King Wu of Zhou (Chinese: 周武王; pinyin: Zhōu Wǔ Wáng) was the first king of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. The chronology of his reign is disputed but is generally thought to have begun around 1046 BC and ended three years later in 1043 BC.
King Wu's ancestral name was Ji (姬) and given name Fa (發). He was the second son of King Wen of Zhou and Queen Tai Si. In most accounts, his older brother Bo Yikao was said to have predeceased his father, typically at the hands of King Zhou, the last king of the Shang dynasty; in the Book of Rites, however, it is assumed that his inheritance represented an older tradition among the Zhou of passing over the eldest son. (Fa's grandfather Jili had likewise inherited Zhou despite two older brothers.)
Upon his succession, Fa worked with his father-in-law Jiang Ziya to accomplish an unfinished task: overthrowing the Shang dynasty. In 1048 BC, Fa marched down the Yellow River to the Mengjin ford and met with more than 800 dukes. He constructed an ancestral tablet naming his father Chang King Wen and placed it on a chariot in the middle of the host; considering the timing unpropitious, though, he did not yet attack Shang. In 1046 BC, King Wu took advantage of Shang disunity to launch an attack along with many neighboring dukes. The Battle of Muye destroyed Shang's forces and King Zhou of Shang set his palace on fire, dying within.
King Wu – the name means "Martial" – followed his victory by establishing many feudal states under his 16 younger brothers and clans allied by marriage, but his death three years later provoked several rebellions against his young heir King Cheng and the regent Duke of Zhou, even from three of his brothers.
A burial mound in Zhouling town, Xianyang, Shaanxi was once thought to be King Wu's tomb. It was fitted with a headstone bearing Wu's name in the Qing dynasty. Modern archeology has since concluded that the tomb is not old enough to be from the Zhou dynasty, and is more likely to be that of a Han dynasty royal. The true location of Wu's tomb remains unknown, but is likely to be in the Xianyang-Xi'an area.
|Ancestral: Jiang (姜)
Clan: Lü (吕)
|unknown||unknown||Shang, Duke Tai of Qi
|1. King Cheng of Zhou
3. Tang Shu Yu
|1||King Cheng of Zhou
|Ancestral: Ji (姬)
Given: Song (诵)
|1060 BC||1020 BC||Yi Jiang||Became the 2nd Son of Heaven (天子) in 1043 BC|
|Ancestral: Ji (姬)||unknown||unknown||unknown||The 1st Monarch of Yu (邘国君主)|
|3||Tang Shu Yu
|Ancestral: Ji (姬)
Given: Yu (虞)
Courtesy: Ziyu (子于)
|unknown||unknown||Yi Jiang||The 1st Marquis of Tang (唐侯)|
|4||Marquis of Ying
|Ancestral: Ji (姬)||unknown||unknown||unknown||The 1st Marquis of Ying|
|5||Marquis of Han
|Ancestral: Ji (姬)||unknown||unknown||unknown||The 1st Monarch of Han (韩国君主)|
Note: Shu father's younger brother
|Ancestral: Ji (姬)||unknown||unknown||unknown||Man, Duke Hu of Chen|
Note: Da eldest
|Ancestors of King Wu of Zhou|
King Wu of ZhouDied: 1043 BC
King Wen of Zhou
|King of Zhou
c. 1050–1043 BC
King Cheng of Zhou