Kingdom of Hungary
   HOME

TheInfoList



The Kingdom of Hungary was a in that existed from the into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920) and existed for almost a millennium. The emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the of the first king at around the year 1000;Kristó Gyula – Barta János – Gergely Jenő: Magyarország története előidőktől 2000-ig (History of Hungary from the prehistory to 2000), Pannonica Kiadó, Budapest, 2002, , p. 687, pp. 37, pp. 113 ("Magyarország a 12. század második felére jelentős európai tényezővé, középhatalommá vált."/"By the 12th century Hungary became an important European factor, became a middle power.", "A Nyugat részévé vált Magyarország.../Hungary became part of the West"), pp. 616–644 his family (the ) led the monarchy for 300 years. By the 12th century, the kingdom became a European within the . Due to the occupation of the central and southern territories of Hungary in the 16th century, the country was partitioned into three parts: the Habsburg , , and the semi-independent . The held the Hungarian throne after the in 1526 continuosly until 1918 and also played a key role in the liberation wars against the Ottoman Empire. From 1867, territories connected to the Hungarian crown were incorporated into under the name of . The monarchy ended with the deposition of the last king in 1918, after which Hungary became a republic. The kingdom was nominally restored during the "" of 1920–1946, ending under the in 1946. The Kingdom of Hungary was a state from its inception until the and it covered what is today , , and other parts of , (now part of ), (now part of ), the territory of (now part of ), (now part of ), (now part of ) and a few villages which are now part of . From 1102 it also included the , being in with it, united under the . According to the demographers, about 80 percent of the population was made up of before the , however in the mid-19th century out of a population of 14 million less than 6 million were Hungarian due to the resettlement policies and continuous immigration from neighboring countries. Major territorial changes made Hungary ethnically homogeneous after . Nowadays, more than nine-tenths of the population is ethnically Hungarian and speaks Hungarian as the mother tongue. Today, the feast day of the first king (20 August) is a in Hungary, commemorating the foundation of the state (Foundation Day).


Names

The forms or ( meaning kingdom); (Kingdom of ); or simply , were the names used in official documents in Latin from the beginning of the kingdom to the 1840s. The name was used officially from 1784 to 1790 and again between 1849 and the 1860s. The name () was used in the 1840s, and then again from the 1860s to 1946. The unofficial Hungarian name of the kingdom was , which is still the colloquial, and also the official name of Hungary. The names in the other native languages of the kingdom were: pl, Królestwo Węgier, ro, Regatul Ungariei, sr, Kraljevina Ugarska, hr, Kraljevina Ugarska, sl, Kraljevina Ogrska, sk, Uhorské kráľovstvo, and (for the city of ), . In Austria-Hungary (1867–1918), the unofficial name was sometimes used to denote the regions of the Kingdom of Hungary. Officially, the term was included for the Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary, although this term was also in use prior to that time.


Capital cities


History


Origins

The Hungarians, led by , settled the Carpathian Basin in 895 and established the (896–1000).''Histoire de la Croatie'':
Although the precise terms of this relationship became a matter of dispute in the 19th century, it is believed that Coloman created a . The nature of the relationship varied through time, Croatia retained a large degree of internal autonomy overall, while the real power rested in the hands of the local nobility. Modern Croatian and Hungarian historiographies mostly view the relations between and Kingdom of Hungary from 1102 as a form of a , i.e. that they were connected by a common king.Barna Mezey: Magyar alkotmánytörténet, Budapest, 1995, p. 66 Also, one of the greatest Hungarian jurists and statesmen of the 16th century, in his work ''Tripartitum'' treats Croatia as a kingdom separate to Hungary. In 1222 issued the which laid down the principles of law.


= Mongol invasion

= In 1241, Hungary was invaded by the and while the first minor battles with Subutai's vanguard probes ended in seeming Hungarian victories, the Mongols finally destroyed the combined Hungarian and Cuman armies at the . In 1242, after the end of the Mongol invasion, numerous fortresses to defend against future invasion were erected by . In gratitude, the Hungarians acclaimed him as the "Second Founder of the Homeland", and the Hungarian Kingdom again became a considerable force in Europe. In 1260 lost the War of Babenberg Succession, his army was defeated at the by the united Bohemian forces. However, in 1278 and Austrian troops fully destroyed the Bohemian army at the .


Late Middle Ages

The Árpád dynasty died out in 1301 with the death of . Subsequently, Hungary was ruled by the until the end of the 14th century, and then by several non-dynastic rulers – notably and – until the early 16th century.


= The Anjou Age

= When Andrew III's predecessor, , was assassinated in 1290, another nobleman was set up as titular King of Hungary: . Charles Martel was the son of King and , the sister of Ladislaus IV. However, Andrew III took the crown for himself and ruled without inconvenience after Charles Martel's death in 1295. Upon Andrew's death in 1301, the throne was claimed by Charles Martel's son, Charles Robert. After a period of instability, he was finally crowned King in 1310. He implemented considerable economic reforms and defeated the remaining nobility who were in opposition to royal rule, led by . The kingdom of Hungary reached an age of prosperity and stability under Charles I. The gold mines of the Kingdom were extensively worked and soon Hungary reached a prominent standing in European gold production. The was introduced as a currency, replacing the ''denars'', and soon after Charles's reforms were implemented, the economy of the Kingdom started to prosper again, having fallen into a parlous state following the Mongol invasion. Charles exalted the cult to Saint Ladislaus I, using him as a symbol of bravery, justice and purity. He also venerated his uncle, . On the other hand, he gave importance to the cults of the princesses and , which added relevance to the lineage inheritance through the feminine branches. Charles restored the royal power which had fallen into feudal lords' hands, and then made the lords swear loyalty to him. For this, he founded in 1326 the , which was the first secular in the world, and included the most important noblemen of the Kingdom. Charles married four times. His fourth wife was , the daughter of . When Charles died in 1342, his eldest son by Elizabeth succeeded him as . In the first years of his reign, Louis was advised closely by his mother, making her one of the most influential personalities in the Kingdom. Charles had arranged the marriage of his second son, , with his cousin , the granddaughter of King , in 1332. Robert died in 1343, bequeathing his kingdom to Joanna but excluding the claim of Andrew. In 1345, a group of noble Neapolitan conspirators murdered Andrew at . Almost immediately, Louis , conducting a first campaign in 1347–1348 and a second in 1350. He eventually signed peace with Joanna in 1352. Louis also waged wars against the and the , restoring the Hungarian monarchs' authority over territories along the frontiers which had been lost during the previous decades. In 1370 Louis's uncle, , died without male issue. Louis succeeded him, thus establishing the first . This lasted until 1382 when Louis himself died without male issue; his two daughters, and , then ascended the thrones of Hungary and Poland respectively.


= The Age of Sigismund

= always kept good and close relationships with the and finally proclaimed Charles's son to succeed him as King of Hungary. Sigismund became a renowned king who created many improvements in the Hungarian law system and who rebuilt the palaces of Buda and Visegrád. He brought materials from Austria and Bohemia and ordered the creation of the most luxurious building in all of central Europe. In his laws can be seen the traces of the early . He worked hard to keep the nobility under his control. A great part of his reign was dedicated to the fight with the Ottoman Empire, which started to extend its frontiers and influence to Europe. In 1396 was fought the against the Ottomans, which resulted in a defeat for the Hungarian-French forces led by Sigismund and . However, Sigismund continued to successfully contain the Ottoman forces outside of the Kingdom for the rest of his life. Losing popularity among the Hungarian nobility, Sigismund soon became victim of an attempt against his rule, and (the son of the murdered King of Naples Charles II of Hungary) was called in and crowned. Since the ceremony was not performed with the Hungarian Holy Crown, and in the city of , it was considered illegitimate. Ladislaus stayed only few days in Hungarian territory and soon left it, no longer an inconvenience for Sigismund. In 1408 he founded the , which included the most of the relevant monarchs and noblemen of that region of Europe at that time. This was just a first step for what was coming. In 1410 he was elected , making him the supreme monarch over the German territories. He had to deal with the movement, a religious reformist group that was born in Bohemia, and he presided at the , where the theologist founder , was judged. In 1419 Sigismund inherited the after the death of his brother , obtaining the formal control of three medieval states, but he struggled for control of Bohemia until the peace agreement with the Hussites and his coronation in 1436. In 1433 was crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope and ruled until his death in 1437, leaving as his only heir his daughter and her husband. The marriage of Elizabeth was arranged with the Duke , who was later crowned as King Albert of Hungary in 1437.


= Hunyadi family

= The Hungarian kingdom's golden age was during the reign of (1458–1490), the son of . His nickname was "Matthias the Just". He further improved the Hungarian economy and practised astute diplomacy in place of military action whenever possible. Matthias did undertake campaigning when necessary. From 1485 until his death, he occupied Vienna, aiming to limit the influence and meddling of the Holy Roman Empire in Hungary's affairs. At the time of the initial Ottoman encroachment, the Hungarians successfully resisted conquest. John Hunyadi was leader of the , in which the Hungarians tried to expel the Turks from the Balkans. Initially, they were successful, but later at the , the Ottomans won a decisive if . was decapitated during this battle. In 1456, John Hunyadi delivered a crushing defeat of the Ottomans at the . The commemorates the fallen Christian warriors. In the 15th century, the was a modern mercenary army, with the s the most skilled troops of the . In 1479, under the leadership of , the Hungarian army destroyed the Ottoman and Wallachian troops at the . The army of Hungary destroyed its enemies almost every time when Matthias was king. Matthias died without legitimate heir, and was thus succeeded by (1490–1516), the son of . In turn, Vladislaus was succeeded by his son (1516–26). In 1526, at the , the forces of the led by annihilated the Hungarian army. In trying to escape, Louis II drowned in the Csele Creek. The leader of the Hungarian army, , also died in the battle.


Early modern history


The divided kingdom

Due to a serious defeat by the Ottomans () the central authority collapsed. The majority of Hungary's ruling elite elected (10 November 1526). A small minority of aristocrats sided with , who was Archduke of , and was related to Louis by marriage. Due to previous agreements that the would take the Hungarian throne if Louis died without heirs, Ferdinand was elected king by a rump in December 1526. Although the borders shifted frequently during this period, the three parts can be identified, more or less, as follows: * , which consisted of northern and western territories where Ferdinand I was recognized as king of Hungary. This part is viewed as defining the continuity of the Kingdom of Hungary. The territory along with Ottoman Hungary suffered greatly from the nearly constant wars taking place. * The (i.e. most of present-day Hungary, including south-eastern Transdanubia and the ), partly without north-eastern present-day Hungary. * under the . Note that this territory, often under Ottoman influence, was different from Transylvania proper and included various other territories sometimes referred to as . Later the entity was called . On 29 February 1528, King received the support of the Ottoman Sultan. A three-sided conflict ensued as Ferdinand moved to assert his rule over as much of the Hungarian kingdom as he could. By 1529 the kingdom had been split into two parts: Habsburg Hungary and the "eastern-Kingdom of Hungary". At this time there were no Ottomans on Hungarian territories, except Srem's important castles. In 1532, defended and stopped a powerful Ottoman army. By 1541, the fall of marked a further division of Hungary into three areas. The country remained divided until the end of the 17th century. On 1 May 1566, led an Ottoman invasion of Habsburg-controlled Hungary, the Ottoman forces of which was one of the most sizable armies he had led in his rule of 46 years. After reaching Belgrade and met with on 27 June, Suleiman I learned that a Croatian-Hungarian nobleman, , Ban of Croatia, accomplished an attack on an Ottoman military camp at Siklós. Suleiman I held off his attack of Eger for the time being, and began to set off towards Nikola IV Zrinski's fortress at . From 2 August to 7 September, the Ottoman forces had laid siege to the fortress with a force, at the least, of 150,000 against Zrinski's 2,300 defenders. While the turned into a victory for the Ottomans, it came at the cost of: 25,000 Ottoman soldiers and Suleiman I, who before the final battle of Szigetvár, due to natural causes of old age and illness. In the following centuries there were numerous attempts to push back the forces, such as the or Thirteen Years' War (29 July 1593 – 1604/11 November 1606) led by a coalition of Christian forces. In 1644 the Winter Campaign by burnt the crucial Suleiman Bridge of in eastern , interrupting a Turkish supply line in Hungary. At the , Austrians and Hungarians defeated the Turkish army. After the Ottoman siege of Vienna failed in 1683, the Habsburgs went on the offensive against the Turks. By the end of the 17th century, they managed to invade the remainder of the historical Kingdom of Hungary and the principality of Transylvania. For a while in 1686, the capital Buda was again free from the Ottoman Empire, with the aid of other Europeans.


The Kuruc age

Rákóczi's War for Independence (1703–1711) was the first significant freedom fight in Hungary against absolutist Habsburg rule. It was fought by a group of noblemen, wealthy and high-ranking progressives who wanted to put an end to the inequality of power relations, led by Francis II Rákóczi (II. Rákóczi Ferenc in Hungarian). Its main aims were to protect the rights of the different social orders, and to ensure the economic and social development of the country. Due to the adverse balance of forces, the political situation in Europe and internal conflicts the freedom fight was eventually suppressed, but it succeeded in keeping Hungary from becoming an integral part of the Habsburg Empire, and its constitution was kept, even though it was only a formality. After the departure of the Ottomans, the Habsburgs dominated the Hungarian Kingdom. The Hungarians' renewed desire for freedom led to Rákóczi's War for Independence. The most important reasons of the war were the new and higher taxes and a renewed Protestant movement. Rákóczi was a Hungarian nobleman, son of the legendary heroine '. He spent a part of his youth in Austrian captivity. The ''Kurucs'' were troops of Rákóczi. Initially, the army attained several important victories due to their superior light cavalry. Their weapons were mostly pistols, light sabre and '. At the , decisively defeated the Austrian army. The Hungarian colonel nearly captured , the King of Hungary and Archduke of Austria. In 1708, the Habsburgs finally defeated the main Hungarian army at , and this diminished the further effectiveness of the Kuruc army. While the Hungarians were exhausted by the fights, the Austrians defeated the French army in the . They could send more troops to Hungary against the rebels. Transylvania became part of Hungary again starting at the end of the 17th century, and was led by governors.


Age of Enlightenment

In 1711, Austrian Emperor became the next ruler of Hungary. Throughout the 18th century, the Kingdom of Hungary had its own diet (parliament) and constitution, but the members of the Governor's Council (''Helytartótanács'', the office of the ) were appointed by the Habsburg monarch, and the superior economic institution, the , was directly subordinated to the in . The Hungarian language reform started under the reign of . The reform age of Hungary was started by a Hungarian noble, who built one of the greatest bridges of Hungary, the . The remained Latin until 1836, when Hungarian was introduced. Between 1844 and 1849, and from 1867 onward, Hungarian became the exclusively used official language.


Hungarian Revolution of 1848

The European revolutions of 1848 swept into Hungary, as well. The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 sought to redress the long suppressed desire for political change, namely independence. The Hungarian National Guard was created by young Hungarian patriots in 1848. In literature, this was best expressed by the greatest poet of the revolution, . As war broke out with Austria, Hungarian military successes, which included the campaigns of the Hungarian general, , forced the Austrians on the defensive. One of the most famous battles of the revolution, the , was fought on 29 September 1848, when the Hungarian revolutionary army led by Lieutenant-General János Móga defeated the troops of the Croatian Ban . Fearing defeat, the Austrians pleaded for Russian help. The combined forces of the two empires quelled the revolution. The desired political changes of 1848 were again suppressed until the . Population 1910 (without Croatia-Slavonia)


Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)

Following the , the Habsburg Monarchy became the "dual monarchy" of . The Austro-Hungarian economy changed dramatically during the existence of the Dual Monarchy. Technological change accelerated industrialization and urbanization. The capitalist way of production spread throughout the Empire during its fifty-year existence and obsolete medieval institutions continued to disappear. By the early 20th century, most of the Empire began to experience rapid economic growth. The grew roughly 1.45% per year from 1870 to 1913. That level of growth compared very favorably to that of other European nations such as Britain (1.00%), France (1.06%), and Germany (1.51%). The lands of the Hungarian Crown (comprising the Kingdom of Hungary proper, into which Transylvania was fully incorporated, and the , which maintained a distinct identity and internal autonomy) were granted equal status with the Austrian Empire. Each of the two states comprising Austria-Hungary exercised considerable independence, with certain institutions, notably the reigning house, defence, foreign affairs, and finances for common expenditures, remaining under joint management. This arrangement lasted until 1918, when the went down in defeat in .


Transitions (1918 to 1920)


Two short-lived republics

The Hungarian Soviet Republic or Hungarian Republic of Councils ( hu, Magyarországi Tanácsköztársaság or ''Magyarországi Szocialista Szövetséges Tanácsköztársaság'') was a short-lived independent established in . It lasted only from 21 March until 1 August 1919. The state was led by and was not recognized by France, the UK or the US. It was the second socialist state in the world to be formed after the in brought the s to power. The Hungarian Republic of Councils had with the (see ), the and the evolving . It collapsed on 1 August 1919 when Hungarians sent representatives to negotiate their surrender to the forces and Béla Kun, together with other high-ranking Communists, fled to Austria. A 1919 attempt to form a federation with the also failed, when the Romanian King ultimately refused to accept the Hungarian Crown.


The restoration of the Kingdom

After the pullout of occupation forces of in 1920 the country went into civil conflict, with Hungarian and purging the nation of communists, leftists and others by whom they felt threatened. On 29 February 1920, after the pullout of the last of the Romanian occupation forces, the Kingdom of Hungary was restored, a coalition of right-wing political forces united and reinstated Hungary's status as a constitutional monarchy. Selection of the new King was delayed due to civil infighting, and a was appointed to represent the monarchy, former Austro-Hungarian navy admiral .


Treaty of Trianon (1920)

The new borders set in 1920 by the ceded 72% of the territory of the Kingdom of Hungary to the neighbouring states. The main beneficiaries were , the newly formed states of , and the , but , and also gained smaller territories. The areas that were allocated to neighbouring countries in total (and each of them separately) possessed a majority of non-Hungarian population, but more than 3.3 million ethnic Hungarians were left outside the new borders of Hungary. Many view this as contrary to the terms laid out by US President 's , which were intended to honour the ethnic makeup of the territories. As President Wilson left the conference to emphasize his disagreement, and because the US Congress did not ratify the treaty, the United States of America and the Kingdom of Hungary signed a separate peace treaty on 29 August 1921.


Between 1920 and 1946


Interwar period

The new international borders separated Hungary's industrial base from its sources of raw materials and its former markets for agricultural and industrial products. Hungary lost 84% of its timber resources, 43% of its arable land, and 83% of its iron ore. Furthermore, post-Trianon Hungary possessed 90% of the engineering and printing industry of the Kingdom, while only 11% of and 16% was retained. In addition, 61% of , 74% of public road, 65% of canals, 62% of s, 64% of hard surface roads, 83% of output, 55% of industrial plants, 100% of gold, silver, copper, mercury and salt mines, and 67% of credit and banking institutions of the prewar Kingdom of Hungary lay within the territory of Hungary's neighbors.''The European powers in the First World War: an encyclopedia'' by Spencer Tucker, Laura Matysek Wood, Justin D. Murphy, Edition: illustrated, Published by Taylor & Francis, 1996 , , p.69

/ref> Because most of the country's pre-war industry was concentrated near Budapest, Hungary retained about 51% of its industrial population and 56% of its industry. Horthy appointed Count as Prime Minister in July 1920. His government issued a law, limiting admission of "political insecure elements" (these were often Jews) to universities and, in order to quiet rural discontent, took initial steps towards fulfilling a promise of major land reform by dividing about 3,850 km2 from the largest estates into smallholdings. Teleki's government resigned, however, after unsuccessfully attempted to retake Hungary's throne in March 1921. The return of King Charles produced split parties between conservatives who favored a Habsburg restoration and nationalist right-wing radicals who supported election of a Hungarian king. Count , a non-affiliated right-wing member of the parliament, took advantage of this rift forming a new Party of Unity under his leadership. Horthy then appointed Bethlen prime minister. Charles IV died soon after he failed a second time to reclaim the throne in October 1921. (For more detail on Charles's attempts to retake the throne, see '.) As prime minister, Bethlen dominated Hungarian politics between 1921 and 1931. He fashioned a political machine by amending the electoral law, providing jobs in the expanding bureaucracy to his supporters, and manipulating elections in rural areas. Bethlen restored order to the country by giving the radical counterrevolutionaries payoffs and government jobs in exchange for ceasing their campaign of terror against Jews and leftists. In 1921, he made a deal with the Social Democrats and trade unions (called Bethlen-Peyer Pact), agreeing, among other things, to legalize their activities and free political prisoners in return for their pledge to refrain from spreading propaganda, calling political strikes, and organizing the peasantry. Bethlen brought Hungary into the in 1922 and out of international isolation by signing a treaty of friendship with in 1927. The revision of the Treaty of Trianon rose to the top of Hungary's political agenda and the strategy employed by Bethlen consisted by strengthening the economy and building relations with stronger nations. Revision of the treaty had such a broad backing in Hungary that Bethlen used it, at least in part, to deflect criticism of his economic, social, and political policies. The induced a drop in the standard of living and the political mood of the country shifted further toward the right. In 1932 Horthy appointed a new prime-minister, , who changed the course of Hungarian policy towards closer cooperation with Germany. Gömbös signed a trade agreement with Germany that drew Hungary's economy out of depression but made Hungary dependent on the German economy for both raw materials and markets. On 2 November 1938, as the result of the parts of Czechoslovakia – and a part of Carpathian Ruthenia – were returned to Hungary, an area amounting to 11,927 km2 and a population of 869,299 (86.5% of which were Hungarians according to the 1941 census). Between 5 November and 10 November, Hungarian armed forces peacefully occupied the newly transferred territories. Hitler later promised to transfer all of Slovakia to Hungary in exchange for a military alliance, but his offer was rejected. Instead, Horthy chose to pursue a territorial revision to be decided along ethnic lines. In March 1939, the Czecho-Slovak Republic was dissolved, , and the was established. On 14 March, declared itself to be an independent state. On 15 March, declared itself to be an independent state. Hungary rejected the independence of Carpatho-Ukraine and, between 14 March and 18 March, Hungarian armed forces occupied the rest of Carpathian Ruthenia and ousted the government of . By contrast, Hungary recognized the Nazi of Slovakia led by the . In September 1940, with troops massing on both sides of the Hungarian-Romanian border, war was averted by the . This award transferred the northern half of to Hungary, with a total area of 43,492 km2 and a total population of 2,578,100 with a 53.5% Hungarian majority according to the 1941 census. By dividing Transylvania between Romania and Hungary, Hitler was able to ease tensions in Hungary. In October 1940, the Germans initiated a reciprocity policy between Romania and Hungary which was continued until the end of World War II. The region of was given special autonomous status with the intention that (eventually) it would be self-governed by the Ruthenian minority.


During World War II 1941–1945

After being granted part of southern Czechoslovakia and Subcarpathia by the Germans and Italians in the of 1938, and then northern Transylvania in the of 1940, Hungary participated in their first military maneuvers on the side of the Axis powers in 1941. Thus, the Hungarian army was part of the , gaining some more territory and joining the in the process. On 22 June 1941, Germany invaded the in . Hungary joined the German effort and declared war on the Soviet Union on 26 June, and entered on the side of the Axis. In late 1941, the Hungarian troops on the Eastern Front experienced success at the . By 1943, after the suffered extremely heavy losses at the river Don, the Hungarian government sought to negotiate a surrender with the Allies. On 19 March 1944, as a result of this duplicity, German troops occupied Hungary in what was known as . By then it was clear that Hungarian politics would be suppressed according to Hitler's intention to hold the country in the war on the side of the Nazi Third Reich because of its strategic location. On 15 October 1944, Horthy made a token effort to disengage Hungary from the war. The Germans launched and Horthy's regime was replaced by a under the pro-German leader , thus effectively ending the possibility for independent actions in the war. However, the form of government was only changed to a republic two years later.


Transitioning into a republic

Following its , the imposed harsh conditions allowing the Russians to seize important material assets and control internal affairs. After the set up police organs to persecute "class enemies", the Soviets assumed that the impoverished Hungarian populace would support the Communists in the coming elections. The Communists fared poorly, receiving only 17% of the vote, resulting in a under Prime Minister . Soviet intervention, however, resulted in a government that disregarded Tildy, placed communists in important ministries, and imposed restrictive and repressive measures, including banning the victorious . In 1945, Soviet forced the freely elected Hungarian government to yield the Interior Ministry to a nominee of the . Communist Interior Minister established the , which suppressed political opposition through intimidation, false accusations, imprisonment and torture.UN General Assembly ''Special Committee on the Problem of Hungary'' (1957)   In 1946 the form of government was changed to a republic. Soon after the monarchy was abolished, the Soviet Union pressed Hungarian leader to take a "line of more pronounced class struggle." What emerged was a communist state lasting until 23 October 1956 when the Soviet Russian occupation was swept away by the , victorious until 10 November 1956. The Soviet occupation was then restored, lasting until 1989 when the Communists agreed to give up their monopoly on power, paving the way for . In today's republic, the Kingdom is regarded as one long stage in the development of the state. This sense of continuity is reflected in the republic's national symbols such as the and the , which are the same as when the monarchy was still in place. Several holidays, the official language (Hungarian), and the capital city have also been retained. The official name of the country is ''Magyarország'' (simply Hungary) since 2012; it was also the common name of the monarchy. The millennium of the Hungarian statehood was commemorated in 2000 and codified by the Millennium Act of 2000.


See also

* * * * *


References


Further reading

* Engel, Pál. ''The Realm of St Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526''. (2001). * Frucht, Richard.
Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism
' (2000) * Hoensch, Jörg K., and Kim Traynor.
History of Modern Hungary
1867–1994'' (1996) * Hanak, Peter et al. ''A History of Hungary'' (1994) * Kontler, Laszlo. ''A History of Hungary'' (2006
excerpt and text search
* Molnár, Miklós, and Anna Magyar. ''A Concise History of Hungary'' (2001
excerpt and text search
* Palffy, Geza. ''The Kingdom of Hungary and the Habsburg Monarchy in the Sixteenth Century'' (East European Monographs, distributed by Columbia University Press, 2010) 406 pages; Covers the period after the battle of Mohacs in 1526 when the Kingdom of Hungary was partitioned in three, with one segment going to the Habsburgs. {{DEFAULTSORT:Kingdom of Hungary Lands of the Kingdom of Hungary (1867–1918)