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The Kingdom of Serbia
Serbia
(Serbian: Краљевина Србија/Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered as Servia in English sources during the time of its existence, was created when Prince Milan I of Serbia, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882. Since 1817, the Principality was ruled by the Obrenović dynasty (replaced by the Karađorđević dynasty
Karađorđević dynasty
for a short time). The Principality, suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, de facto achieved full independence when the last Ottoman troops left Belgrade
Belgrade
in 1867. The Congress of Berlin in 1878 recognized the formal independence of the Principality of Serbia, and in its composition Nišava, Pirot, Toplica and Vranje
Vranje
districts entered the South part of Serbia. In 1882, King Milan I proclaimed the Kingdom of Serbia
Serbia
and maintained a foreign policy friendly to Austria-Hungary. Between 1912 and 1913, Serbia
Serbia
greatly enlarged its territory through engagement in the First and Second Balkan Wars—Sandžak-Raška, Kosovo
Kosovo
Vilayet and Vardar Macedonia
Vardar Macedonia
were annexed. As outcome of the World War I
World War I
in 1918 it united with Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and Kingdom of Montenegro. Towards the end of 1918, Serbia
Serbia
joined with the newly created State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
to form the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later known as Kingdom of Yugoslavia) under the continued rule of the Serbian Karađorđević dynasty.

Contents

1 Principality of Serbia 2 Serbo-Bulgarian War, 1885 3 Politics 4 May Coup, 1903 5 Peter I 6 Bosnian Crisis 7 Ten Years War

7.1 Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
and expansion 7.2 Assassination in Sarajevo 7.3 World War I

8 Kings 9 Cities 10 Maps 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Principality of Serbia[edit]

King Milan I of Serbia

Main article: Principality of Serbia The Principality of Serbia
Principality of Serbia
was a state in the Balkans
Balkans
that came into existence as a result of the Serbian revolution
Serbian revolution
which lasted between 1804 and 1817. Despite brutal oppression and retaliation by the Ottoman authorities, the revolutionary leaders, first Karađorđe
Karađorđe
and then Miloš Obrenović, succeeded in their goal to liberate Serbia after centuries of Turkish rule. At first, the principality included only the territory of the former Pashaluk of Belgrade, but in 1831–1833 it expanded to the east, south, and west. In 1867 the Ottoman army left the Principality, securing its de facto independence.[1] Serbia
Serbia
expanded further to the south-east in 1878, when it won full international recognition at the Congress of Berlin. In 1882 it was raised to the level of the Kingdom of Serbia. Serbo-Bulgarian War, 1885[edit] Main article: Serbo-Bulgarian War The Serbo-Bulgarian War
Serbo-Bulgarian War
erupted on November 14, 1885 and lasted until November 28 of the same year. The war ended in defeat for Serbia, as it had failed to capture the Slivnitsa
Slivnitsa
region which it had set out to achieve. Bulgarians successfully repelled the Serbs
Serbs
after the decisive victory at the Battle of Slivnitsa
Slivnitsa
and advanced into Serbian territory taking Pirot
Pirot
and clearing the way to Niš. When Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
declared that it would join the war on the side of Serbia, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
withdrew from Serbia
Serbia
leaving the Serbo-Bulgarian border precisely where it had been prior to the war. The peace treaty was signed on February 19, 1886 in Bucharest. As a result of the war, European powers acknowledged the act of Unification of Bulgaria
Unification of Bulgaria
which happened on September 6, 1885. Politics[edit] In 1888 People's Radical Party led by Sava Grujić
Sava Grujić
and Nikola Pašić came to power and a new constitution, based on the liberal Constitution of Belgium
Constitution of Belgium
was introduced. The lost war and the Radical Party's total electoral victory were some of the reasons why King Milan I abdicated in 1889. His son Alexander I assumed the throne in 1893 and in 1894 dismissed the constitution. May Coup, 1903[edit] Main article: May Coup (Serbia) King Alexander I of Serbia
Alexander I of Serbia
and his unpopular wife Queen Draga, were assassinated inside the Royal Palace in Belgrade
Belgrade
on the night of 28–29 May 1903. Other representatives of the Obrenović family were shot as well. This act resulted in the extinction of the House of Obrenović which had been ruling Serbia
Serbia
since 1817. Peter I[edit]

Peter I after the coronation on September 21, 1904

After the May Coup Serbian Skupština invited Peter Karadjorjević to assume the Serbian crown as Peter I of Serbia. A constitutional monarchy was created with the military Black Hand society operating behind the scenes. The traditionally good relations with the Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
ended, as the new dynasty relied on the support of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and closer cooperation with Kingdom of Bulgaria. In April 1904 the Friendship treaty and in June 1905 the customs union with Bulgaria
Bulgaria
were signed. In response Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
imposed a Tariff War (Pig war) of 1906-1909. After the 1906 elections People's Radical Party came to power. In 1908 Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
annexed Bosnia, where Serbia
Serbia
had hoped to expand its territory. Bosnian Crisis[edit] Main articles: Bosnian Crisis
Bosnian Crisis
and Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina The Bosnian Crisis
Bosnian Crisis
of 1908–1909 (also referred to as the Annexation crisis) erupted into public view when on October 5, 1908, Kingdom of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
declared its complete independence from Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and on October 6, 1908, when Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was populated mainly by South Slavs. Russia, the Ottoman Empire, Britain, Kingdom of Italy, Serbia, Principality of Montenegro, German Empire
German Empire
and France
France
took an interest in these events. In April 1909, the 1878 Treaty of Berlin was amended to accept the new status quo and bringing the crisis to an end. The crisis permanently damaged relations between Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
on the one hand and Russia and Serbia
Serbia
on the other. The annexation and reactions to the annexation were some of the contributing causes of World War I. Ten Years War[edit] Between 1912 and 1922 Serbia
Serbia
was involved in a number of wars that brought it to the brink of total destruction and ended with renewed greatness. Victorious in two Balkan Wars, it gained significant territorial areas of the Central Balkans
Balkans
and almost doubled its territory. Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
and expansion[edit] Main articles: Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
and Serbia
Serbia
in the Balkan Wars

Territorial expansion of the Kingdom of Serbia
Serbia
in 1913

Border changes after the Balkan Wars

Negotiations between Russia, Serbia
Serbia
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
led to the Serbian-Bulgarian Treaty of Alliance of March 1912, which aimed to conquer and to divide the Ottoman held Macedonia. In May, a Serbian-Greek alliance was reached and in October 1912, a Serbia- Montenegro
Montenegro
alliance was signed.[2] After the war started, Serbia, together with Montenegro, conquered Pristina
Pristina
and Novi Pazar. At the Battle of Kumanovo
Battle of Kumanovo
Serbians defeated the Ottoman army and proceeded to conquer Skopje
Skopje
and the whole of Kosovo
Kosovo
vilayet. The region of Metohija
Metohija
(known as the Dukagjini Valley to ethnic-Albanians) was taken by Montenegro. At Bitola
Bitola
and Ohrid Serbian army units established contact with the Greek army. Populations of ethnic Serbs
Serbs
and Albanians tended to shift following territorial conquests. As a result of the multi-ethnic composition of Kosovo, the new administrations provoked a mixed response from the local population. While Albanians did not welcome Serbian rule,[3] the non-Albanian population (largely Serbs
Serbs
but other Southern Slavs too) considered this a liberation. On November 29, 1913 the Drač County of the Kingdom of Serbia
Serbia
was established on the part of the territory of Albania captured from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
during the First Balkan War. Serbian Drač County had four districts (Serbian: срез): Drač (Durrës), Lješ (Lezhë), Elbasan
Elbasan
and Tirana.[4][5] After the First Balkan War
First Balkan War
of 1912, Kosovo
Kosovo
and north-western Macedonia was internationally recognised as a part of Serbia[6] and northern Metohija
Metohija
as a part of Montenegro
Montenegro
at the Treaty of London of May 1913.[7] The old disagreements regarding the territory of Macedonia among the members of the Balkan League
Balkan League
and primarily Serbia
Serbia
and Bulgaria, led to the Second Balkan War. Here, Serbia
Serbia
and Greece
Greece
fought against Bulgaria in 1913. The final borders were ratified at the Treaty of Bucharest
Bucharest
of 1913. Serbia
Serbia
came to control the land which became known as Vardar Macedonia, and today stands independent as the Republic of Macedonia but land-locked Serbia
Serbia
was prevented from gaining access to Adriatic Sea by the newly established Principality of Albania, while many ethnic Albanians remained within the new Serbian borders. As the result of these wars, Serbia's population increased from 2.9 million to 4.5 million and territory increased by 81%. In a report to Rome, Lazër Mjeda, Archbishop of Skopje, estimated that 25,000 Albanians were killed by Serbian forces during and after the conflict.[8] Assassination in Sarajevo[edit] Main articles: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and July Crisis

The Kingdom of Serbia
Serbia
in Europe, 1914

The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
(then part of Austria-Hungary) brought the tensions between Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and Serbia
Serbia
to a head. Behind the assassination in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was the secret Serbian officers organization Black Hand.[9] The assassins were supported by an "underground railroad" of Serbian civilians and military officers that provided transportation and hid them; members of the Serbian military that trained them, encouraged them, and provided weapons, maps, and other information. After the assassination, the conspirators were arrested in Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosnia-Herzegovina
and tried in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
in October 1914. The political objective of the assassination was to break the southern Slav provinces off from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand triggered a chain of international events that embroiled Russia and the major European powers in the conflict. World War I[edit] Main articles: Serbian Campaign (World War I), Salonika front, and Creation of Yugoslavia On July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
declared war against Serbia. In 1915 Serbia
Serbia
was occupied by foreign troops after a combined invasion by Austro-Hungarian, German, and Bulgarian troops. The 135,000 soldiers of the Serbian Army
Serbian Army
retreated through Albania and were evacuated to the Greek island of Corfu, and in spring, 1916, they became part of a newly formed Salonika Front. In 1916, the Kingdom of Montenegro
Montenegro
was conquered by Austria-Hungary. At the end of the war and collapse of Austria-Hungary, Serbia
Serbia
went through radical changes within days. On November 28, 1918, it absorbed the Kingdom of Montenegro
Montenegro
at the Podgorica Assembly.[10][11] On December 1, 1918, Serbia
Serbia
united with the newly created State of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes to form a new southern Slav state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.[12] The new country continued to be ruled by the Serbian monarchy when in August 1921 Prince Alexandar I became king. Kings[edit] During its existence, the Kingdom was ruled by two dynasties: the House of Obrenović
House of Obrenović
and the House of Karađorđević. King Milan Obrenović ruled from 6 March 1882 to 6 March 1889, when he abdicated the throne. He was succeeded by his son, Aleksandar Obrenović, who ruled from 6 March 1889 to 11 June 1903, when he was killed by a group of officers. The slaughter of the royal couple (the king and Queen Draga) by the Black Hand shocked Europe. This opened the way for the descendants of Karađorđe
Karađorđe
(Karageorge), regarded by Serbs
Serbs
throughout the Balkans
Balkans
as the man who threw off the Turkish yoke, to return to the throne. Petar Karađorđević was initially reluctant to accept the crown, disgusted as he was by the coup d'état. However, he finally did accept and was the Kingdom's sovereign from 15 June 1903 to 1 December 1918, the day that the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was proclaimed. Cities[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Serbia

By century

9th 10th

Prehistory

Paleolithic Mesolithic Neolithic Bronze Age Iron Age

Pre-Roman

Illyrians Autariatae Dardani Triballi Moesi Scordisci Dacians

Early Roman

Illyricum Pannonia Pannonia
Pannonia
Inferior Dalmatia Moesia Moesia
Moesia
Superior Dacia Dacia Aureliana

Late Roman

Moesia
Moesia
Prima Dacia Mediterranea Dacia Ripensis Dardania Praevalitana Pannonia
Pannonia
Secunda Diocese of Moesia Diocese of Dacia Diocese of Pannonia Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum

Early Middle Ages

White Serbia around 600 AD

Principality of Serbia Duklja, Travunia, Zachlumia, Narentines, Raška, Bosnia

7th–10th century

Catepanate of Ras around 969–976

High Middle Ages

Duklja
Duklja
(Zeta) 11th–12th century

Theme of Sirmium 1018–1071

Grand Principality 1071–1217

Kingdom of Serbia 1217–1346

King Dragutin's realm 1282–1325

Empire · Fall 1346–1371

Prince Lazar's Serbia 1371–1402

Despotate of Serbia 1402–1537

Early Modern

Serbia
Serbia
under Turkish rule 1459–1804

Jovan Nenad / Radoslav Čelnik 1526–1530

Banate of Lugoj and Caransebeș 16th–17th

Habsburg occupation 1686–1699

Great Serb Migrations 1690 and 1737–1739

Military Frontier 1702–1882

Habsburg Serbia 1718–1739

Koča's frontier 1788–1791

Serbia
Serbia
1804–1918

Revolution 1804–1815

Principality of Serbia 1815–1882

Serbian Vojvodina 1848–1849

Serbia
Serbia
and Banat 1849–1860

Kingdom of Serbia 1882–1918

Serbia
Serbia
since 1918

Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1918–1941

Axis occupation 1941–1944

Federal unit of Yugoslavia 1944–1992

Federal unit of FRY (S&M) 1992–2006

Republic of Serbia 2006–present

Serbia
Serbia
portal

v t e

The largest cities in the Kingdom of Serbia
Serbia
were (with population figures from c. 1910–1912):

Belgrade
Belgrade
- 100,000 Prizren
Prizren
- 60,000 Bitolj - 54,000 Skoplje - 50,000 Niš
Niš
- 25,000 Veles - 24,000 Priština
Priština
- 20,000 Prilep
Prilep
- 20,000 Kragujevac
Kragujevac
- 18,500 Ohrid
Ohrid
- 18,000 Leskovac
Leskovac
- 14,300 Tetovo
Tetovo
- 14,000 Požarevac
Požarevac
- 13,600 Šabac
Šabac
- 12,800 Mitrovica - 12,000 Vranje
Vranje
- 10,500 Pirot
Pirot
- 10,000

Maps[edit]

The Principality of Serbia
Principality of Serbia
in 1878

Serbia
Serbia
1882–1912

Short-lived territorial expansion of Serbia
Serbia
1912-1913, following the First Balkan War

Territorial expansion of Serbia
Serbia
1913-1915, following the Second Balkan War

Serbia
Serbia
boundaries following Balkan Wars.

Serbia
Serbia
in 1918 (27 November - 1 December, during de facto military demarcation), following its annexation of Syrmia
Syrmia
(24 November), Banat, Bačka
Bačka
and Baranja
Baranja
(25 November) and the Kingdom of Montenegro
Montenegro
(27 November)

See also[edit]

History of Serbia

Notes[edit]

a. ^ Kosovo
Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo
Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states.

References[edit]

^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-27. Retrieved 2010-01-10.  ^ The Balkans: Revolution, War, and Political Violence Since 1878 ^ Malcolm, Noel (26 February 2008). "Is Kosovo
Kosovo
Serbia? We ask a historian". The Guardian.  ^ Bogdanović, Dimitrije; Radovan Samardžić (1990). Knjiga o Kosovu: razgovori o Kosovu. Književne novine. p. 208. Retrieved August 2, 2011. На освојеном подручју су одмах успостављене грађанске власти и албанска територија је Де Факто анектирана Србији : 29. новембра је основан драчки округ са четири среза (Драч, Љеш, Елбасан, Тирана)....On conquered territory of Albania was established civil government and territory of Albania was de facto annexed by Serbia: On November 29 was established Durres County with four srez (Durres, Lezha, Elbasan, and Tirana)  ^ Petrović, Dragoljub S. (1990). "Heterogenost stanovništva determinanta složenosti rešenja političkog statusa albanskog prostora (Heterogeneity of the population as determinant of the complexity of solving the political status of the Albania)" (in Serbian). pp. 237–271. OCLC 439985244. Potom, 29. novembra 1912. formiran je Drački okrug u okviru kojeg su srezovi - Drač, Tirana, Elbasan
Elbasan
i Lješ. ... On November 29, 1912 the Durres County was established and in it there were established the following districts - Durres, Tirana, Elbasan
Elbasan
and Lezhe  ^ http://www.zum.de/psm/div/tuerkei/mowat120.php ^ http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/boshtml/bos145.htm ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=Pg-aeA-nUeAC&pg=PA219&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=35 ^ Strachan, Hew (2001) The First World War Volume 1: To Arms (pp. 46). Oxford University Press. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-926191-1 ^ Montenegrins' Effort to Prevent Annexation
Annexation
of Their Country to Serbia ^ Serbs
Serbs
wipe out royalist party in Montenegro
Montenegro
Archived 2010-03-02 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Richard C Hall, The Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
1912-1913

Further reading[edit]

Bataković, Dušan T., ed. (2005). Histoire du peuple serbe [History of the Serbian People] (in French). Lausanne: L’Age d’Homme.  Đurović, Arsen (2004). Modernizacija obrazovanja u Kraljevini Srbiji: 1905-1914. Istorijski institut.  Kostić, Đorđe S. (2006). Dobro došli u Srbiju: Kraljevina Srbija u nemačkim vodičima za putnike; 1892-1914. Evoluta.  Nikolić, Pavle (2001). Ustav Kraljevine Srbije (PDF).  Vucinich, Wayne S. (1954). " Serbia
Serbia
between East and West: the events of 1903-1908". X. Stanford University Press. 9.  Šojić, Milan, and Ljiljana Đurđević. "Dinar Exchange Rate in the Kingdom of Serbia
Serbia
1882-1914." The Experience of Exchange Rate Regimes in Southeastern Europe in a Historical and Comparative Perspective, ONB Workshop. No. 13. 2007. Hinić, Branko, Milan Sojić, and Ljiljana Đurđević. Monetary conditions in the Kingdom of Serbia
Serbia
(1884-1914). No. 4. National Bank of Serbia, 2009. Low, D. H. "The Kingdom of Serbia: Her people and her history." The Scottish Geographical Magazine 31.6 (1915): 303-315. Radovanović, Bojan, and Mioljub Veličković. 110 years of the National Bank: 1884-1994: establishment and beginning of operation of the Privileged National Bank of the Kingdom of Serbia. National bank of Yugoslavia, 1994. Reiss, Rodolphe Archibald. The Kingdom of Serbia, 1919. Dokumenti o spoljnoj politici Kraljevine Srbije. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kingdom of Serbia.

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Timeline of Yugoslav statehood

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Slovenia

Part of Austria-Hungary including the Bay of Kotor See also Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia 1868–1918 Kingdom of Dalmatia 1815–1918 Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1878–1918

Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)

Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1945) See also State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs 1918 Republic of Prekmurje 1919 Banat, Bačka and Baranja 1918–1919 Free State of Fiume 1920–1924 1924–1945 Italian province of Zadar 1920–1947

Annexed bya Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany Democratic Federal Yugoslavia 1945–1946

Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia 1946–1963

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 1963–1992 Consisted of the Socialist Republics of Slovenia
Slovenia
(1945–1991) Croatia
Croatia
(1945–1991) Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
(1945–1992) Serbia
Serbia
(1945–1992) (included the autonomous provinces of Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and Kosovo) Montenegro
Montenegro
(1945–1992) Macedonia (1945–1991) See also Free Territory of Trieste
Free Territory of Trieste
(1947–1954) j

 Republic of Slovenia Ten-Day War

Dalmatia

Independent State of Croatia 1941–1945 Puppet state of Nazi Germany. Parts annexed by Fascist Italy. Međimurje
Međimurje
and Baranja
Baranja
annexed by Hungary.

 Republic of Croatiab Croatian War of Independence

Slavonia

Croatia

Bosnia  Bosnia and Herzegovinac Bosnian War Consists of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(1995–present), Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
(1995–present) and Brčko District (2000–present).

Herzegovina

Vojvodina Part of the Délvidék region of Hungary Autonomous Banatd (part of the German Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia)

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Consisted of the Republic of Serbia
Serbia
(1990–2006) and Republic of Montenegro
Montenegro
(1992–2006)

State Union of Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro Republic of Serbia Included the autonomous provinces of Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and, under UN administration, Kosovo
Kosovo
and Metohija

Republic of Serbia Includes the autonomous province of Vojvodina

Serbia Kingdom of Serbia 1882–1918 Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia 1941–1944 e

Kosovo Part of the Kingdom of Serbia 1912–1918 Mostly annexed by Albania 1941–1944 along with western Macedonia and south-eastern Montenegro

Republic of Kosovog

Metohija Kingdom of Montenegro 1910–1918 Metohija
Metohija
controlled by Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
1915–1918

Montenegro Protectorate of Montenegrof 1941–1944  Montenegro

Macedonia Part of the Kingdom of Serbia 1912–1918 Annexed by the Kingdom of Bulgaria 1941–1944  Republic of Macedoniah

a Prekmurje
Prekmurje
annexed by Hungary. b See also SAO Kninska Krajina
SAO Kninska Krajina
(1990) → SAO Krajina (1990–1991); and SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja
Baranja
and Western Syrmia (1990–1991), SAO Western Slavonia (1990–1991) and the Republic of Serbian Krajina (1990–1995), all replaced by the UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja
Baranja
and Western Sirmium (1996–1998). c See also Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia; and the Serbian Autonomous Oblasts
Serbian Autonomous Oblasts
(SAOs) of Bosanska Krajina, North-Eastern Bosnia, Romanija and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
(1991–1992), which all combined to form the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
(1992–1995). d Bačka
Bačka
was reannexed by Hungary
Hungary
(1941–1944), while Syrmia
Syrmia
was annexed by the Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
(1941–1944). e See also Republic of Užice. f Annexed by Fascist Italy (1941–1943) and Nazi Germany (1943–1944). Smaller part annexed by the Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
(1941–1944).

g Kosovo
Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo
Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states. h Macedonia is known in the United Nations
United Nations
as The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
because of a naming dispute with Greece. j Free Territory was established in 1947. Its administration was divided into two areas (Zone A) and (Zone B). Free Territory was de facto taken over by Italy

.