The Kingdom of
Navarre (/nəˈvɑːr/; Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma,
Spanish: Reino de Navarra, French: Royaume de Navarre, Latin: Regnum
Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of
Pamplona (Basque: Iruñeko
Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either
side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the
Atlantic Ocean between
Spain and France.
The medieval state took form around the city of
Pamplona during the
first centuries of the Iberian Reconquista. The kingdom has its
origins in the conflict in the buffer region between the Frankish king
Charlemagne and the Umayyad Emirate that controlled most of the
Iberian Peninsula. The city of
Pamplona (Latin: Pompaelo; Basque:
Iruñea), had been the main city of the indigenous Vasconic population
and was located amid a predominantly Basque-speaking area. In an
event traditionally dated to 824, Íñigo Arista was elected or
declared ruler of the area around
Pamplona in opposition to Frankish
expansion into the region, originally as vassal to the Córdoba
Emirate. This polity evolved into the Kingdom of Pamplona. In the
first quarter of the 10th century the Kingdom was able to briefly
break its vassalage under Córdoba and expand militarily, but again
found itself dominated by Córdoba until the early 11th century. A
series of partitions and dynastic changes led to a diminution of its
territory and to periods of rule by the kings of
In the 15th century, another dynastic dispute over control by the king
Aragon led to internal divisions and the eventual conquest of the
southern part of the kingdom by the
Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile in 1512
(permanently in 1524). It would become part of the unified Kingdom of
Spain. The remaining northern part of the kingdom was again joined
France by personal union in 1589 when King Henry III of Navarre
inherited the French throne as Henry IV of France, and in 1620 it was
merged into the Kingdom of France. The monarchs of this unified state
took the title "King of
France and Navarre" until its fall in the
French Revolution, and again during the
Bourbon Restoration from 1814
until 1830 (with a short break in 1815).
Today, significant parts of the ancient Kingdom of
the autonomous communities of Navarre, Basque Country and La Rioja.
2 Early historic background
3 Rise of independent kingdom
3.1 Establishment by Iñigo Arista
3.2 Jiménez rule
3.3 Ecclesiastical affairs
4.1 Division of Sancho's domains
4.2 Partition and union with Aragon
4.3 Restoration and the loss of western Navarre
Navarre in the Late Middle Ages
5.1 Rule by Champagne and France
Navarre under the
5.3 Spanish conquest
Navarre north of the Pyrenees
6 The crown and the kingdom: A constitutional foundation
7 Later history and the end of the fueros
8 Province of Spain
9 Territory today
10 See also
13 External links
There are similar earlier toponyms but the first documentation of
Latin navarros appears in Eginhard's chronicle of the feats of Charles
the Great. Other
Royal Frankish Annals
Royal Frankish Annals give nabarros. There are two
proposed etymologies for the name of Navarra/Nafarroa/Naparroa:
Basque nabar (declined absolute singular nabarra): "brownish",
"multicolor", which would be a contrast with the green mountain lands
north of the original County of Navarre.
Basque naba/Castilian nava ("valley", "plain", present across Spain) +
Basque herri ("people", "land").
Joan Coromines considers naba as not clearly Basque in
origin but as part of a wider pre-Roman substrate.
Early historic background
See also: Duchy of Vasconia
Tribes of the western Pyrenees.
The kingdom originated in the southern side of the western Pyrenees,
in the flatlands around the city of Pamplona. According to Roman
geographers such as
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder and Livy, these regions were
inhabited by the
Vascones and other related Vasconic-Aquitanian
tribes, a pre-Indo-European group of peoples who inhabited southern
slope of the western
Pyrenees and part of the shore of the Bay of
Biscay. These tribes spoke an archaic version of the Basque language,
usually known by linguistics as Proto-Basque, as well as some other
related languages, such as the Aquitanian language. The Romans took
full control of the area by 74 BC, but unlike their northern
neighbors, the Aquitanians, and other tribes from the Iberian
Vascones negotiated their status within the Roman
Empire. The region first was part of the Roman province of
Hispania Citerior, then of the Hispania Tarraconensis. It would be
under the jurisdiction of the conventus iuridicus of Caesaraugusta
The Roman empire influenced the area in urbanization, language,
infrastructure, commerce, and industry. During the Sertorian War,
Pompey would command the foundation of a city in Vasconic territory,
giving origin to Pompaelo, modern-day Pamplona, founded on a
previously existent Vasconic town. Romanization of the
Vascones led to
their eventual adoption of forms of
Latin that would evolve into the
Navarro-Aragonese language, though the
Basque language would remain
widely spoken, especially in rural and mountainous areas.
After the decline of the Western Roman Empire, the
Vascones were slow
to be incorporated into the Visigothic Kingdom, which was in a civil
war that provided the opportunity for the Umayyad conquest of
Hispania. The Basque leadership probably joined in the appeal that, in
the hope of stability, brought the Muslim conquerors. By 718, Pamplona
had formed a pact that allowed a wide degree of autonomy in exchange
for military and political subjugation, along with the payment of
tribute to Córdoba. Burial ornamentation shows strong contacts
with the Merovingian
France and the Gascons of Aquitaine, but also
items with Islamic inscriptions, while a Muslim cemetery in Pamplona,
the use of which spanned several generations, suggests the presence of
a Muslim garrison in the decades following the
The origin and foundation of the Kingdom of
Pamplona is intrinsically
related to the southern expansion of the Frankish kingdom under the
Merovingians and their successors, the Carolingians. About 601, the
Duchy of Vasconia
Duchy of Vasconia (Latin: Wasconiae) was established by the
Merovingians, based around Roman
Novempopulania and extending from the
southern branch of the river
Garonne to the northern side of the
Pyrenees. The first documented Duke of Vasconia was Genial, who would
hold that position until 627.
Duchy of Vasconia
Duchy of Vasconia then became a frontier territory with varying
levels of autonomy granted by the Merovingian monarchs. The
suppression of the
Duchy of Vasconia
Duchy of Vasconia as well as the Duchy of Aquitaine
by the Carolingians would lead to a rebellion, led by Lupo II of
Pepin the Short
Pepin the Short launched a punitive War in Aquitaine
(760-768) that put down the uprising and resulted in the division of
the Duchy into several counties, ruled from Toulouse. Similarly,
across the eastern
Marca Hispánica was established next
to the Marca Gothica, a Frankish attempt at creating buffer states
Carolingian empire and the Emirate of Córdoba.
The Franks under
Charlemagne extended their influence and control
southward, occupying several regions of the north and east of the
Iberian Peninsula. It is unclear how solidly the Franks exercised
control over Pamplona. In 778,
Charlemagne was invited by rebellious
Muslim lords on the
Upper March of
Al-Andalus to lead an expedition
south with the intention of taking the city of
Zaragoza from the
Emirate of Córdoba. However, the expedition was a failure, and the
Frankish army was forced to withdraw. During their retreat, they
destroyed the city walls of
Pamplona to weaken the city and avoid a
possible rebellion, reminiscent of the approach the Carolingians
had used elsewhere against Christian cities that seemed content to
live under Córdoban control.
However, while moving through the
Pyrenees on 15 August 778, the
rearguard of the Frankish army, led by
Roland was attacked by the
Basque tribes in a confrontation that came to be known as the Battle
of Roncevaux Pass.
Roland was killed and the rearguard scattered. As a
response to the attempted Frankish seizure of Zaragoza, the Córdoba
Emir retook the city of
Pamplona and its surrounding lands. In 781 two
local Basque lords, Ibn Balask ("son of Velasco"), and Mothmin al-Akra
("Jimeno the Strong") were defeated and forced to submit. The next
Pamplona is in 799, when Mutarrif ibn Musa, thought to have
been a governor of the city and a member of the muwallad Banu Qasi
family, was killed there by a pro-Frankish faction.
During this period, Basque territory extended on the west to somewhere
around the headwaters of the
Ebro river. Equally Einhart's Vita
Karoli Magni pinpoints the source of the
Ebro in the land of the
Navarrese. However, this western region fell under the influence
of the Kingdom of Asturias.
Duchy of Vasconia
Duchy of Vasconia in 814.
The Franks renewed their attempts to control the region and in 806
Navarre under their protection. Following a truce between the
Frankish kingdom and Córdoba, in 812
Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious went to Pamplona
likely to establish there a county that would prove short-lived, but
continued rebellion in
Gascony rendered Frankish control south of the
Pyrenese tenuous, and the Emirate was able to reclaim the region
following victory in the 816 Battle of Pancorbo, in which they
defeated and killed the "enemy of Allah", Balask al-Yalaski (Velasco
the Gascon), along with the uncle of Alfonso II of Asturias, Garcia
ibn Lubb ('son of Lupus'), Sancho, the 'premier knight of Pamplona',
and the pagan warrior Ṣaltān. North of the
Pyrenees in the same
Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious removed Seguin as Duke of Vasconia, which
initiated a rebellion, led by Garcia Jiménez, who was killed in
818. Louis's son Pepin, then King of Aquitaine, stamped out the
Vasconic revolt in
Gascony then hunted the chieftains who had taken
refuge in southern Vasconia, i.e.
Pamplona and Navarre, no longer
controlled by the Franks. He sent an army led by the counts
Aznar Sanchez (the latter being appointed lord, but not duke, of
Vasconia by Pepin after suppressing the uprising in the Duchy),
accomplishing their goals with no resistance in
lacking walls after the 778 destruction). On the way back, however,
they were ambushed and defeated in Roncevaux by a force probably
composed both of Basques and the Córdoba-allied muwallad Banu Qasi.
Rise of independent kingdom
Establishment by Iñigo Arista
Out of the pattern of competing Frankish and Córdoban interests, the
Basque chieftain Íñigo Arista took power. Tradition tells he was
elected as king of
Pamplona in 824, giving rise to a dynasty of kings
Pamplona that would last for eighty years. However, the region
Pamplona continued to fall within the sphere of influence of
the Córdoba, presumably as part of its broader frontier region, the
Upper March, ruled by Íñigo's half-brother, Musa ibn Musa ibn Qasi.
The city was allowed to remain Christian and have its own
administration but had to pay the traditional taxes to the
Emirate, including the jizya assessed on non-
Muslims living under
their control. Íñigo Arista is mentioned in
Arab records as
sâhib (lord) on amîr of the
Vascones (bashkunish) and not as malik
(king) or tâgiya (tyrant) used for the kings of Asturias and France,
indicating the lower status of these ulûj (barbarians, not accepting
Islam) within the Córdoba sphere. In 841, in concert with
Musa ibn Musa, Íñigo rebelled and though Musa was eventually forced
to submit, Íñigo was still in rebellion at the time of his death in
Navarre are distinguished in Carolingian chronicles.
Pamplona is cited in 778 as a Navarrese stronghold, while this may be
put down to their vague knowledge of the Basque territory. They
Navarre and its main town in 806 though ("In Hispania,
vero Navarrensis et Pampelonensis"), while the Chronicle of Fontenelle
refers to "Induonis et Mitionis, ducum Navarrorum" (Induo [Íñigo
Arista] and Mitio [perhaps Jimeno], dukes of the Navarrese). However,
Arab chroniclers make no such distinctions, and just refer to the
Baskunisi, a transliteration of Vascones, since a big majority of
the population was Basque. The primitive
Navarre may have
comprised the valleys of Goñi, Gesalaz, Lana, Allin, Deierri,
Berrueza and Mañeru, which later formed the merindad of Estella.
The role of
Pamplona as a focus coordinating both rebellion against
and accommodation with Córdoba seen under Íñigo would continue
under his son, García Íñiguez (851/2-882), who formed alliances
with Asturias, Gascons, Aragonese and with families in Zaragoza
opposed to Musa ibn Musa. This established a pattern of raids and
counter raids, capturing claves and treasure, as well as full military
campaigns that would restore full Córdoban control with renewed oaths
of fidelity. His son Fortún Garcés (882-905) spent two decades
in Córdoban captivity before succeeding in
Pamplona as vassal of the
Emirate. Neither of these kings would make significant territorial
expansion. This period of a fractious, but in the end subservient,
Navarre came to an end amidst a period when generalized rebellion
within the Emirate prevented them from being able to suppress the
inertial forces in the western Pyrenese. The ineffectual Fortún was
forced to abdicate in favor of a new dynasty from the vehemently
anti-Muslim east of Navarre, the founders of which took a less
accommodationist view. With this change, al-Andalus sources shift to
Pamplona rulers 'tyrants', as with the independent kings
Pamplona had passed out of the Córdoban sphere.
The Kingdom of
Pamplona (Navarra, orange) c. 910
After taking the political power from Fortún Garcés, Sancho Garcés
(905–925), son of Dadilde, sister of Raymond I, Count of Pallars and
Ribagorza, proclaimed himself king, terminating the alliance with
Emirate of Córdoba
Emirate of Córdoba and expanding its domains through the course
of the River Ega all the way south to the
Ebro and taking the regions
Nájera and Calahorra, which caused the decline of the Banu Qasi
family, who ruled these lands. As a response, Abd-ar-Rahman III
undertook two expeditions to these lands, earning a victory at the
Battle of Valdejunquera, after which the Emirate retook the lands
south of the river Ebro, and by 924 attacked Pamplona. The daughter of
Sancho Garcés, Sancha, was married to the King of Leon Ordoño II,
establishing an alliance with the Leonese kingdom and ensuring the
Calahorra region. The valleys of the river Aragón and river Gállego
all the way down to
Sobrarbe also ended up under control of
Pamplona, and to the west the lands of the kingdom reached the
Álava and Castile, who were under controlled of the
Kingdom of Asturias. The kingdom had at this time an extension of
about 15,000 km². The
Chronicle of Albelda
Chronicle of Albelda (last update in
976) outlines the extension in 905 of the Kingdom of
Pamplona for the
first time. It extended to
Nájera and Arba (arguably Araba). Some
historians believe that this suggests that it included the Western
Basque Country as well:
In era DCCCCXLIIII surrexit in Panpilona rex nomine Sancio Garseanis.
Fidei Xpi inseparabiliterque uenerantissimus fuit, pius in omnibus
fidefibus misericorsque oppressis catholicis. Quid multa? In omnibus
operibus obtimus perstitit. Belligerator aduersus gentes Ysmaelitarum
multipficiter strages gessit super Sarrazenos. Idem cepit per
Cantabriam a Nagerense urbe usque ad Tutelam omnia castra. Terram
quidem Degensem cum opidis cunctam possideuit. Arbam namque
Panpilonensem suo iuri subdidit, necnon cum castris omne territorium
Aragonense capit. Dehinc expulsis omnibus biotenatis XX' regni sue
anno migrauit a seculo. Sepultus sancti Stefani portico regnat cum Xpo
in polo (Obiit Sancio Garseanis era DCCCCLXIIII).
In the Era 944 [AD 905] arose in
Pamplona a king named Sancio
Garseanis. He was a man of unbreakable devotion to the faith of
Christ, pious with all the faithful and merciful with oppressed
Catholics. What more? In all his actions he performed as a great
warrior against the people of the Ismailites; he inflicted multiple
disasters on the Saracens. This same captured all the fortified places
in the Cantabria, from the city of
Nájera to Tudela. Indeed he
possessed all the land of Degium [Monjardín, near Lizarra] with its
towns. The "Arba" of
Pamplona he submitted to his law, and conquered
as well all the country of
Jaca and nearby lands] with
its fortresses. Later, after suppressing all infidels, the twentieth
year of his reign he left this world. Buried in the portal of Saint
Stephen [Monjardín], he reigns with Christ in Heaven (King Sancho
Garcés died in the era 964 ).
After the death of Sancho Garcés, the crown passed to his brother,
Jimeno Garcés (925-931), joined by Sancho's underage son, García
Sánchez (931–970), in his last year. García continued to rule
under the tutelage of his mother, Sancho's widow Toda Aznarez, who
also engineered several political marriages with the other Christian
kingdoms and counties of northern Iberia. Oneca was married to Alfonso
IV of León and her sister Urraca to Ramiro II of León, while other
daughters of Sancho were married to counts of Castile,
Bigorre. The marriage of the Pamplonese king García Sánchez with
Andregoto Galíndez, daughter of Galindo Aznárez II, Count of Aragon
linked the eastern county to the Kingdom. In 934, he invited
Abd-ar-Rahman III to intervene in the kingdom in order to emancipate
himself from his mother, and this began a period of tributary status
Pamplona and frequent punitive campaigns from Córdoba.
García Sánchez's heir, Sancho II (970–994) set up his half
brother, Ramiro Garcés of Viguera, to rule in the short-lived Kingdom
of Viguera. The Historia General de
Jaime del Burgo says
that on the occasion of the donation of the villa of Alastue by the
Pamplona to the monastery of
San Juan de la Peña
San Juan de la Peña in 987, he
styled himself "King of Navarre", the first time that title had been
used. In many places he appears as the first King of
Navarre and in
others the third; however, he was at least the seventh king of
During the late 10th century, Almanzor, the ruler of Al Andalus
frequently led raids against the Christian kingdoms, and attacked the
Pamplonese lands in at least nine occasions. In 966, clashes between
the Islamic factions and the Kingdom resulted in the loss of Calahorra
and the valley of the river Cidacos. Sancho II, on an alliance with
Castilian militias suffered a grave defeat in the Battle of
Torrevicente. Sancho II was forced to hand over one of his daughters
and one of his sons as tokens of peace. After the death of Sancho II
and during the reign of García Sánchez II,
Pamplona was attacked by
the Caliphate in several occasions, being completely destroyed in
999, the King himself killed on a raid in the year 1000.
After the death of García Sánchez II, the crown passed to Sancho
III, just eight years old at the time, and probably completely
controlled by the Caliphate. During the first years of his reign
the Kingdom was ruled by his cousins Sancho and García of Viguera,
until the year 1004, when Sancho III would become ruling king,
mentored by his mother Jimena Fernández. The links with Castile
became stronger by the act of marriages. The death of Almanzon in 1002
and his successor
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan in 1008 caused the decline
Caliphate of Córdoba
Caliphate of Córdoba and the progress of the County of Castile
Pamplona led by Sancho Garcés III ensured the positions
of his kingdom on the borderlands of the
Taifa of Zaragoza,
controlling the territories of Loarre, Funes, Sos, Uncastillo, Arlas,
Caparroso and Boltaña.
The Kingdom of
Pamplona (dark orange) in 1000.
In the year 1011 Sancho III married Muniadona of Castile, daughter of
the Count of Castile Sancho García. In 1016 the
County of Castile
County of Castile and
the Kingdom of
Navarre establish a pact on the future expansion of
Pamplona would get the expansion towards the south
and east, the eastern region of
Soria and the
Ebro valley, including
territories that were at the time part of Zaragoza. Thus, the
Pamplona comprised a territory of 15,000 km² between
Nájera and Aragón with vassals of Pamplonese and Aragonese
The assassination of Count
García Sánchez of Castile in 1028 allowed
Sancho to appoint his younger son Ferdinand as count. He also exerted
a protectorate over the Duchy of Gascony. He seized the country of the
Pisuerga and the Cea, which belonged to the Kingdom of León, and
marched armies to the heart of that kingdom forcing king Bermudo III
of León to flee to a Galician refuge. Sancho thereby effectively
ruled the north of Iberia from the boundaries of Galicia to those of
the count of Barcelona.
By the time of the death of Sancho III in 1035, the Kingdom had
reached its largest historical extent. Sancho III wrote a problematic
will, where he divided his territory into three kingdoms.
In this period of independence, the ecclesiastical affairs of the
country reached a high state of development. Sancho the Great was
brought up at Leyre, which was also for a short time the capital of
the Diocese of Pamplona. Beside this see, there existed the Bishopric
of Oca, which was united in 1079 to the Diocese of Burgos. In 1035
Sancho III re-established the See of Palencia, which had been laid
waste at the time of the Moorish invasion. When, in 1045, the city of
Calahorra was wrested from the Moors, under whose dominion it had been
for more than three hundred years, a see was also founded here, which
in the same year absorbed the Diocese of Najera and, in 1088, the
Diocese of Alava, the jurisdiction of which covered about the same
ground as that of the present Diocese of Vitoria. The See of Pamplona
owed its re-establishment to Sancho III, who for this purpose convened
a synod at Leyre in 1022 and one at
Pamplona in 1023. These synods
likewise instituted a reform of ecclesiastical life with the
above-named convent, as a centre.
Division of Sancho's domains
Domains of Sancho III the Great
Kingdom of Pamplona
At its greatest extent the Kingdom of
Navarre included all the modern
Spanish province; the northern slope of the western
Pyrenees called by
the Spaniards the ultra puertos ("country beyond the mountain passes")
or French Navarre; the Basque provinces of
Spain and France; the
Bureba, the valley between the Basque mountains and the Montes de Oca
to the north of Burgos; the Rioja and Tarazona in the upper valley of
the Ebro. On his death, Sancho divided his possessions among his four
sons. Sancho the Great's realm was never again united (until Ferdinand
the Catholic): Castile was permanently joined to Leon, whereas Aragon
enlarged its territory, joining Catalonia through a marriage.
Following the traditional succession customs, the first-born son of
Sancho III, García Sánchez III received the title and lands of the
Kingdom of Pamplona, which included the territory of Pamplona, Nájera
and parts of Aragon. The rest of the territory was given to his widow
Muniadona to split between all the legitimate sons: thus García
Sánchez III also received the territory at the northeast from the
County of Castile
County of Castile (La Bureba, Montes de Oca) and the County of Álava.
Ferdinand received the rest of the
County of Castile
County of Castile and the lands
between the Pisuerga and the Cea. Another son of Sancho, Gonzalo,
received the counties of
Sobrarbe and Ribargoza as vassal of his
eldest brother, García. Lands in
Aragon were allotted to Sancho's
bastard son Ramiro.
Partition and union with Aragon
Navarre (yellow) in 1037
Standard of the Kings of
Navarra since 1212 (Old version used in the
Seal of King Sancho VII the Strong
García Sánchez III (1035–54) soon found himself struggling for
supremacy against his ambitious brothers, especially Ferdinand.
García had supported the armed conflict between Ferdinand and his
brother-in-law Bermudo III of León, who was ultimately killed in the
Battle of Tamarón (1037). This allowed Ferdinand to unite his
Castilian county with the new-won crown of León as king Ferdinand I.
For several years a mutual collaboration between the two kingdoms took
place. The relationship between García and his step-brother Ramiro
was better. The latter had acquired all of Aragon, Ribagorza and
Sobrarbe on the sudden death of his brother Gonzalo, forming what
would become the Kingdom of Aragon. García and Ramiro's alliance with
Ramon Berenguer, the Count of Barcelona, was effective to keep the
Zaragoza at bay. After the capture of
1044, a period peace followed on the southern border and trade was
established with Zaragoza.
The relationship between García and Ferdinand deteriorated with time,
the two disputing the lands on the Pamplonese-Castilian border,
and ended violently in September 1054 at the Battle of Atapuerca, in
which García was killed, and Ferdinand took from
Pamplona the lands
La Bureba and the Tirón River.
García was succeeded by Sancho IV (1054–76) of Peñalén, whom
Ferdinand had recognised as king of
Pamplona immediately after the
death of his father. He was fourteen years old at the time, and under
the regency of his mother Estefanía and his uncles Ferdinand and
Ramiro. After the death of his mother in 1058, Sancho IV lost the
support of the local nobility, and the relations between them worsened
after he became allied with Ahmad al-Muqtadir, ruler of Zaragoza.
On 4 June 1076, a conspiracy involving Sancho IV's brother Ramón and
sister Ermesinda ended with the murder of the king. The neighboring
kingdoms and the nobility probably had a part in the plot.
The dynastic crisis resulting from Sancho's assassination worked to
the benefit of the Castilian and Aragonese monarchs. Alfonso VI of
León and Castile took control of La Rioja, the Lordship of Biscay,
the County of Álava, the
County of Durango
County of Durango and part of Gipuzkoa.
Sancho Ramírez, successor to his father, Ramiro of Aragon, took
control of the rest of the territory and was recognised as king by the
Pamplonese nobility. The land around the city of Pamplona, the
core of the original kingdom, became known as the County of Navarre,
and was recognised by Alfonso VI as a vassal state of the kingdom of
León and Castile.
Sancho Ramírez began in 1084 a renewed military
expansion of the southern lands controlled by Muslim forces. In 1084
the city of Arguedas, from which the Bardenas region could be
controlled, was taken. After the death of
Sancho Ramírez in 1094, he
was succeeded by Peter I, who resumed the expansion of the territory,
taking the cities of
Sádaba in 1096 and Milagro in 1098, while
Alfonso the Battler
Alfonso the Battler (1104–34), brother of Peter I, secured for the
country its greatest territorial expansion. He wrested Tudela from the
Moors (1114), re-conquered the entire country of Bureba, which Navarre
had lost in 1042, and advanced into the current Province of Burgos. He
also annexed Labourd, with its strategic port of Bayonne, but lost its
coastal half to the English soon after. The remainder has been part of
Navarre since then and eventually came to be known as Lower Navarre.
Toward the south, he moved the Islamic border to the
Ebro river, with
Rioja, Nájera, Logroño, Calahorra, and Alfaro added to his domain.
In 1118, the city of
Zaragoza was taken by the Aragonese forces, and
on 25 February 1119 the city of Tudela was taken and incorporated into
Peace of Támara delimited the territorial domains of the
Castilian and Aragonese realms, the latter including Pamplona. The
lands of Biscay, Álava, Gipuzkoa, Belorado,
Soria and San Esteban de
Gormaz went back to the Pamplonese kingdom.
Restoration and the loss of western Navarre
Division of the Kingdom of
Pamplona after the death of Sancho Garcés
IV in 1076
Area occupied by Alfonso VI of Castile
Area occupied by
Sancho Ramírez of Aragon
County of Navarre, vassal of Castile
The status quo between
Aragon and Castile stood until the 1134 death
of Alfonso. Being childless, he willed his realm to the military
orders, particularly the Templars. This decision was rejected by the
courts (parliaments) of both
Aragon and Navarre, which then chose
García Ramírez, known as the Restorer, is the first King of Navarre
to use such a title. He was Lord of Monzón, a grandson of Rodrigo
Diaz de Vivar, El Cid, and a descendant by illegitimate line of king
García Sánchez III. Sancho Garcia, known as Sancho VI "the Wise"
(1150–94), a patron of learning, as well as an accomplished
Navarre within and without, granted charters
(fueros) to a number of towns, and was never defeated in battle. He
was the first king to issue royal documents entitling him rex Navarrae
or rex Navarrorum, appealing to a wider power base, defined as
politico-juridical by Urzainqui (a "populus"), beyond
Pamplona and the
customary rex Pampilonensium. As attested in the charters of San
Sebastián and Vitoria-Gasteiz (1181), the natives are called Navarri,
as well as in another contemporary document at least, where those
living to the north of Peralta are defined as Navarrese.
The Restorer and Sancho the Wise were faced with an ever increased
intervention of Castile in Navarre. In 1170, Alfonso VIII of Castile
and Eleanor, daughter of Henry II Plantagenet, married, with the
Castilian king claiming
Gascony as part of the dowry. It turned out a
much needed pretext for the invasion of
Navarre during the following
years (1173-1176), with a special focus on Navarre's coastal
districts, coveted by Castile in order to become a maritime power.
In 1177, the dispute was submitted to arbitration by Henry II of
England. The Navarrese made their point on a number of claims, namely
"the proven will of the locals" (fide naturalium hominum suorum
exhibita), the assassination of the King Sancho Garces IV of Navarre
by the Castilians (per violentiam fuit expulsus, 1076), law and
custom, while the Castilians made their case by citing the Castilian
takeover following the death of Sancho Garces IV, the dynastic links
of Alfonso with Navarre, and the conquest of Toledo. The king
Henry II did not dare issue a verdict utterly based on legal grounds
as presented by both sides, instead deciding to refer them back to the
boundaries held by both kingdoms at the start of their reigns in 1158,
besides agreeing to a truce of seven years. It thus confirmed the
permanent loss of the Bureba and Rioja areas for the Navarrese.
However, soon on, Castile breached the compromise, starting a renewed
effort to harass
Navarre both in the diplomatic and military
Navarre (light green) in 1190
The rich dowry of Berengaria, the daughter of Sancho VI the Wise and
Blanche of Castile, made her a desirable catch for Richard I of
England. His aged mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, crossed the Pyrenean
passes to escort Berengaria to Sicily, eventually to wed Richard in
Cyprus, 12 May 1191. She is the only Queen of England who never set
foot in England during her reign. The reign of Sancho the Wise's
successor, the last king of the male line of Sancho the Great and of
kings of Pamplona, king Sancho VII the Strong (Sancho el Fuerte)
(1194–1234), was more troubled. He appropriated the revenues of
churches and convents, granting them instead important privileges; in
1198 he presented to the See of
Pamplona his palaces and possessions
in that city, this gift being confirmed by Pope Innocent III on 29
In 1199 Alfonso VIII of Castile, son of Sancho III of Castile and
Blanche of Navarre, determined to own coastal Navarre, a strategic
region that would allow Castile much easier access to European wool
markets and would isolate
Navarre as well, launched a massive
expedition, while Sancho the Strong was on an international diplomatic
Tlemcen (modern Algeria). The cities of Vitoria and Treviño
resisted the Castilian assault but the Bishop of
Pamplona was sent to
inform them that no reinforcements would arrive. Vitoria then
Treviño did not, having to be conquered by force of
arms. By 1200 the conquest of Western
Navarre was complete. Castile
granted to the fragments of this territory (exceptions: Treviño,
Oñati, directly ruled from Castile) the right of self-rule, based on
their traditional customs (Navarrese right), that came to be known as
fueros. Alava was made a county, Biscay a lordship and Guipuscoa just
The greatest glory of Sancho el Fuerte was the part he took in the
battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212), where, through his valour, the
victory of the allied Christians over the Caliph En-Nasir was made
decisive. He retired and died in el Encerrado. His elder sister
Berengaria, Queen of England, had died childless some years earlier.
His deceased younger sister Blanca, countess of Champagne, had left a
son, Theobald IV of Champagne. Thus the Kingdom of Navarre, though the
crown was still claimed by the kings of Aragon, passed by marriage to
the House of Champagne, firstly to the heirs of Blanca, who were
simultaneously counts of Champagne and Brie, with the support of the
Navarre in the Late Middle Ages
Rule by Champagne and France
Arms of the Monarchs of
Navarre of the
House of Évreux
House of Évreux with the Royal
Navarre possessions in
France and the
Pyrenees in 1477 showing the Kingdom of Navarre
and the Principality of Béarn
Theobald I made of his court a centre where the poetry of the
troubadours that had developed at the court of the counts of Champagne
was welcomed and fostered; his reign was peaceful. His son, King
Theobald II (1253–70), married Isabella, daughter of King Louis IX
of France, and accompanied his saintly father-in-law upon his crusade
to Tunis. On the homeward journey, he died at Trapani in Sicily, and
was succeeded by his brother, King Henry I, who had already assumed
the reins of government during his absence, but ruled for only three
years (1271–74). His daughter, Queen Joan I, ascended as a minor and
the country was once again invaded from all sides. The queen and her
mother, Blanche of Artois, sought refuge at the court of King Philip
III of France. His son, the future King Philip IV of France, had
become engaged to the young sovereign and married her in 1284. From
1276, the time of the negotiations for this marriage, Navarre
effectively passed into French control.
The Kingdom of
Navarre remained in personal union with the Kingdom of
France until the death of King Charles I (Charles IV of France) in
1328. He was succeeded by his niece, Queen Joanna II, daughter of King
Louis I (Louis X of France), and nephew-in-law, King Philip III.
Joanna waived all claim to the throne of
France and accepted as
compensation for the counties of Champagne and Brie those of
Angoulême, Longueville, and Mortain.
King Philip III devoted himself to the improvement of the laws of the
country, and joined King
Alfonso XI of Castile
Alfonso XI of Castile in battle against the
Moors of 1343. After the death of his mother (1349), King Charles II
assumed the reins of government (1349–87). He played an important
part in the
Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War and in the French civil unrest of the
time, and on account of his deceit and cruelty he received the
ephithet of 'the Bad'. He gained and lost possessions in
later in his reign, the
Navarrese Company acquired island possessions
His eldest son, on the other hand, King Charles III, 'the Noble', once
more returned the land to peaceful and happy government (1387–1425).
He reformed the government, built canals, and made the tributaries of
Ebro flowing through
Navarre navigable. As he outlived his
legitimate sons, he was succeeded by his daughter, Queen Blanche I
(1425–42), and son-in-law, King John II (1397–1479).
Navarre under the
Further information: Navarrese Civil War (1451–1455)
After Queen Blanche I of Navarre's death in 1441,
Navarre was mired in
continued disputes over royal succession. King John II was ruling in
Aragon in the name of his brother, Alfonso V of Aragon. He left his
son, the King Charles, Prince of Viana, only with the rank of
governor, whereas Queen Blanche I had designed that he should succeed
her, as it was the custom. In 1450, John II himself came back to
Navarre, and urged on by his ambitious second wife Juana Enriquez
endeavoured to obtain the succession for their son Ferdinand.
Mirroring inter-clan disputes during the bloody
War of the Bands
War of the Bands in
the rest of the Basque territories, in 1451
Navarre split in two
confederacies over royal succession, the Agramonts and the Beaumonts,
with ramifications both within and outside Navarre. In the violent
civil war that broke out, the Agramonts sided with John II, and the
Beaumonts — named after their leader, the chancellor, John of
Beaumont — espoused the cause of Charles, Prince of Viana.:15
The fights involved the high aristocracy and their junior branches,
who carried on the feuds of their senior lines and thrived on weak,
often absent, royal authority.:252
The unhappy prince Charles was defeated by his father at
1451, and held a prisoner for two years, during which he wrote his
famous Chronicle of Navarre, a major source for the period. After his
release, Charles in vain sought the assistance of King Charles VII of
France and his uncle Alfonso V (who resided in Naples). In 1460 he was
again imprisoned at the instigation of his stepmother, but the
Catalans rose in revolt at this injustice, and he was again liberated
and named governor of Catalonia. He died in 1461, poisoned by his
Juana Enríquez without being able to retake the reigns of
Navarre. He had named as heir his next sister, Queen Blanche II, but
she was immediately imprisoned by John II and died in 1464. While this
episode of the civil war came to an end, it inaugurated a period of
instability including on-off periods of struggle and uprisings all the
way to the Spanish conquest (1512).
On Charles' demise in 1461, Eleanor of Navarre, Countess of
Béarn, was proclaimed Princess of Viana, but the instability took a
toll. The south-western tip of Navarre, the Sonsierra (Oyon,
Laguardia, in present-day Álava), and Los Arcos, was occupied by
Henry IV of Castile, and eventually annexed by Castile (1463), their
permanent loss by
Navarre being upheld by the French king Louis XI in
Bayonne on 23 April 1463.:15 John II continued to rule as king up
to 1479, when Queen Eleanor succeeded him for only 15 days and died,
leaving the crown to her grandson, Francis Phoebus, but this
inaugurated another period of instability. Eleanor's 13-year-old
granddaughter Catherine I of
Navarre succeeded her brother Francis
Phoebus, in accordance with his will (1483). As a minor she remained
under the guardianship of her mother, Magdalena of Valois, and was
Ferdinand the Catholic
Ferdinand the Catholic as a bride. However, another claimant
to the throne was stubbornly trying to stop her, John of Foix,
Viscount of Narbonne, brother-in-law of future king of Louis XII of
France. Invoking the French Salic Law, he called himself King of
Navarre and sent diplomats to Ferdinand II.
Pressure built on Catherine's regent
Magdalena of Valois
Magdalena of Valois who, intent
on saving their French possessions, eventually decided to marry the
young Queen to the 7-year-old John of Albret, despite the Parliament
of Navarre's preference for John of Aragon, son of Ferdinand and
Isabella.:17 The Beaumont party rose up, while the Agramonts split
over the marriage. Ferdinand II of
Aragon in turn reconsidered his
diplomatic policy on Navarre. The crown of
Navarre fell back on their
default policy of diplomacy, and signed the Treaty of Valencia on 21
March 1488, whereby trade was restored between
Navarre and the
Aragon-Castile tandem. Still, Ferdinand did not recognize Catherine
and imposed Castilian troops in Navarre, banning French troops in both
the kingdom and the principality of Béarn.:17
"Before the sacrament of the holy unction is completed, this blessed
coronation of yours, it is necessary for Your Royal Majesties to swear
an oath to the people, as the monarchs of
Navarre preceding you did
formerly, so that the people can also swear an oath to you as set by
custom [...] we swear [...] to the prelates, nobles [...] and men of
the cities and good towns and all the people of
Navarre [...] from all
across the Kingdom of
Navarre [...] all the fueros, as well as the
mores, and customs, tax exemptions, liberties, privileges held by each
of you—either here or absent."
Instructions to the monarchs Catherine and John III on the mandatory
oath owed to the Kingdom of Navarre, and the oath itself, ahead of
their coronation (1494).
Ferdinand also pushed for the introduction of the coercive
cross-border tribunal, the Inquisition, which the Navarese hated, but
under pressure from the Aragonese monarch the doors of Navarre
(Tudela) finally opened to the Church institution between 1486 and
1488 pushed by the Aragonese monarch's threats. Still in 1510 the
authorities of Tudela decreed the expulsion of the monk "calling
himself inquisitor." Catherine and John III also lacked French royal
support: both Charles VIII and Louis XII of
France pushed hard to have
Foix declared king. Finally, following a short period of peace
with Ferdinand after a treaty was signed, in January 1494 the
coronation of the royal family took place in Pamplona. The monarchs
Catherine I and John III swore an oath to respect the liberties of
Navarre, and the proclamation was celebrated with a week-long
festival, while the ceremony was not attended by the Aragonese bishops
with jurisdiction in Navarre. During this period, the realm of
Navarre-Beárn was defined by Emperor Maximilian I's diplomat Müntzer
as a nation like Switzerland.:16 In the same treaty, Ferdinand
renounced war on
Béarn from Castile, but the attempt to
restore royal authority and patrimony met with the resistance of the
defiant count of Lerin, Louis of Beaumont, whose estates where
Catherine and John III's guardian
Magdalena of Valois
Magdalena of Valois died in 1495 and
Alain I of Albret
Alain I of Albret signed another treaty with Ferdinand,
whereby the count of Lerín should abandon Navarre, receiving in
compensation real estate and various enclaves in the recently
conquered Granada. In exchange, Alain made an array of painful
concessions: Ferdinand received the count of Lerín's patrimony and
gained control of important fortresses across Navarre, including the
right to keep a garrison in
Olite at the heart of the kingdom. Also,
Queen Catherine's 1-year-old daughter Magdalena was to be sent to
Castile to be raise, with a plan on a future marriage — she would
die young in Castile (1504).:18–19 Following developments in
France, the whole treaty was reverted in 1500 and another compromise
was reached with Ferdinand, ensuring peace for another 4 years.
Magdalena of Valois, regent of
Navarre from 1479 to 1494, and mother
of Queen Catherine I of Navarre
Main article: Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre
In spite of the treaties,
Ferdinand the Catholic
Ferdinand the Catholic did not relinquish
his long-cherished designs on Navarre. In 1506, the 53-year-old
widower remarried, to Germaine of
Foix (aged 16), daughter of
Catherine's uncle John of Foix, who had attempted to claim Navarre
over his under-age nephew and niece. However, their infant son died
shortly after birth, ending hopes of a possible inheritance of
Navarre. Ferdinand kept intervening directly or indirectly in the
internal affairs of
Navarre by means of the Beaumont party. In 1508,
the Navarrese royal troops finally suppressed a rebellion of the count
of Lerin after a long standoff. In a letter to the rebellious count,
the king of
Aragon insisted that while he may take over one stronghold
or another, he should use "theft, deceit and bargain" instead of
violence (23 July 1509).
Navarre refused to join one of many Holy Leagues against France
and declared itself neutral, Ferdinand asked the Pope to excommunicate
Albret, which would have legitimised an attack. The Pope was reluctant
to label the Crown of
Navarre as schismatic explicitly in a first bull
against the French and the Navarrese (21 July 1512), but Ferdinand's
pressure bore fruit when a (second) bull named Catherine and John III
"heretic" (18 February 1513). On 18 July 1512, Don Fadrique de Toledo
was sent to invade
Navarre in the context of the second phase of the
War of the League of Cambrai.
Unable to face the powerful Castilian-Aragonese army, Jean d'Albret
Béarn (Orthez, Pau, Tarbes). Pamplona, Estella, Olite,
Sanguesa, and Tudela were captured by September. The Agramont party
sided with Queen Catherine while most, but not all, of the Beaumont
party lords supported the occupiers. In October 1512, the legitimate
King John III returned with an army recruited north of the Pyrenees
Pamplona without success. By the end of December the
Castilians were in St-Jean-Pied-de-Port.
After this failure, the Navarrese Cortes (Parliament) had no option
but pledge loyalty to King Ferdinand of Aragon. In 1513, the first
Castilian viceroy took a formal oath to respect Navarrese institutions
and law (fueros). The Spanish
Inquisition was extended into Navarre.
The Jews had already been forced into conversion or exile by the
Alhambra Decree in Castile and Aragon, and now the Jewish community of
Navarre and the
Muslims of Tudela suffered its persecution.
There were two more attempts at liberation in 1516 and 1521, both
supported by popular rebellion, especially the second one. It was in
1521 that the Navarrese came closest to regaining their independence.
As a liberation army commanded by General Asparros approached
Pamplona, the citizens rose in revolt and besieged the military
governor, Iñigo de Loyola, in his newly built castle. Tudela and
other cities also declared their loyalty to the House of Albret. With
at first distracted due to only recently overcoming the Revolt of the
Comuneros, the Navarrese-Béarnese army managed to liberate all the
Kingdom, but shortly thereafter Asparros faced a large Castilian army
at the Battle of Noáin on 30 June 1521. Asparros was captured, and
the army completely defeated.
Navarre north of the Pyrenees
A small portion of
Navarre north of the Pyrenees, Lower Navarre, along
with the neighbouring Principality of
Béarn survived as an
independent kingdom which passed by inheritance.
Navarre received from
King Henry II, the son of Queen Catherine and King John III, a
representative assembly, the clergy being represented by the bishops
Bayonne and Dax, their vicars-general, the parish priest of
St-Jean-Pied-de-Port, and the priors of Saint-Palais, Utziat and
Jeanne III converted to
Calvinism in 1560 and, thereupon, promoted a
translation of the
Bible into Basque; it is one of the first books
published in this language. Jeanne also declared
Calvinism to be the
official religion of Navarre. She and her son, Henry III, led the
Huguenot party in the French Wars of Religion. In 1589, Henry became
the sole rightful claimant to the crown of France, though he was not
recognized as such by many of his subjects until his conversion to
Catholicism four years later.
Labourd and Upper
Navarre were shaken by the Basque witch trials
in 1609 and 1610, many sought refuge in Lower Navarre. The last
independent king of Navarre, Henry III (reigned 1572–1610),
succeeded to the throne of
France as Henry IV in 1589, founding the
Bourbon dynasty. Between 1620 and 1624, Lower
France proper by Henry's son, Louis XIII of France
(Louis II of Navarre). The
Parliament of Navarre, seated at Pau, was
also created by merging the Royal Council of
Navarre and the sovereign
Council of Béarn.
The 1659 Treaty of the
Pyrenees put an end to the litigation over the
definite French-Spanish borders and to any French-Navarrese dynastic
claim over Spanish Navarre. The title of King of
Navarre continued to
be used by the Kings of
France until the
French Revolution in 1792,
and was revived again during the Restoration, 1814–30. Since the
Navarre was in Spanish hands, the kings of
Spain would also
used the title of King of Navarre, and continue to do so.
The crown and the kingdom: A constitutional foundation
Further information: Fuero § Basque and Pyrenean fueros
Spanish royal coat of arms variant of
Spain used in Navarre, House of
As the Kingdom of
Navarre was originally organized, it was divided
into merindades, districts governed by a merino ("mayorino", a
sheriff), the representative of the king. They were the "Ultrapuertos"
(French Navarre), Pamplona, Estella, Tudela and Sangüesa. In 1407 the
Olite was added. The Cortes of
Navarre began as the king's
council of churchmen and nobles, but in the course of the 14th century
the burgesses were added. Their presence was due to the fact that the
king had need of their co-operation to raise money by grants and aids,
a development that was being paralleled in England.
The Cortes henceforth consisted of the churchmen, the nobles and the
representatives of twenty-seven (later thirty-eight) "good
towns"—towns which were free of a feudal lord, and, therefore, held
directly of the king. The independence of the burgesses was better
Navarre than in other parliaments of
Spain by the
constitutional rule which required the consent of a majority of each
order to every act of the Cortes. Thus the burgesses could not be
outvoted by the nobles and the Church, as they could be elsewhere.
Even in the 18th century the Navarrese successfully resisted Bourbon
attempts to establish custom houses on the French frontier, dividing
French from Spanish Navarre.
The institutions of
Navarre which maintained their autonomy until the
19th century included the Cortes (The Three States, precursor to the
Parliament of Navarre), Royal Council, Supreme Court and Diputacion
del Reino. Similar institutions existed in the
Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon (in
Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia) until the 18th century. The Spanish
monarch was represented by a viceroy, who could object to the
decisions made in the Navarrese context.
During that period
Navarre enjoyed a special status within the Spanish
monarchy; it had its own cortes, taxation system, and separate customs
Later history and the end of the fueros
Further information: End of Basque home rule in Spain
By the War of the
Pyrenees and the Peninsular War,
Navarre was in a
deep crisis over the Spanish royal authority, involving the Spanish
prime minister Manuel Godoy, who bitterly opposed the Basque charters,
their autonomy, and maintained high duty exactions on the
to abash the Navarrese, and the Basques altogether. The only way out
the Navarrese found was an increased trade with France, which in turn
spurred the importation of bourgeois, modern ideas. However, the
progressive, enlightened bourgeois circles strong in Pamplona—and
other Basque towns and cities like Donostia—were eventually quelled
during the above wars.
After the French defeat, the only movement supporting the Navarrese
self-government was Ferdinand VII. The king wielded the flag of the
ancient régime, as opposed to the liberal Constitution of Cádiz
(1812), which ignored the Navarrese and Basque fueros and any
different identities in Spain, or the "Spains", as it was considered
before the 19th century.
During the Napoleonic wars, many in
Navarre took to the bush to avoid
tax exactions and the military abuses over property and people during
their expeditions, be their French, English, or Spanish. These parties
sow the seeds to the later militias of the
Carlist wars acting under
different banners, Carlists most often, but also pro-fueros liberals.
However, once the local, urban based enlightened bourgeois were
suppressed by the Spanish authorities and backlashing at the French
despotic rule during their occupation, the most staunchly Catholic
rose to prominence in Navarre, coming under much clerical influence.
This, and the resentment felt at the loss of their autonomy when they
were incorporated into
Spain in 1833, account for the
strong support given by many Navarrese to the
Carlist cause. In 1833,
Navarre and the whole Basque region in
Spain became the chief
stronghold of the Carlists, but in 1837 a Spanish Liberal, centralist
constitution was proclaimed in Madrid, and Isabella II recognized as
queen. Following the August 31st, 1839 armistice putting an end to the
Navarre remained in a shaky state.
Its separate status was acknowledged on the Act promulgated in October
that year, but after arrival of
Baldomero Espartero and the
anti-fueros Progressives to office in Madrid, talks with Navarrese
Liberal negotiators led to a near-assimilation of
Navarre with the
Navarre was not a kingdom anymore, but another
Spanish province. In exchange for giving up self-government, the
Navarrese got the Compromise Act (the Ley Paccionada) in 1841, a set
of tax, administrative and other prerogatives, conjuring up an idea of
'compromise between two equal sides', and not a granted charter.
Province of Spain
Navarre § Province of Spain
Following the 1839–1841 treaties, conflict with Madrid's central
government over Navarre's agreed administrative and fiscal
idiosyncrasies contributed to the Third
Carlist War, largely centred
in the Basque districts (over in 1876). Myriad parties and factions
Navarre demanding different degrees of restoration of
native institutions and laws.
Catholicism and traditionalism became
major driving forces behind
The Church in
Navarre became a mainstay of the reactionary Spanish
Nationalist uprising against the 2nd Spanish Republic (1936). The
figure of progressives and inconvenient dissidents exterminated across
Navarre is estimated at around 3,000 in the period immediately after
the successful military uprising (July 1936). As a reward for its
support in the
Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War (
Navarre sided for the most part with
the military uprising), Franco allowed Navarre, as it happened with
Álava, to maintain during his dictatorship some prerogatives
reminiscent of the ancient Navarrese liberties. Navarre's specific
status during Franco's regime led to the present-day Chartered
Navarre during the Spanish transition to democracy (the
so-called Amejoramiento, 1982).
The territory formerly known as
Navarre now belongs to two nations,
Spain and France, depending on whether it lies south or north of the
Western Pyrenees. The
Basque language is still spoken in most of the
Navarre is an autonomous community of
Navarre is part of France's
Other former Navarrese territories belong now to several autonomous
communities of Spain: the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country,
La Rioja, Aragon, and Castile and León.
Chartered Community of
List of Navarrese monarchs
Navarre family tree
Court officials of the Kingdom of Navarre
Basque Country (historical territory)
Basque and Pyrenean Fueros
History of the Basque people
Historic languages of the Kingdom of
Basque, natural language in most of the realm except for the southern
plains (Ribera), 824–1841
Navarro-Aragonese, natural language along the Ebro, in the south-east,
some boroughs, and status language, 10–15th century
Occitan, natural language in some boroughs, status language, 11–14th
Castilian Romance/Spanish, natural language in southern and
increasingly central areas and many urban centres substituting Basque,
status language, 15th century-1841
Gascon, written language in Lower
Navarre and limited geographical and
social contexts, 1305–1790
Arabic, language of the Muslim communities remaining in southern areas
after the conquest of Tudela in 1118, as well as Muslim liturgy
language, 824–14th century and 824–early 16th century respectively
French, status language increasingly replacing Gascon (Béarnese) in
administration and politics, 1624–1790
Erromintxela, language used by the native Romani communities
especially in hilly areas, 15th century-1841
Hebrew, religious and written language in Jewish communities located
in certain urban centres, 10th century-1512
Latin, Christian Catholic liturgy language and formal language in
written scripts increasingly replaced by other Romance languages,
^ a b c Estibaliz Amorrortu, Basque Sociolinguistics: Language,
Society, and Culture, (University of Nevada Press, 2003), 14 note5.
^ R. L. Trask, The History of Basque, (Routledge, 2014), 427.
^ Harvey, L.P. (1996).
Muslims in Spain, 1500 to 1614. Chicago:
Chicago University Press. pp. 124–125.
^ Jurio, Jimeno (1995). Historia de
Pamplona y de sus Lenguas.
Tafalla: Txalaparta. pp. 82, 138, 175–177.
^ Harvey, L.P. (1996).
Muslims in Spain, 1500 to 1614. Chicago:
Chicago University Press. p. 125.
^ Ciervide Martinena, Ricardo Javier (1980). "Toponimia navarra:
historia y lengua". Fontes Linguae Vasconum (34): 90, 91, 102.
^ Trask, Robert.L. (1996). The History of Basque. New York: Routledge.
p. 427. ISBN 0-415-13116-2.
^ Collins, R. 1989, p. 159
^ a b Bernardo Estornés Lasa's Spanish article on
Navarra in the
Auñamendi Entziklopedia (click on "NAVARRA – NAFARROA (NOMBRE Y
^ Collins 1990, pp. 53–56.
^ Larrea & Lorenzo 2012, p. 277.
^ Larrea & Lorenzo 2012, pp. 279-280.
^ Jimeno Jurío 2004.
^ Larrea & Lorenzo 2012, p. 280.
^ Collins 1989, p. 159.
^ In the 15th paragraph, the Carolingian chronicler states, "ipse per
bella memorata primo Aquitaniam et Wasconiam totumque Pyrinei montis
iugum et usque ad Hiberum amnem, qui apud Navarros ortus et
fertilissimos Hispaniae agros secans".
^ a b c Larrea & Lorenzo 2012, p. 281.
^ "Louis the Pious", Rene Poupardin, The Cambridge Medieval History:
Germany and the Western Empire, Vol. III, ed. J.B.Bury, (Cambridge
University Press, 1936), 8.
^ "Du nouveau sur le royaume de Pampelune au IXe siècle", Évariste
Lévi-Provençal, Bulletin Hispanique, 1953, Volume 55, Issue 55-1,
page 11; "Mais, en ce qui concerne le roi vascon Inigo Iniguez..."
^ Martín Duque 2002, p. 324.
^ Larrea & Lorenzo 2012, p. 284.
^ Martín Duque 2002, p. 404.
^ Collins 1990, p. 135.
^ Collins 1990, p. 140.
^ Trask, R.L. (1997). The History of Basque. New York, USA: Routledge.
p. 14. ISBN 0-415-13116-2.
^ Larrea & Lorenzo 2012, pp. 284-286.
^ Martín Duque 2002, p. 405.
^ Martín Duque 1993, p. 73.
^ Martín Duque 1993, p. 327.
^ "Crónica Albeldense". Humanidades.cchs.csic.es. Retrieved
^ Martín Duque 2002, p. 407.
^ Martín Duque 1993, pp. 73-78.
^ Martín Duque 1993, p. 78.
^ Miranda García 1993, p. 82.
^ a b Martín Duque 2002, p. 408.
^ Miranda García 1993, p. 83.
^ Miranda García 1993, p. 84.
^ Martínez Díez 2005, p. 715, Vol. II.
^ Martín Duque 2002, p. 409.
^ Miranda García 1993, pp. 85-86.
^ Martín Duque 2002, p. 410.
^ Fortún Pérez de Ciriza 1993, p. 106.
^ Miranda García 1993, p. 86.
^ a b Miranda García 1993, p. 87.
^ Martín Duque 2002, p. 411.
^ Fortún Pérez de Ciriza 1993, p. 98 and 102.
^ Fortún Pérez de Ciriza 1993, p. 104.
^ Serrano Izko 2006, p. 125.
^ Urzainqui & Olaizola 1998, p. 94.
^ But not the inhabitants of Peralta; the lingua navarrorum is
attested as the Basque language.
^ Urzainqui & Olaizola 1998, p. 111.
^ Urzainqui & Olaizola 1998, p. 152.
^ Urzainqui & Olaizola 1998, p. 115.
^ Urzainqui & Olaizola 1998, p. 116.
^ a b c d e Monreal, G./Jimeno, R.
^ Collins 1990, p. 104.
^ Urzainqui, T./Esarte, P./Et al.
^ G.R. Evans, The Roots of the Reformation: Tradition, Emergence and
Rupture, (InterVarsity Press, 2012), 326.
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Medieval History of
Coordinates: 42°49′01″N 1°38′34″W / 42.81694°N
1.64278°W / 42.81694; -1.64278
Monarchs of Navarre
House of Íñiguez
House of Jiménez
Jimeno II Garcés
García Sánchez I
García Sánchez II
García Sánchez III
House of Champagne
House of Capet
House of Évreux
House of Trastámara
House of Foix
House of Albret
House of Bourbon
AAlso King of Aragon. FAlso King of France.
Spain in the Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
Kingdom of the Suebi
Province of Spania
Duchy of Cantabria
Duchy of Vasconia
Caliphate of Córdoba
Emirate of Granada
Kingdom of Asturias
Kingdom of Asturias → Kingdom of León
Kingdom of Galicia
County of Castile
Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile →
Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile (Castile-León)
Marca Hispanica →
County of Barcelona
County of Barcelona → Principality of Catalonia
Kingdom of Viguera
Pamplona → Kingdom of Navarre
Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon → Crown of Aragon
Kingdom of Majorca
Kingdom of Valencia
Monarchs of al-Andalus
Monarchs of Aragon
Monarchs of Asturias
Monarchs of Barcelona
Monarchs of Castile
Monarchs of Galicia
Monarchs of Granada
Monarchs of León
Monarchs of Majorca
Monarchs of Navarre
Monarchs of Valencia