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The Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(Latin: Regnum Croatiae; Croatian: Kraljevina Hrvatska, Hrvatsko Kraljevstvo) was a medieval kingdom in Central Europe comprising most of what is today Croatia
Croatia
(without western Istria
Istria
and some Dalmatian coastal cities), as well as most of the modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Kingdom existed as a sovereign state for nearly two centuries. Its existence was characterized by various conflicts and periods of peace or alliance with the Bulgarians, Byzantines, Hungarians, and competition with Venice for control over the eastern Adriatic
Adriatic
coast. The goal of promoting the Croatian language
Croatian language
in the religious service was initially brought and introduced by the 10th century bishop Gregory of Nin, which resulted in a conflict with the Pope, later to be put down by him.[2] In the second half of the 11th century Croatia
Croatia
managed to secure most coastal cities of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
with the collapse of Byzantine control over them. During this time the kingdom reached its peak under the rule of kings Peter Krešimir IV
Peter Krešimir IV
(1058-1074) and Demetrius Zvonimir
Demetrius Zvonimir
(1075-1089). The state was ruled mostly by the Trpimirović dynasty
Trpimirović dynasty
until 1091. At that point the realm experienced a succession crisis and after a decade of conflicts for the throne and the aftermath of the Battle of Gvozd Mountain, the crown passed to the Árpád dynasty
Árpád dynasty
with the coronation of King Coloman of Hungary
Coloman of Hungary
as "King of Croatia
Croatia
and Dalmatia" in Biograd
Biograd
in 1102, uniting the two kingdoms under one crown.[3][4][5][6] The precise terms of the relationship between the two realms became a matter of dispute in the 19th century.[7][8][9] The nature of the relationship varied through time, Croatia
Croatia
retained a large degree of internal autonomy overall, while the real power rested in the hands of the local nobility.[7][10][11] Modern Croatian and Hungarian historiographies mostly view the relations between Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
and Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
from 1102 as a form of a personal union of two internally autonomous kingdoms united by a common king.[12]

Contents

1 Name 2 Background

2.1 Arrival of Croats 2.2 Christianization 2.3 Early Croatian states

3 Kingdom

3.1 Establishment 3.2 10th century 3.3 11th century

4 Succession crisis

4.1 Unification

5 Union with Hungary 6 List of kings 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading

Name[edit] The first official name of the country was "Kingdom of the Croats" (Latin: Regnum Croatorum; Croatian: Kraljevstvo Hrvata),[13] but over the course of time the name "Kingdom of Croatia" (Regnum Croatiae;[14] Kraljevina Hrvatska) prevailed in use.[13] From 1060, when Peter Krešimir IV gained control over coastal cities of the Theme of Dalmatia, earlier under the Byzantine Empire, the official and diplomatic name of the kingdom was "Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
and Dalmatia" (Regnum Croatiae et Dalmatiae; Kraljevina Hrvatska i Dalmacija). Such form of the name lasted until the death of King Stephen II in 1091.[15][16] Background[edit] Main articles: Duchy of Croatia
Duchy of Croatia
and Duchy of Pannonia Arrival of Croats[edit]

The Coming of the Croats
Croats
to the Adriatic
Adriatic
by Oton Iveković

The Slavs arrived in the early 7th century in what is Croatia
Croatia
today. No contemporary written records about the migration have been preserved, especially not about the events as a whole and from the area itself. Instead, historians rely on records written several centuries after the facts, and even those records may be based on oral tradition. The Croats
Croats
were a Slavic tribe, coming from an area in and around today's Poland or western Ukraine. Many modern scholars believe that the early Croat
Croat
people, as well as other early Slavic groups, were agricultural populations that were ruled by the nomadic Iranian-speaking Alans. It is unclear whether the Alans
Alans
contributed much more than a ruling caste or a class of warriors; the evidence on their contribution is mainly philological and etymological. The large scale movements of Slavs are associated with the Avars, a nomadic Turkic group that had settled in the Carpathian basin
Carpathian basin
in late 6th century, subjugating surrounding small Slavic tribes.[17] The book De Administrando Imperio
De Administrando Imperio
("On the Governance of the Empire"), written in the 10th century, is the most referenced source on the migration of Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
into southeastern Europe. It states that the Slavs migrated first around or before year 600 from the region that is now (roughly) Galicia and areas of the Pannonian plain, led by the Avars, to the province of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
ruled by the Roman Empire. The second wave of migration, possibly around year 620,[18] began when the Croats
Croats
were invited by the Emperor Heraclius
Heraclius
to counter the Avar threat on the Byzantine Empire. The Emperor promised the Croats protection if they defeated the Avars, who had earlier expelled the population of Dalmatia.[19]

And so, by command of the emperor Heraclius
Heraclius
these same Croats
Croats
defeated and expelled the Avars from those parts, and by mandate of Heraclius the emperor they settled down in that same country of the Avars, where they now dwell. —  Constantine Porphyrogenitus
Constantine Porphyrogenitus
in De Administrando Imperio: 31. Of the Croats
Croats
and of the country they now dwell in[19]

De Administrando Imperio
De Administrando Imperio
also mentions an alternate version of the events, where the Croats
Croats
weren't actually invited by Heraclius, but instead defeated the Avars and settled on their own accord after migrating from an area near today's Silesia. From those Croats
Croats
who came to Dalmatia
Dalmatia
a part split off and settled in Illyricum and Pannonia. Furthermore, De Administrando Imperio
De Administrando Imperio
reports a folk tradition that the Croats, who were at the time dwelling beyond Bavaria, were led into the province of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
by a group of five brothers, Klukas, Lobel, Kosenc, Muhlo and Hrvat, and their two sisters, Tuga and Buga.[20]

After they had fought one another for some years, the Croats
Croats
prevailed and killed some of the Avars and the remainder they compelled to be subject to them. And so from that time this land was possessed by the Croats, and there are still in Croatia
Croatia
some who are of Avar descent and are recognized as Avars. —  Constantine Porphyrogenitus
Constantine Porphyrogenitus
in De Administrando Imperio: 30. Story of the province of Dalmatia[20]

Thomas the Archdeacon, as well as the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja
Duklja
from the 12th century, state that the Croats
Croats
remained after the Goths
Goths
(under a leader referred to as "Totila") had occupied and pillaged the Roman province of Dalmatia. The Chronicle speaks of a Gothic invasion (under a leader referred to as "Svevlad", followed by his descendants "Selimir" and "Ostroilo"). Archdeacon Thomas in his work Historia Salonitana from the 13th century mentions that with Totila, who destroyed the city of Salona
Salona
and ravaged Dalmatia, came seven or eight tribes of nobles which he called "Lingones" from what is today Poland and settled in Croatia.[21] Christianization[edit]

The stone inscription of Duke Branimir, c. 880

The earliest record of contact between the Roman Pope
Pope
and the Croats dates from a mid-7th century entry in the Liber Pontificalis. Pope John IV (John the Dalmatian, 640-642) sent an abbot named Martin to Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and Istria
Istria
in order to pay ransom for some prisoners and for the remains of old Christian martyrs. This abbot is recorded to have travelled through Dalmatia
Dalmatia
with the help of the Croatian leaders, and he established the foundation for the future relations between the Pope
Pope
and the Croats. The Christianization
Christianization
of the Croats
Croats
began after their arrival, probably in the 7th century, influenced by the proximity of the old Roman cities in Dalmatia. The process was completed in the north by the beginning of the 9th century. The beginnings of the Christianization are also disputed in the historical texts: the Byzantine texts talk of duke Porin who started this at the incentive of emperor Heraclius, then of Porga who mainly Christianized his people after the influence of missionaries from Rome, while the national tradition recalls Christianization
Christianization
during the rule of Duke Borna. It is possible that these are all renditions of the same ruler's name. The Croats, apart from Latin, also held masses in their own language and used the Glagolitic alphabet. This was officially sanctioned in 1248 by Pope
Pope
Innocent IV, and only later did the Latin
Latin
alphabet prevail. The Latin
Latin
Rite prevailed over the Byzantine Rite
Byzantine Rite
rather early due to numerous interventions from the Holy See. There were numerous church synods held in Dalmatia
Dalmatia
in the 11th century, particularly after the East-West Schism, during the course of which the use of the Latin
Latin
rite was continuously reinforced until it became dominant. Early Croatian states[edit]

The Adriatic
Adriatic
Sklaviniae
Sklaviniae
c. 800 AD, according to Nada Klaić

The Croatian Dukedom c. 850. Savia was probably under direct Frankish rule

Croatia
Croatia
shown on an old German map from 1886 (status after arrival of the Hungarians
Hungarians
at the end of the 9th century)

Croatian lands in the Dark Ages were located between three major entities: the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
which aimed to control the Dalmatian city-states and islands, the Franks
Franks
which aimed to control the northern and northwestern lands, and the Avars, later Magyars, and other fledgling states in the northeast. The fourth relevant group, but not so powerful with regard to the Croatian state, were the nearby Slavs in the southeast, the Serbs
Serbs
and the Bulgarians. The north became subject to the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
around 800, when in 796 Croatian Pannonian prince Vojnomir
Vojnomir
switched sides between the Avars and the Franks. The Franks
Franks
established control over the region between Sava, Drava
Drava
and Danube
Danube
which was under the Margrave of Friuli. The Patriarchy of Aquileia
Patriarchy of Aquileia
was then allowed to Christianize the remaining Slavs in the region. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
invaded the Dalmatian portion of Croatia
Croatia
in 799, contesting its Byzantine suzerainty. Although the Franks
Franks
lost the siege of Trsat, from 803, Frankish overlordship was recognized in most of northern Dalmatia.[22] Charlemagne's invasion of the Dalmatian cities provoked a war with the Eastern Roman Empire — after a peace deal was signed, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
restored the city-states and islands while Charlemagne
Charlemagne
kept Istria
Istria
and inland Dalmatia. After the death of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in 814, the Frankish influence decreased, and Ljudevit Posavski raised a rebellion in Pannonia
Pannonia
in 819.[22][23] At the time the Duchy of Croatia
Duchy of Croatia
was ruled by Borna, who was on the side of the Franks
Franks
in the war. This led to an open conflict between Borna and Ljudevit in which Borna was defeated in the battle of Kupa in 819.[22] The Frankish Margraves
Margraves
sent armies in 820, 821 and 822, but each time they failed to crush the rebels until finally Ljudevit's forces withdrew to Bosnia. Most of the Duchy of Pannonian Croatia
Croatia
would remain in Frankish suzerainty until the end of the 9th century. What is today eastern Slavonia
Slavonia
and Syrmia
Syrmia
fell to the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
in 827 after a border dispute with the Franks. By a peace treaty in 845, the Franks
Franks
were confirmed as rulers over Slavonia, whilst Syrmia
Syrmia
remained under Bulgarian clientage. In the meantime, the Dalmatian Croats
Croats
were recorded to have been subject to the Kingdom of Italy under Lothair I, since 828. Duke Mislav of Croatia
Croatia
(c. 835–845) built up a formidable navy, and in 839 signed a peace treaty with Pietro Tradonico, doge of Venice. The Venetians soon proceeded to battle with the Narentine
Narentine
pirates, but failed to defeat them.[24] Duke Trpimir I
Trpimir I
succeeded Mislav in around 845 and in 846 successfully attacked the Byzantine coastal cities in Dalmatia.[25] In 855 Boris I of Bulgaria
Boris I of Bulgaria
attacked Dalmatian Croatia trying to expand his state to the Adriatic, but was defeated probably in Eastern Bosnia and signed a peace treaty with Trpimir.[26] Trpimir I
Trpimir I
managed to consolidate power over Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and much of the inland regions towards Pannonia, while instituting counties as a way of controlling his subordinates (an idea he picked up from the Franks). The first known written mention of the Croats
Croats
is from a Latin charter issued by Trpimir dated 4 March 852.[27][28] Trpimir is remembered as the initiator of the Trpimirović dynasty
Trpimirović dynasty
that ruled in Croatia, with interruptions, from 845 until 1091. In the meantime, the Saracens, a group of Arab
Arab
pirates, invaded Taranto and Bari
Bari
in the 840s. The extent of their piracy forced the Byzantium
Byzantium
to increase its military presence in the southern Adriatic. In 867 a Byzantine fleet lifted the Saracen
Saracen
siege over Ragusa (modern Dubrovnik) and also defeated the Narentine
Narentine
pirates.[29] Facing a number of naval threats, Duke Domagoj (864–876) built up the Croatian navy again and helped the Franks
Franks
conquer Bari
Bari
from the Arabs
Arabs
in 871.[29][30] During his reign piracy was a common practice in the Adriatic.[31] The Croatian vessels also fought wars against the Venetians and the Franks. Domagoj led a successful revolt against the Frankish Empire, ending their overlordship over Croatia.[32] Domagoj's forces attacked the western Istrian towns in 876,[33] but were subsequently defeated by the Venetian navy.[32] His ground forces defeated the Pannonian duke Kocelj
Kocelj
(861–874) who was suzerain to the Franks, and thereby shed the Frankish vassal status.[citation needed] Domagoj was succeeded by his son, of unknown name, who ruled Croatia between 876 and 878. The next Duke, Zdeslav (878–879), overthrew Domagoj's son,[34] but reigned briefly, only to see the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
conquer large portions of Dalmatia. He was then overthrown by Duke Branimir (879–892), who was supported by the Western Church. Branimir was the first Croatian ruler under which Croatia
Croatia
received recognition as a sovereign state, recognised by Pope
Pope
John VIII in 879.[32] On a preserved inscription from 888 Branimir was named "Duke of Croats" (Latin: Dux Cruatorvm). Branimir proceeded to repel the Byzantine incursion and strengthen his state under the ægis of Rome. After Branimir's death, Duke Muncimir (892–910), Zdeslav's brother, took control of Croatia
Croatia
and ruled it independently of both Rome and Byzantium
Byzantium
as divino munere Croatorum dux (with God's help, duke of the Croats). The last Duke of the Pannonian Croats
Croats
under the Franks
Franks
was Braslav (died in 897?), mentioned in 896, who died in a war with the Magyars, who then migrated to the Pannonian plain. In Dalmatia, Duke Tomislav (910–928) succeeded Muncimir. Tomislav vaged battles with the Magyars
Magyars
and expanded his country to the north. In about 923 the Byzantines, who were at the time in a war with the Bulgarians, concluded an alliance with Croatia. Kingdom[edit] Establishment[edit]

Crowning of King Tomislav by Oton Iveković
Oton Iveković
(1869-1939)

Croatia
Croatia
was elevated to the status of Kingdom somewhere around 925. Tomislav was the first Croatian ruler whom the Papal chancellery honoured with the title "king".[35] It is generally said that Tomislav was crowned in 925, however, this is not certain. He is thought to have been crowned in Tomislav Grad, which is in modern-day southwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is not known when, or by whom he was crowned, or was he crowned at all.[1] Tomislav is mentioned as a king in two preserved documents published in the Historia Salonitana. First in a note preceding the text of the conclusions of the Council of Split in 925, where it is written that Tomislav is the "king" ruling "in the province of the Croats
Croats
and in the Dalmatian regions" (in prouintia Croatorum et Dalmatiarum finibus Tamisclao rege),[36][37][38] while in the 12th canon of the Council conclusions the ruler of the Croats
Croats
is called "king" (rex et proceres Chroatorum).[38] In a letter sent by the Pope John X
Pope John X
Tomislav is named "King of the Croats" (Tamisclao, regi Crouatorum).[36][39] The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja titled Tomislav as a king and specified his rule at 13 years.[36] Although there are no inscriptions of Tomislav to confirm the title, later inscriptions and charters confirm that his 10th century successors called themselves "kings".[37] Under his rule, Croatia
Croatia
became one of the most powerful kingdoms in the Balkans.[40][41]

Map of Europe c. 1000 AD

The wattle (pleter) with the inscription of Stephen Držislav, 10th century

A font, with an engraving of a Croatian ruler, originates from the 11th century.

Baška tablet, 1100 AD

Tomislav, a descendant of Trpimir I, is considered one of the most prominent members of the Trpimirović dynasty. Sometime between 923 and 928, Tomislav succeeded in uniting the Croats
Croats
of Pannonia
Pannonia
and Dalmatia, each of which had been ruled separately by dukes. Although the exact geographical extent of Tomislav's kingdom is not fully known, Croatia
Croatia
probably covered most of Dalmatia, Pannonia, and northern and western Bosnia.[42] Croatia
Croatia
at the time was administered as a group of eleven counties (županije) and one banate (Banovina). Each of these regions had a fortified royal town. Croatia
Croatia
soon came into conflict with the Bulgarian Empire under Simeon I (called Simeon the Great in Bulgaria), who was already in a war with the Byzantines. Tomislav made a pact with the Byzantine Empire, for which he may have been rewarded by the Byzantine Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos with some form of control over the coastal cities of the Byzantine Theme of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and with a share of the tribute collected from its coastal cities.[37] After Simeon conquered the Principality of Serbia
Serbia
in 924, Croatia
Croatia
received and protected the expelled Serbs with their leader Zaharija.[43] In 926, Simeon tried to break the Croatian-Byzantine pact and afterwards conquer the weakly defended Byzantine Theme of Dalmatia,[44] sending Duke Alogobotur with a formidable army against Tomislav, but Simeon's army was defeated in the Battle of the Bosnian Highlands. After Simeon's death in 927 peace was restored between Croatia
Croatia
and Bulgaria with the mediation of the legates of Pope
Pope
John X.[45] According to the contemporary De Administrando Imperio, Croatian army and navy at the time could have consisted of approximately 100,000 infantry units, 60,000 cavaliers, and 80 larger (sagina) and 100 smaller warships (called condura),[46] but these numbers are generally taken as a considerable exaggeration.[42] 10th century[edit] Croatian society underwent major changes in the 10th century. Local leaders, the župani, were replaced by the retainers of the king, who took land from the previous landowners, essentially creating a feudal system. The previously free peasants became serfs and ceased being soldiers, causing the military power of Croatia
Croatia
to fade. Tomislav was succeeded by Trpimir II (c. 928–935) and Krešimir I (c. 935–945), who each managed to maintain their power and keep good relations with both the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and the Pope. This period, on the whole, however, is obscure. The rule of Krešimir's son Miroslav was marked by a gradual weakening of Croatia.[47] Various peripheral territories took advantage of unsettled conditions to secede.[48] Miroslav ruled for 4 years when he was killed by his ban, Pribina, during an internal power struggle. Pribina secured the throne to Michael Krešimir II (949–969), who restored order throughout most of the state. He kept particularly good relations with the Dalmatian coastal cities, he and his wife Helen donating land and churches to Zadar
Zadar
and Solin. Michael Krešimir's wife Helen built the Church of Saint Mary in Solin
Solin
that served as the tomb of Croatian rulers. Helen died on 8 October 976 and was buried in that church, where a royal inscription on her sarcophagus was found that called her "Mother of the Kingdom".[49][50] Michael Krešimir II was succeeded by his son Stephen Držislav (969–997), who established better relations with the Byzantine Empire and their Theme of Dalmatia. According to Historia Salonitana, Držislav received royal insignia from the Byzantines, together with the title of eparch and patricius. Also, according to this work, from the time of Džislav's reign his successors called themselves "kings of Croatia
Croatia
and Dalmatia". Stone panels from the altar of a 10th-century church in Knin
Knin
with the inscription of Držislav, possibly when he was the heir to the throne, show that there was a precisely defined hierarchy regulating the matters of succession to the throne.[50] 11th century[edit] As soon as Stjepan Držislav had died in 997, his three sons, Svetoslav (997–1000), Krešimir III (1000–1030), and Gojslav (1000–1020), opened a violent contest for the throne, weakening the state and allowing the Venetians under Pietro II Orseolo and the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
under Samuil to encroach on the Croatian possessions along the Adriatic. In 1000, Orseolo led the Venetian fleet into the eastern Adriatic
Adriatic
and gradually took control of the whole of it,[51] first the islands of the Gulf of Kvarner
Gulf of Kvarner
and Zadar, then Trogir
Trogir
and Split, followed by a successful naval battle with the Narentines
Narentines
upon which he took control of Korčula
Korčula
and Lastovo, and claimed the title dux Dalmatiæ. Krešimir III tried to restore the Dalmatian cities and had some success until 1018, when he was defeated by Venice allied with the Lombards. The same year his kingdom briefly became a vassal of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
until 1025 and the death of Basil II.[52] His son, Stjepan I (1030–1058), only went so far as to get the Narentine
Narentine
duke to become his vassal in 1050.

Croatia
Croatia
on a map of southeastern Europe in 1045

During the reign of Krešimir IV (1058–1074), the medieval Croatian kingdom reached its territorial peak. Krešimir managed to get the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
to confirm him as the supreme ruler of the Dalmatian cities, i.e. over the Theme of Dalmatia, excluding the theme of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
and the Duchy of Durazzo.[53] He also allowed the Roman curia to become more involved in the religious affairs of Croatia, which consolidated his power but disrupted his rule over the Glagolitic clergy in parts of Istria
Istria
after 1060. Croatia
Croatia
under Krešimir IV was composed of twelve counties and was slightly larger than in Tomislav's time. It included the closest southern Dalmatian duchy of Pagania, and its influence extended over Zahumlje, Travunia, and Duklja. The župans (head of counties) had their own private armies. The names of court titles in their vernacular form appear for the first time during his reign, such as vratar ("door-keeper") Jurina, postelnik ("chamberlain") and so on.[54] However, in 1072, Krešimir assisted the Bulgarian and Serb uprising against their Byzantine masters. The Byzantines retaliated in 1074 by sending the Norman count Amico of Giovinazzo to besiege Rab. They failed to capture the island, but did manage to capture the king himself, and the Croatians were then forced to settle and give away Split, Trogir, Zadar, Biograd, and Nin to the Normans. In 1075, Venice expelled the Normans and secured the cities for itself. The end of Krešimir IV in 1074 also marked de facto end of the Trpimirović dynasty, which had ruled the Croatian lands for over two centuries. According to the Supetar Cartulary, a new king was elected by seven bans (if the previous one died without a successor e.g. Krešimir IV): ban of Croatia, ban of Bosnia, ban of Slavonia
Slavonia
etc.[55] The bans were elected by the first six Croatian tribes, while the other six were responsible for choosing župans. Krešimir was succeeded by Demetrius Zvonimir
Demetrius Zvonimir
(1075–1089) of the Svetoslavić branch of the House of Trpimirović. He was previously a ban in Slavonia
Slavonia
in the service of Peter Krešimir IV
Peter Krešimir IV
and later the Duke of Croatia. He gained the title of king with the support of Pope Gregory VII and was crowned as King of Croatia
Croatia
in Solin
Solin
on 8 October 1076. Zvonimir aided the Normans under Robert Guiscard
Robert Guiscard
in their struggle against the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and Venice between 1081 and 1085. Zvonimir helped to transport their troops through the Strait of Otranto and to occupy the city of Dyrrhachion. His troops assisted the Normans in many battles along the Albanian and Greek coast. Due to this, in 1085, the Byzantines transferred their rights in Dalmatia
Dalmatia
to Venice. Zvonimir's kinghood is carved in stone on the Baška Tablet, preserved to this day as one of the oldest written Croatian texts, kept in the archæological museum in Zagreb. Zvonimir's reign is remembered as a peaceful and prosperous time, during which the connection of Croats with the Holy See
Holy See
was further affirmed, so much so that Catholicism would remain among Croats
Croats
until the present day. In this time the noble titles in Croatia
Croatia
were made analogous to those used in other parts of Europe at the time, with comes and baron used for the župani and the royal court nobles, and vlastelin for the noblemen. The Croatian state was edging closer to western Europe and further from the east.

Croatia
Croatia
on a map of the southeastern Europe around 1090

Demetrius Zvonimir
Demetrius Zvonimir
married Helen of Hungary in 1063. Queen Helen was a Hungarian princess, the daughter of King Béla I
Béla I
of the Hungarian Árpád dynasty, and was the sister of the future Hungarian King Ladislaus I. Zvonimir and Helen had a son, Radovan, who died in his late teens or early twenties. King Demetrius Zvonimir
Demetrius Zvonimir
died in 1089. The exact circumstances of his death are unknown. According to a later, likely unsubstantiated legend, King Zvonimir was killed during a revolt in 1089.[56] There was no permanent state capital, as the royal residence varied from one ruler to another; five cities in total reportedly obtained the title of a royal seat: Nin (Krešimir IV), Biograd
Biograd
(Stephen Držislav, Krešimir IV), Knin
Knin
(Zvonimir, Petar Svačić), Šibenik (Krešimir IV), and Solin
Solin
(Krešimir II).[57] Succession crisis[edit] With no direct heir to succeed him, Stephen II (reigned 1089–1091) of the main Trpimirović line came to the throne at an old age. Stephen II was to be the last King of the House of Trpimirović. His rule was relatively ineffectual and lasted less than two years. He spent most of this time in the tranquility of the monastery of Sv. Stjepan pod Borovima (St. Stephen beneath the Pines) near Split. He died at the beginning of 1091, without leaving an heir. Since there was no living male member of the House of Trpimirović, civil war and unrest broke out shortly afterward.[58]

Death of King Peter on Gvozd Mountain in the year 1097 by Oton Iveković

The widow of late King Zvonimir, Helen, tried to keep her power in Croatia
Croatia
during the succession crisis.[59] Some Croatian nobles around Helen, possibly the Gusići[60] and/or Viniha from Lapčani family,[59] contesting the succession after the death of Zvonimir, asked King Ladislaus I to help Helen and offered him the Croatian throne, which was seen as rightfully his by inheritance rights. According to some sources, several Dalmatian cities also asked King Ladislaus for assistance, presenting themselves as White Croats
Croats
on his court.[60] Thus the campaign launched by Ladislaus was not purely a foreign aggression[61] nor did he appear on the Croatian throne as a conqueror, but rather as a successor by hereditary rights.[62] In 1091 Ladislaus crossed the Drava
Drava
river and conquered the entire province of Slavonia
Slavonia
without encountering opposition, but his campaign was halted near the Iron Mountains (Mount Gvozd).[63] Since the Croatian nobles were divided, Ladislaus had success in his campaign, yet he wasn't able to establish his control over entire Croatia, although the exact extent of his conquest is not known.[60][61] At this time the Kingdom of Hungary was attacked by the Cumans, who were likely sent by the Byzantium, so Ladislaus was forced to retreat from his campaign in Croatia.[60] Ladislaus appointed his nephew Prince Álmos
Prince Álmos
to administer the controlled area of Croatia, established the Diocese of Zagreb
Zagreb
as a symbol of his new authority and went back to Hungary. In the midst of the war, Petar Svačić
Petar Svačić
was elected king by Croatian feudal lords in 1093. Petar's seat of power was based in Knin. His rule was marked by a struggle for control of the country with Álmos, who wasn't able to establish his rule and was forced to withdraw to Hungary in 1095.[64]

Croatian Kingdom c. 1097-1102, during succession crisis

Ladislaus died in 1095, leaving his nephew Coloman to continue the campaign. Coloman, as well as Ladislaus before him, wasn't seen as a conqueror but rather as a pretender to the Croatian throne.[65] Coloman assembled a large army to press his claim on the throne and in 1097 defeated King Petar's troops in the Battle of Gvozd Mountain, who was killed in battle. Since the Croatians didn't have a leader any more and Dalmatia
Dalmatia
had numerous fortified towns that would be difficult to defeat, negotiations started between Coloman and the Croatian feudal lords. It took several more years before the Croatian nobility recognised Coloman as the king. Coloman was crowned in Biograd
Biograd
in 1102 and the title now claimed by Coloman was "King of Hungary, Dalmatia, and Croatia". Some of the terms of his coronation are summarized in Pacta Conventa by which the Croatian nobles agreed to recognise Coloman as king. In return, the 12 Croatian nobles that signed the agreement retained their lands and properties and were granted exemption from tax or tributes. The nobles were to send at least ten armed horsemen each beyond the Drava
Drava
River at the kings expense if his borders were attacked.[66][67] Despite that Pacta Conventa is not an authentic document from 1102, there was almost certainly some kind of contract or agreement between the Croatian nobles and Coloman which regulated the relations in the same way.[61][68][69] Unification[edit] See also: Pacta conventa (Croatia)

A 14th-century transcript of the Pacta conventa, preserved in the Hungarian National Museum. Most historians consider it a forgery, but that the contents of it corresponds to the reality of rule in Croatia.[61][70]

In 1102, after a succession crisis, the crown passed into the hands of the Árpád dynasty, with the crowning of King Coloman of Hungary
Coloman of Hungary
as "King of Croatia
Croatia
and Dalmatia" in Biograd. The precise terms of the union between the two realms became a matter of dispute in the 19th century.[9] The two kingdoms were united under the Árpád dynasty either by the choice of the Croatian nobility
Croatian nobility
or by Hungarian force.[71] Croatian historians hold that the union was a personal one in the form of a shared king, a view also accepted by a number of Hungarian historians,[6][12][61][65][72][73] while Serbian and Hungarian nationalist historians preferred to see it as a form of annexation.[8][9][74] The claim of a Hungarian occupation was made in the 19th century during the Hungarian national reawakening.[74] Thus in older Hungarian historiography Coloman's coronation in Biograd
Biograd
was a subject of dispute and their stance was that Croatia
Croatia
was conquered. Although these kind of claims can also be found today, since the Croatian-Hungarian tensions are gone, it has generally been accepted that Coloman was crowned in Biograd
Biograd
for king.[75] Today, Hungarian legal historians hold that the relationship of Hungary with the area of Croatia
Croatia
and Dalmatia
Dalmatia
in the period till 1526 and the death of Louis II was most similar to a personal union,[12][76] resembling the relationship of Scotland to England.[77][78] According to the Worldmark Encyclopedia of Nations and the Grand Larousse encyclopédique, Croatia
Croatia
entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102, which remained the basis of the Hungarian-Croatian relationship until 1918,[3][79] while Encyclopædia Britannica specified the union as a dynastic one.[68] According to the research of the Library of Congress, Coloman crushed opposition after the death of Ladislaus I and won the crown of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and Croatia
Croatia
in 1102, thus forging a link between the Croatian and Hungarian crowns that lasted until the end of World War I.[80] Hungarian culture permeated northern Croatia, the Croatian-Hungarian border shifted often, and at times Hungary treated Croatia
Croatia
as a vassal state. Croatia
Croatia
had its own local governor, or Ban; a privileged landowning nobility; and an assembly of nobles, the Sabor.[80] According to some historians, Croatia
Croatia
became part of Hungary in the late 11th and early 12th century,[81] yet the actual nature of the relationship is difficult to define.[74] Sometimes Croatia
Croatia
acted as an independent agent and at other times as a vassal of Hungary.[74] However, Croatia
Croatia
retained a large degree of internal independence.[74] The degree of Croatian autonomy fluctuated throughout the centuries as did its borders.[10] The alleged agreement called Pacta conventa (English: Agreed accords) or Qualiter (first word of the text) is today viewed as a 14th-century forgery by most modern Croatian historians. According to the document King Coloman and the twelve heads of the Croatian nobles made an agreement, in which Coloman recognised their autonomy and specific privileges. Although it is not an authentic document from 1102, nonetheless there was at least a non-written agreement that regulated the relations between Hungary and Croatia
Croatia
in approximately the same way,[61][68] while the content of the alleged agreement is concordant with the reality of rule in Croatia
Croatia
in more than one respect.[70] The official entering of Croatia
Croatia
into a personal union with Hungary, later becoming part of the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen,[82] had several important consequences. Institutions of separate Croatian statehood were maintained with the Sabor
Sabor
(parliament) and the ban (viceroy)[68] in the name of the king. A single ban governed all Croatian provinces until 1225, when the authority was split between one ban of the whole of Slavonia
Slavonia
and one ban of Croatia
Croatia
and Dalmatia. The positions were intermittently held by the same person after 1345, and officially merged back into one by 1476. Union with Hungary[edit] Main article: Croatia
Croatia
in the union with Hungary In the union with Hungary, the crown was held by the Arpad dynasty, and after its extinction, under Anjou
Anjou
dynasty. Institutions of separate Croatian statehood were maintained through the Parliament (Croatian: Sabor
Sabor
- an assembly of Croatian nobles) and the ban (viceroy) responsible to the King of Hungary and Croatia. In addition, the Croatian nobles retained their lands and titles.[68] Coloman retained the institution of the Sabor
Sabor
and relieved the Croatians of taxes on their land. Coloman's successors continued to crown themselves as Kings of Croatia
Croatia
separately in Biograd
Biograd
na Moru until the time of Béla IV.[83] In the 14th century a new term arose to describe the collection of de jure independent states under the rule of the Hungarian King: Archiregnum Hungaricum (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen).[84] Croatia
Croatia
remained a distinct crown attached to that of Hungary until the abolition of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
in 1918. List of kings[edit] For a list of kings between 925 and 1102, see List of rulers of Croatia. See also[edit]

Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(Habsburg) Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia History of Croatia Pacta conventa (Croatia) Crown of Zvonimir Bans of Croatia Timeline of Croatian history

References[edit]

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Central Europe
in the Middle Ages. University of Washington Press. p. 280. ISBN 029580064X. Retrieved 16 January 2014.  ^ a b Singleton, Frederick Bernard (1985). A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples. Cambridge University Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-521-27485-2.  ^ John Van Antwerp Fine: The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, 1991, p. 288 ^ a b c Barna Mezey: Magyar alkotmánytörténet, Budapest, 1995, p. 66 ^ a b Ferdo Šišić: Povijest Hrvata u vrijeme narodnih vladara, p. 651 ^ Monumenta spectantia historiam Slavorum meridionalium, Edidit Academia Scienciarum et Artium Slavorum Meridionalium vol VIII, Zagreb, 1877, p. 199 ^ Lujo Margetić: Hrvatska i Crkva u srednjem vijeku, Pravnopovijesne i povijesne studije, Rijeka, 2000, p. 88-92 ^ Lujo Margetić: Regnum Croatiae et Dalmatiae u doba Stjepana II., p. 19 ^ John Van Antwerp Fine: The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, 1991, p. 30-31 ^ Croatia
Croatia
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Croats
and of the country they now dwell in. "These same Croats
Croats
arrived to claim the protection of the emperor of the Romans Heraclius
Heraclius
before the Serbs
Serbs
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Annales regni Francorum
DCCCXVIIII (year 819) ^ Iohannes Diaconus, Istoria Veneticorum, p. 124 (in Latin) ^ Nada Klaić, Povijest Hrvata u ranom srednjem vijeku, Zagreb
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Croats
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Croats
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Dalmatia
and of the adjacent nations in it. ^ Maddalena Betti: The Making of Christian Moravia (858-882), 2013, p. 128-130 ^ a b c John Van Antwerp Fine: The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, 1991, p. 261 ^ Nada Klaić: Povijest Hrvata u ranom srednjem vijeku, II Izdanje, Zagreb
Zagreb
1975., p. 247 ^ Iohannes Diaconus, Istoria Veneticorum, p. 140 (in Latin) ^ Neven Budak - Prva stoljeća Hrvatske, Zagreb, 1994., p. 22 ^ a b c Ivo Goldstein: Hrvatski rani srednji vijek, Zagreb, 1995, p. 274-275 ^ a b c Florin Curta: Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250, Cambridge University Press. 2006, p. 196 ^ a b Codex Diplomaticus Regni Croatiæ, Dalamatiæ et Slavoniæ, Vol I, p. 32 ^ Codex Diplomaticus Regni Croatiæ, Dalamatiæ et Slavoniæ, Vol I, p. 34 ^ Opća enciklopedija JLZ. Yugoslavian Lexicographical Institute. Zagreb. 1982.  ^ (in Croatian) Zoran Lukić - Hrvatska Povijest ^ a b John Van Antwerp Fine: The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, 1991, p. 262 ^ De Administrando Imperio: XXXII. Of the Serbs
Serbs
and of the country they now dwell in ^ Ivo Goldstein: Hrvatski rani srednji vijek, Zagreb, 1995, p. 289-291 ^ Clifford J. Rogers: The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, p. 162 ^ De Administrando Imperio: 31. Of the Croats
Croats
and of the country they now dwell in. "Baptized Croatia
Croatia
musters as many as 60 thousand horse and 100 thousand foot, and galleys up to 80 and cutters up to 100." ^ Ivo Goldstein: Hrvatski rani srednji vijek, Zagreb, 1995, p. 302 ^ John Van Antwerp Fine: The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, 1991, p. 265 ^ Ivo Goldstein: Hrvatski rani srednji vijek, Zagreb, 1995, p. 314-315 ^ a b Neven Budak – Prva stoljeća Hrvatske, Zagreb, 1994., p. 24-25 ^ festa della sensa - Veniceworld.com ^ Donald MacGillivray Nicol (1992). Byzantium
Byzantium
and Venice: A Study in Diplomatic and Cultural Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 43, 55 ^ John Van Antwerp Fine: The Early Medieval Balkans: A critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, 1991, p. 279 ^ Curta, Florin pp. 261 ^ Povijesni pabirci hercegbosna.org. ^ (in Croatian) Kletva kralja Zvonimira nad hrvatskim narodom ^ Ferdo Šišić, Povijest Hrvata; pregled povijesti hrvatskog naroda 600. - 1918., Zagreb
Zagreb
ISBN 953-214-197-9 ^ Neven Budak - Prva stoljeća Hrvatske, Zagreb, 1994., page 77 ^ a b Neven Budak - Prva stoljeća Hrvatske, Zagreb, 1994., page 80 (in Croatian) ^ a b c d Nada Klaić: Povijest Hrvata u ranom srednjem vijeku, II Izdanje, Zagreb
Zagreb
1975., page 492 (in Croatian) ^ a b c d e f Bárány, Attila (2012). "The Expansion of the Kingdom of Hungary in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
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Croatia
in the Middlea Ages), p. 8-9 ^ Archdeacon Thomas of Split: History of the Bishops of Salona
Salona
and Split (ch. 17.), p. 93. ^ Nada Klaić: Povijest Hrvata u ranom srednjem vijeku, II Izdanje, Zagreb
Zagreb
1975., page 508-509 (in Croatian) ^ a b Ladislav Heka (October 2008). "Hrvatsko-ugarski odnosi od sredinjega vijeka do nagodbe iz 1868. s posebnim osvrtom na pitanja Slavonije" [Croatian-Hungarian relations from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to the Compromise of 1868, with a special survey of the Slavonian issue]. Scrinia Slavonica (in Croatian). Hrvatski institut za povijest – Podružnica za povijest Slavonije, Srijema i Baranje. 8 (1): 152–173. ISSN 1332-4853.  ^ Trpimir Macan: Povijest hrvatskog naroda, 1971, p. 71 (full text of Pacta conventa in Croatian) ^ Ferdo Šišić: Priručnik izvora hrvatske historije, Dio 1, čest 1, do god. 1107., Zagreb
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1914., p. 527-528 (full text of Pacta conventa in Latin) ^ a b c d e " Croatia
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(History)". Encarta. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009.  ^ Márta Font - Ugarsko Kraljevstvo i Hrvatska u srednjem vijeku [Hungarian Kingdom and Croatia
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in the Middlea Ages] "Medieval Hungary and Croatia
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were, in terms of public international law, allied by means of personal union created in the late 11th century." ^ Lukács István - A horvát irodalom története, Budapest, Nemzeti Tankönyvkiadó, 1996.[The history of Croatian literature](in Hungarian) ^ a b c d e Bellamy, Alex J. (2003). The Formation of Croatian National Identity. Manchester University Press. pp. 37–38.  ^ Klaić, Nada (1975). Povijest Hrvata u ranom srednjem vijeku [History of the Croats
Croats
in the Early Middle Ages]. p. 513.  ^ Heka, László (October 2008). "Hrvatsko-ugarski odnosi od sredinjega vijeka do nagodbe iz 1868. s posebnim osvrtom na pitanja Slavonije" [Croatian-Hungarian relations from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to the Compromise of 1868, with a special survey of the Slavonian issue]. Scrinia Slavonica (in Croatian). 8 (1): 155.  ^ Jeszenszky, Géza. "Hungary and the Break-up of Yugoslavia: A Documentary History, Part I". Hungarian Review. II (2).  ^ Banai Miklós, Lukács Béla: Attempts for closing up by long range regulators in the Carpathian Basin ^ Worldmark Encyclopedia of Nations 2007 - Croatia ^ a b Curtis, Glenn E. (1992). "A Country Study: Yugoslavia (Former) - The Croats
Croats
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Further reading[edit]

Neven Budak - Prva stoljeća Hrvatske, Zagreb, 1994. (in Croatian) Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-89452-4.  John Van Antwerp Fine Jr.: The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, University of Michigan Press, 1991 Singleton, Frederick Bernard (1985). A short history of the Yugoslav peoples. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-27485-2.  Curtis, Glenn E. (1992). "A Country Study: Yugoslavia (Former) - The Croats
Croats
and Their Territories". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 

v t e

Croatia articles

History

Prehistoric Origins of Croats White Croatia Red Croatia Dalmatian Croatia Pannonian Croatia Pagania Zahumlje Travunija Medieval kingdom Personal union
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in the Habsburg Empire Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia State of Slovenes, Croats
Croats
and Serbs Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Banovina of Croatia

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Croatia
since 1995 European Union

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