, including L'Avenir (daily), La Conscience, LeCongolais
(online),L'Observateur (daily), Le Phare, Le Potentiel, and Le
Most of the media uses French and
Lingala to a large extent; very few
use the other national languages.
The official language of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, of
Kinshasa is the capital, is French (See:
Kinshasa is the largest officially
Francophone city in
the world although
Lingala is widely used as a spoken
language. French is the language of street signs, posters, newspapers,
government documents, schools; it dominates plays, television, and the
press, and it is used in vertical relationships among people of
different social classes. People of the same class, however, speak the
Congolese languages (Kikongo, Lingala, Tshiluba or Swahili) among
Sports, especially football and martial arts are popular in Kinshasa.
The Vita Club, now owned by General
Gabriel Amisi Kumba frequently
draws large crowds, enthusiastic and sometimes rowdy, to the Stade des
Martyrs. Dojos are popular and their owners influential.
Buildings and institutions
The People's Palace, seat of the Congolese parliament
Kinshasa is home to the Government of the Democratic Republic of the
the Palais de la Nation, home of the President, in Gombe;
the Palais du Peuple, meeting place of both houses of Parliament,
Senate and National Assembly, in Lingwala;
the Cité de l’OUA, built for the
Organization of African Unity
Organization of African Unity in
the 1970s and now serving government functions, in Ngaliema.
Central Bank of the Congo
Central Bank of the Congo has its headquarters on Boulevard
Colonel Tshatshi, across the street from the Mausoleum of Laurent
Kabila and the presidential palace.
The quartier Matonge is known regionally for its nightlife.
Notable features of the city include the Gecamines Commercial Building
(formerly SOZACOM) and Hotel Memling skyscrapers; L'ONATRA, the
impressive building of the Ministry of Transport; the central market;
Kinshasa Museum; and the
Kinshasa Fine Arts Academy. The face of
Kinshasa is changing as new buildings are being built on the Boulevard
du 30 Juin: Crown Tower (on Batetela) and Congofutur Tower.
Kinshasa is home to the country's national stadium, the Stade des
Martyrs (Stadium of the Martyrs).
Infrastructure and housing
The city's infrastructure for running water and electricity is
generally in bad shape. The electrical network is in disrepair to
the extent that prolonged and periodic blackouts are normal, and
exposed lines sometimes electrify puddles of rainwater.
Regideso, the national public company with primary responsibility for
water supply in the Congo, serves
Kinshasa only incompletely, and not
with uniformly perfect quality. Other areas are served by
decentralized Associations des Usagers des Réseau d’Eau Potable
(ASUREPs). Gombe uses water at a high rate (306 liters per day per
inhabitant) compared to other communes (from 71 l/d/i in
to 2 l/d/i in Kimbanseke).
The city is estimated to produce 6,300 m3 of trash and 1,300 m3 of
industrial waste per day.
The housing market has seen rising prices and rents since the 1980s.
Houses and apartments in the central area are expensive, with houses
selling for a million dollars and apartments going for $5000 per
month. High prices have spread outward from the central area as owners
and renters move out of the most expensive part of the city. Gated
communities and shopping malls, built with foreign capital and
technical expertise, began to appear in 2006.
Urban renewal projects
have led in some cases to violent conflict and displacement.
The high prices leave incoming refugees with few options for
settlement besides illegal shantytowns such as Pakadjuma.
In 2005, 55% of households had televisions and 43% had mobile phones.
11% had refrigerators and 5% had cars.
See also: List of streets in
Kinshasa (in French)
Boulevard du 30 Juin
Boulevard du 30 Juin provides an artery to the business district
in Gombe, Kinshasa.
The ville-province has 5000 km of roadways, 10% of which are
Boulevard du 30 Juin
Boulevard du 30 Juin (Boulevard of 30 June) links the main
areas of the central district of the city. Other roads also converge
on Gombe. The East-West road network linking the more distant
neighborhoods is weak and thus transit through much of the city is
difficult. The quality of roads has improved somewhat, developed
in part with loans from China, since a nadir in year 2000.
Several private companies serve the city, among them the Urban
Transport Company (STUC) and the Public
City train (12 cars in
2002). The bus lines are:
Gare centrale – Kingasani (municipality of Kimbanseke, reopened in
Kingasani – Marché central
Matete – Royale (reopened in June 2006);
Matete – UPN (reopened in June 2006);
Ngaba – UPN (reopened in June 2006).
Rond-point Victoire – clinique Ngliema (opened in March 2007)
Other companies also provide public transport: Urbaco, Tshatu Trans,
Socogetra, Gesac and MB Sprl. The city buses carry up to 67,000
passengers per day. Several companies operate taxis and taxi-buses.
Also available are fula-fula (trucks adapted to carry passengers).
The majority (95.8 percent) of transport is provided by individuals.
The city has two airports:
N'djili Airport (FIH) is the main airport
with connections to other African countries as well as to Brussels,
Paris and some other destinations. N'Dolo Airport, located close to
the city centre, is used for domestic flights only with small
turboprop aircraft. Several international airlines serve Ndjili
Kenya Airways, Air Zimbabwe, South African Airways,
Ethiopian Airlines, Brussels Airlines,
Air France and Turkish
Airlines. As of June 2016 DR Congo has two national airlines, Congo
Airways, formed with the help of Air France, and Air Kasaï. Both
offer scheduled flights from
Kinshasa to a limited number of cities
inside DR Congo.
A memorial at
Kinshasa train station commemorating the thousands of
Congolese slave labourers who were forced to build the railroad
Matadi–Kinshasa Railway connects
Kinshasa with Matadi, Congo's
Atlantic port. The line reopened in September 2015 after around a
decade without regular service. As of April 2016, there was one
passenger trip per week along the line, which travels the 350
kilometres (220 miles) between
Matadi every Saturday in
about 7 hours; more frequent service was planned.
the neighbouring Republic of Congo is connected to its Atlantic port
Pointe-Noire via the Congo–Ocean Railway.
ONATRA operates three lines of urban railways linking the town centre,
which goes to Bas-Congo.
The main line linking the Central Station to the
N'djili Airport has 9
stations: Central Station, Ndolo, Amicongo, Uzam, Masina /
Petro-Congo, Masina wireless Masina / Mapela, Masina / Neighborhood
III, Masina / Siforco Camp Badara and Ndjili airport.
The second line connects the Central Station in
Bas-Congo, through Matete, Riflart and Kimwenza.
The third line at the Central Station Kinsuka-pumping in the town of
In 2007, Belgium assisted in a renovation of the country's internal
rail network. This improved service to Kintambo, Ndolo, Limete,
Lemba, Kasangulu, Gombe, Ndjili and Masina. During the early years of
the 21st century, the city's planners considered creating a tramway in
collaboration with public transport in Brussels (STIB), whose work
would start in 2009. That work has not moved beyond the planning
stage, partly due to lack of a sufficient electrical supply.
Kinshasa is the major river port of the Congo. The port, called 'Le
Beach Ngobila' extends for about 7 km (4 mi) along the
river, comprising scores of quays and jetties with hundreds of boats
and barges tied up. Ferries cross the river to Brazzaville, a distance
of about 4 km (2 mi). River transport also connects to
dozens of ports upstream, such as
Kisangani and Bangui.
There are road and rail links to Matadi, the sea port in the Congo
estuary 150 km (93 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean.
There are no rail links from
Kinshasa further inland, and road
connections to much of the rest of the country are few and in poor
Kinshasa at night.
Emmanuel Weyi, Congolese entrepreneur
Léopold Mutombo-Kalombo, Pastor, Apostle
Joseph Damien Tshatshi, colonel in the Armée Nationale Congolaise
Nicolas-Patience Basabose, designer-architect and publisher of
LeCongolais online news platform 
Justin Marie Bomboko
David Norris, scholar and politician, 2011 election candidate for
President of Ireland
D. J. Mbenga, professional basketball player for the Los Angeles
Lakers in the US National Basketball Association
Emmanuel Mudiay, professional basketball player of the Denver Nuggets
in the US National Basketball Association
Christian Eyenga, professional basketball player and 2009 first round
draft choice for the
Cleveland Cavaliers in the US National Basketball
Dikembe Mutombo, retired professional basketball player
Christian M'Pumbu, professional mixed martial arts fighter and
Bellator Fighting Championships World Champion
Guylain Ndumbu-Nsungu, former Sheffield Wednesday football player
Jeremy Bokila, professional football player, son of Ndingi Bokila
Claude Makélélé, professional football player and current manager
Steve Mandanda, professional footballer who plays for Crystal Palace
France national football team
Ariza Makukula, naturalised Portuguese retired professional football
José Bosingwa, naturalised Portuguese football player
Leroy Lita, professional football player
Fabrice Muamba, former professional footballer who played for Bolton
Wanderers in the Premier League
Tim Biakabutuka, former professional
American football player
Kazenga LuaLua, professional football player for Brighton & Hove
Lomana LuaLua, professional football player for Al-Arabi in Qatar
Mwamba Kazadi, former professional football player who won the 1973
"African Footballer of the Year" award
Péguy Luyindula, professional football player for
in Ligue 1
Hérita Ilunga, professional football player
Gary Kikaya, retired Olympic 400 metre runner
Patrick Kabongo, professional football player for the Edmonton Eskimos
of the Canadian
Youssouf Mulumbu, professional footballer for Norwich City
Danny Mwanga, professional footballer for the Philadelphia Union
Blaise Nkufo, professional footballer for Switzerland
Gabriel Zakuani, professional football player for Peterborough United
Football League in England
Steve Zakuani, professional football player for the Seattle Sounders
Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer in the United States
Occupé Bayenga, professional football player who currently plays in
Universidad de Concepción, Chilean Primera División
Christian Benteke, professional football player for Crystal Palace
F.C. of the
Premier League and the Belgium national football team
Jody Lukoki, professional football player for Ludogorets Razgrad in
the Bulgarian First League and the DR Congo national football team
Jimmy Omonga, singer-songwriter
JB Mpiana, singer-songwriter
Felix Wazekwa, singer-songwriter
Lokwa Kanza, singer-songwriter
Ya Kid K, hip-hop artist
Leki, R&B artist
Jessy Matador, singer
Odette Krempin, fashion designer
Kaysha, hip-hop artist
Merveille Lukeba, professional actor for the series Skins on E4
Mohombi, Pop, Hip Hop artist
Fally Ipupa, singer-songwriter
Koffi Olomide singer- songwriter
Twin towns – sister cities
Kinshasa is twinned with:
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Ankara, since 2005
Traffic Robots in Kinshasa
Films about Kinshasa
^ a b Matthieu Kayembe Wa Kayembe, Mathieu De Maeyer et Eléonore
Wolff, "Cartographie de la croissance urbaine de
Kinshasa (R.D. Congo)
entre 1995 et 2005 par télédétection satellitaire à haute
résolution", Belgeo 3–4, 2009 ; doi:10.4000/belgeo.7349.
^ a b c d "DemographiaWorld Urban Areas – 13th Annual Edition"
(PDF). Demographia. April 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
^ "State of the World's Cities 2012/2013" (PDF). UN Habitat. 2013.
p. 18. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
^ a b "Géographie de Kinshasa". Ville de Kinshasa. Archived from the
original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
^ a b "Populations Of 150 Largest Cities In The World". World Atlas. 7
March 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
^ "Time series of the population of the 30 largest urban
agglomerations in 2011 ranked by population size, 1950–2025". United
Nations, Population Division. Archived from the original (XLS) on 4
July 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
^ Cécile B. Vigouroux & Salikoko S. Mufwene (2008). Globalization
and Language Vitality: Perspectives from Africa, pp. 103 & 109.
ISBN 9780826495150. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
^ "XIVe Sommet de la Francophonie". OIF. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
^ a b c "
Kinshasa – national capital, Democratic Republic of the
^ a b c d e f g h i j Joe Trapido, "Kinshasa's Theater of Power", New
Left Review 98, March/April 2016.
^ "DR Congo election: 17 dead in anti-Kabila protests", BBC, 19
^ Merritt Kennedy, "Congo A 'Powder Keg' As Security Forces Crack Down
On Whistling Demonstrators", NPR, 21 December 2016.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Jean Flouriot, “
Kinshasa 2005. Trente
ans après la publication de l’Atlas de Kinshasa”, Les Cahiers
d’Outre-Mer 261, January–March 2013; doi:10.4000/com.6770.
^ Wachter, Sarah J. (19 June 2007). "Giant dam projects aim to
transform African power supplies". New York Times. Retrieved 15
^ Luce Beeckmans & Liora Bigon, “The making of the central
Dakar and Kinshasa: from colonial origins to the
post-colonial period”; Urban History 43(3), 2016;
^ a b c Innocent Chirisa, Abraham Rajab Matamanda, & Liaison
Mukarwi, “Desired and Achieved Urbanisation in Africa: In Search of
Appropriate Tooling for a Sustainable Transformation”; in Umar Benna
& Indo Benna, eds., Urbanization and Its Impact on Socio-Economic
Growth in Developing Regions; IGI Global, 2017,
ISBN 9781522526605; pp. 101–102.
^ "Climate: Kinshasa". AmbiWeb GmbH. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
^ "KINSHASA, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO". Weatherbase. Retrieved
7 June 2016.
^ "STATIONSNUMMER 64210" (PDF). Danish Meteorological Institute.
Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 7 June
2016. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
^ a b Florent Bédécarrats, Oriane Laufente-Sampietro, Martin
Leménager, & Dominique Lukono Sowa, “Building commons to cope
with chaotic urbanization? Performance and sustainability of
decentralized water services in the outskirts of Kinshasa”; Journal
of Hydrology (online 15 July 2016); doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.07.023.
^ a b Gianluca Iazzolino, “Kinshasa, megalopolis of 12 million
souls, expanding furiously on super-charged growth”; Mail &
Guardian Africa, 2 April 2016.
^ Pain (1984), p. 56.
^ ”UN beefs up peacekeeping force in DR Congo capital”, East
African / AFP, 19 October 2016.
^ ”US Ambassador: UN Aiding 'Corrupt' Government in Congo”, VOA
News, 29 March 2017.
^ Terry M. Mays, Historical Dictionary of Multinational Peacekeeping,
Third Edition; Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 2011; p. 330.
^ ”UN troops open fire in Kinshasa”, BBC, 3 June 2004.
^ Inge Wagemakers, Oracle Makangu Diki, & Tom De Herdt, “Lutte
Foncière dans la Ville: Gouvernance de la terre agricole urbaine à
Kinshasa”; L’Afrique des grands lacs: Annuaire 2009–2010.
^ Inge Wagemakers & Jean-Nicholas BCH, “Les Défis de
l’Intervention: Programme d'aide internationale et dynamiques de
gouvernance locale dans le
Kinshasa périurbain”; Politique
africaine 2013/1 no. 129; doi:10.3917/polaf.129.0113.
Kinshasa – national capital, Democratic Republic of the Congo".
^ Emizet Francois Kisangani, Scott F. Bobb, “China, People’s
Republic of, Relations with”; Historical Dictionary of the
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press,
2010; pp. 74–75.
^ Nuah M. Makungo, “Is the Democratic Republic of Congo being
Globalized by China? The Case of Small Commerce at
Market”, Quarterly Journal of Chinese Studies 2(1), 2012.
^ Jonny Hong, “Gang crime threatens the future of Congo’s
capital”, Reuters, 19 June 2013.
^ "U.S. Dept. of State – Congo, Democratic Republic of the Country
United States Department of State. Archived
from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 15 December
^ a b O. Oko Elechi and Angela R. Morris, “Congo, Democratic
Republic of the (Congo-Kinshasa)”; in Mahesh K. Nalla & Graeme
R. Newman (eds.), Crime and Punishment around the World, Volume 1:
Africa and the Middle East; Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2010;
^ Prisons in the Democratic Republic of Congo, ed. Ryan Nelson,
Refugee Documentation Center, Ireland; May 2002.
^ Laurent Larcher, “Des milliers de détenus s’évadent de la
Kinshasa en RD-Congo”, La Croix, 18 May 2017.
^ ”Evasion à la prison de
Makala en RDC: plus de 4600 détenus
seraient en fuite”, RFI, 18 May 2017.
^ "Blogsome". blogsome.com. Archived from the original on 3 September
^ Manson, Katrina (22 July 2010). "Congo's children battle witchcraft
accusations". Reuters. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
^ "Street Children in Kinshasa". Africa Action. 8 July 2009. Retrieved
14 March 2011.
^ "A night on the streets with Kinshasa's 'child witches'". War Child
UK – Warchild.org.uk. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
^ "Danballuff – Children of Congo: From War to Witches(video)".
Gvnet.com. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
^ "Africa Feature: Around 20,000 street children wander in Kinshasa".
English.people.com.cn. 1 June 2007. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
^ "Prevalence, Abuse & Exploitation of Street Children".
Gvnet.com. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
^ "At the centre – Street Childrens".
^ Ross, Aaron. "Beaten and discarded, Congo street children are
strangers to mining boom". reuters.com.
^ "What Future? Street Children in the Democratic Republic of Congo:
IV. Background". hrw.org.
^ Charles-Didier Gondola, Tropical Cowboys: Westerns, Violence, and
Masculinity among the Young Bills of Kinshasa, Afrique & histoire
2009/1 (vol. 7), p. 77.
^ Camille Dugrand, “Subvertir l’ordre? Les ambivalences de
l’expression politique des Shégués de Kinshasa”; Revue Tiers
Monde 4(228), 2016; doi:10.3917/rtm.228.0045. “Figures
incontournables de l’urbanité kinoise, les Shégués ont fait
l’objet de plusieurs travaux scientifiques (Biaya, 1997, 2000 ;
De Boeck, 2000, 2005 ; Geenen, 2009).”
^ "Cefacongo.org". Cefacongo.org. Archived from the original on 25
July 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
^ "Provincial Health Division of Kinshasa" Archived 14 April 2011 at
the Wayback Machine. African Development Information Services
^ a b Bill Freund, “
City and Nation in an African Context: National
Identity in Kinshasa”; Journal of Urban History 38(5), 2012;
^ Andy Morgan, "The scratch orchestra of Kinshasa", The Guardian 9 May
^ Mohamed Hassim Keita, "Congolese journalists protest insecurity,
threats", Committee to Protect Journalists, 8 October 2009.
^ "Democratic Republic of Congo country profile – Media". BBC News.
Retrieved 15 December 2010.
^ "Countries: Democatric Republic of the Congo: News" (Archive). [sic]
Stanford University Libraries & Academic Information Resources.
Retrieved on 28 April 2014.
^ Nadeau, Jean-Benoit (2006). The Story of French. St. Martin's Press.
p. 301; 483. ISBN 9780312341831. The world's
second-largest francophone city is not Montreal, Dakar, or Algiers, as
many people would assume, but Kinshasa, capital of the former Zaïre.
^ Trefon, Theodore (2004). Reinventing Order in the Congo: How People
Respond to State Failure in Kinshasa. London and New York: Zed Books.
p. 7. ISBN 9781842774915. Retrieved 31 May 2009. A
third factor is simply a demographic one. At least one in ten
Congolese live in Kinshasa. With its population exceeding eleven
million, it is the second-largest city in sub-Saharan Africa (after
Lagos). It is also the second-largest French-speaking city in the
world, according to
Paris (even though only a small percentage of
Kinois speak French correctly),
^ Manning, Patrick (1998).
Francophone sub-Saharan Africa: Democracy
and Dependence, 1985–1995. London and New York: Cambridge University
Press. p. 189. ISBN 9780521645195. Retrieved 31 May
2009. While the culture is dominated by the Francophonie, a
complex multilingualism is present in Kinshasa. Many in the
francophonie of the 1980s labelled Zaïre as the second-largest
francophone country, and
Kinshasa as the second-largest francophone
city. Yet Zaïre seemed unlikely to escape a complex multilingualism.
Lingala was the language of music, of presidential addresses, of daily
life in government and in Kinshasa. But if
Lingala was the spoken
language of Kinshasa, it made little progress as a written language.
French was the written language of the city, as seen in street signs,
posters, newspapers and in government documents. French dominated
plays and television as well as the press; French was the language of
the national anthem and even for the doctrine of authenticity. Zairian
researchers found French to be used in vertical relationsihps among
people of uneven rank; people of equal rank, no matter how high,
tended to speak Zairian languages among themselves. Given these
limits, French might have lost its place to another of the leading
languages of Zaïre – Lingala, Tshiluba, or Swahili – except that
teaching of these languages also suffered from limitations on its
^ Nzuzi (2008), p. 14.
^ Aurélie Fontaine, “Housing:
Kinshasa is for the rich”; Africa
Report 5 May 2015.
Kinshasa – national capital, Democratic Republic of the Congo".
^ "Plus de 13 000 passagers transportés par train entre
Matadi" (in French). Radio Okapi. 10 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April
^ (in French) L'enfer des chemins de fer urbains kinois, Le Potentiel,
25 July 2005.
^ DRC CONGO: KINSHASHARailways Africa Archived 13 March 2010 at the
^ (in French) La Stib à Kinshasa ?, La Dernière Heure, 24 May
^ (in Dutch) Werkt MIVB mee aan uitbouw tramnetwerk Kinshasa?[dead
^ Sub-Saharan Africa: Architectural Guide
^ "Sister Cities of Ankara". ankara.bel.tr.
Nzuzi, Francis Lelo (2008). Kinshasa: Ville et Environnement. Paris:
L'Harmattan, September 2008. ISBN 978-2-296-06080-7.
Pain, Marc (1984). Kinshasa: la ville et la cité. Paris: Orstom,
Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kinshasa.
Kinshasa travel guide from Wikivoyage
Official website of the city of Kinshasa
Map of the
Belgian Congo from 1896 includes a map of Kinshasa
Slideshow of 21 photos of
Kinshasa from 2013 - 2015 on Open Society
Kinshasa: a travers le centre ville, May 2015 – footage from streets
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Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kinshasa at Wikimedia Commons . Democratic Republic of the Congo
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