Kimberley, Northern Cape
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Kimberley is the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case is the distinction between the letters Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol ...
and largest city of the
Northern Cape The Northern Cape ( af, Noord-Kaap; xh, eMntla-Koloni; tn, Kapa Bokone) is the largest and most sparsely populated province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1) ...
Province of
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
. It is located approximately 110 km east of the confluence of the
Vaal The Vaal River ( ; Khoemana ǃOrakobab or ''Khoemana'', also known as Korana, ǃOra, or Griqua, is a Moribund language, moribund Khoe languages, Khoe language of South Africa. Names "Khoemana" (from ''khoe'' 'person' + ''mana'' 'language') ...

Vaal
and
Orange River The Orange River (from Afrikaans Alaric speaking Afrikaans. Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. ...
s. The city has considerable historical significance due to its
diamond Diamond is a Allotropes of carbon, solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. At Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, room temperature and pressure, another solid form of ...

diamond
mining past and the
siege A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault. This derives from la, sedere, lit=to sit. Siege warfare is a form of constant, low-intensity conflict characteri ...
during the
Second Anglo-Boer war The Second Boer War ( af, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, lit. "Second Freedom War", 11 October 189931 May 1902), also known as the Boer War, the Anglo–Boer War, or the South African War, was a conflict fought between the British Empire The B ...
. British businessmen
Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British mining magnate A magnate, from the late Latin ''magnas'', a great man, itself from Latin ''magnus'', "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or ...
and
Barney Barnato Barney Barnato (21 February 1851 – 14 June 1897), born Barnet Isaacs, was a British Randlord, one of the entrepreneurs who gained control of diamond mining, and later gold mining, in South Africa from the 1870s. He is perhaps best remembere ...
made their fortunes in Kimberley, and Rhodes established the
De Beers De Beers Group is an international corporation that specializes in diamond Diamond is a Allotropes of carbon, solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. At Standard conditions for ...

De Beers
diamond company in the early days of the mining town. On 2 September 1882, Kimberley was the first city in the Southern Hemisphere and the second in the world after
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...

Philadelphia
,
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
to integrate electric street lights into its infrastructure. The first Stock Exchange in Africa was built in Kimberley, as early as 1881.


History


Discovery of diamonds

In 1866, Erasmus Jacobs found a small brilliant pebble on the banks of the
Orange River The Orange River (from Afrikaans Alaric speaking Afrikaans. Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. ...
, on the farm ''De Kalk'' leased from local
Griquas The Griquas (; af, Griekwa, often confused with !Orana, which is written as ''Korana'' or ''Koranna'') are a subgroup of heterogeneous former Khoe Maharishi International University (MIU), formerly Maharishi University of Management, is a pri ...
, near
Hopetown Hopetown is a town which lies at the edge of the Great Karoo in South Africa's Northern Cape province. It is situated on an arid slope leading down to the Orange River. The first diamond discovered in South Africa, the Eureka Diamond, was foun ...

Hopetown
, which was his father's farm. He showed the pebble to his father, who then sold it. The pebble was purchased from Jacobs' father by Schalk van Niekerk, who later sold it on again. It proved to be a
diamond Diamond is a Allotropes of carbon, solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. At Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, room temperature and pressure, another solid form of ...

diamond
, and became known as the
Eureka Eureka often refers to: * Eureka (word) file:Eureka! Archimede.jpg, Archimedes exclaiming ''Eureka''. In his excitement, he forgets to dress and runs nude in the streets straight out of his bath ''Eureka'' ( grc, εὕρηκα) is an interjection ...
. Three years later, in 1869, an diamond, which became known as the Star of South Africa, was found nearby (). This diamond was sold by van Niekerk for £11,200, and later resold in the London market for £25,000. Henry Richard Giddy recounted how Esau Damoense (or Damon), the cook for prospector Fleetwood Rawstorne's "Red Cap Party", found diamonds in 1871 on Colesberg Kopje after he was sent there to dig as punishment. Rawstorne took the news to the nearby diggings of the De Beer brothers – his arrival there sparking off the famous "New Rush" which, as historian Brian Roberts puts it, was practically a stampede. Within a month, 800 claims were cut into the hillock, which were worked frenetically by two to three thousand men. As the land was lowered, so the hillock became a mine – in time, the world-renowned . The
Cape Colony The Cape Colony ( nl, Kaapkolonie), also known as the Cape of Good Hope, was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Cro ...
,
Transvaal Transvaal is a historical geographic term associated with land north of (''i.e.'', beyond) the Vaal River in South Africa. A number of states and administrative divisions have carried the name Transvaal. * South African Republic (1856–1902; af, ...
,
Orange Free State The Orange Free State ( nl, Oranje Vrijstaat, af, Oranje-Vrystaat, abbreviated as OVS) was an independent Boer Boers () ( af , Boere) refers to the descendants of the proto-Afrikaans-speaking colonist A settler is a person who ha ...
and the
Griqua Griqua may refer to: * Griqua people The Griquas (; af, Griekwa, often confused with !Orana, which is written as ''Korana'' or ''Koranna'') are a subgroup of heterogeneous former Khoe Maharishi International University (MIU), formerly Mahari ...
leader
Nicolaas Waterboer Nic(h)olaas Waterboer (1819 - 17 September 1896) was a leader ("Kaptijn") of the Griqua people. He was the last fully independent Griqua Kaptijn of Griqualand West, and after it became a British colony, his rule and that of his successors was la ...
all laid claim to the diamond fields. The Free State
Boers Boers () ( af , Boere) refers to the descendants of the proto-Afrikaans-speaking colonist A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize Colonization, or colonisation ...

Boers
in particular wanted the area, as it lay inside the natural borders created by
Orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Some other citrus or citrus-li ...
and
Vaal River The Vaal River ( ; Khoemana ǃOrakobab or ''Khoemana'', also known as Korana, ǃOra, or Griqua, is a Moribund language, moribund Khoe languages, Khoe language of South Africa. Names "Khoemana" (from ''khoe'' 'person' + ''mana'' 'language') i ...

Vaal River
s. Following the mediation that was overseen by the Governor of
Natal NATAL or Natal may refer to: Places * Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, a city in Brazil * Natal, South Africa (disambiguation), a region in South Africa ** Natalia Republic, a former country (1839–1843) ** Colony of Natal, a former British colony (18 ...
, the Keate Award went in favour of Waterboer, who placed himself under British protection. Consequently, the territory known as
Griqualand West Griqualand West is an area of central South Africa with an area of 40,000 km2 that now forms part of the Northern Cape Province. It was inhabited by the Griqua people – a semi-nomadic, Afrikaans-speaking nation of mixed-race origin, who ...
was proclaimed on 27 October 1871.


Naming the place: from Vooruitzigt to New Rush to Kimberley

Colonial Commissioners arrived in New Rush on 17 November 1871 to exercise authority over the territory on behalf of the Cape Governor. Digger objections and minor riots led to Governor visit to New Rush in September the following year, when he revealed a plan instead to have Griqualand West proclaimed a
Crown Colony A Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original coun ...
. Richard Southey would arrive as Lieutenant-Governor of the intended Crown Colony in January 1873. Months passed however without any sign of the proclamation or of the promised new constitution and provision for representative government. The delay was in
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
where
Secretary of State for the Colonies The secretary of state for the colonies or colonial secretary was the British Cabinet The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is a group of the most senior ministers of the crown in the government of the United Kingdom The Government of ...
,
John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley (7 January 18268 April 1902), known as The Lord Wodehouse from 1846 to 1866, was a British Liberal politician. He held office in every Liberal administration from 1852 to 1895, notably as Secretary of Stat ...

John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley
, insisted that before electoral divisions could be defined, the places had to receive "decent and intelligible names. His Lordship declined to be in any way connected with such a vulgarism as New Rush and as for the Dutch name, ''Vooruitzigt'' … he could neither spell nor pronounce it." The matter was passed to Southey who gave it to his Colonial Secretary J.B. Currey. Roberts writes that "when it came to renaming New Rush, urreyproved himself a worthy diplomat. He made quite sure that Lord Kimberley would be able both to spell and pronounce the name of the main electoral division by, as he says, calling it 'after His Lordship'." New Rush became Kimberley, by Proclamation dated 5 July 1873. Digger sentiment was expressed in an editorial in the ''Diamond Field'' newspaper when it stated "we went to sleep in New Rush and waked up in Kimberley, and so our dream was gone." Following agreement by the British government on compensation to the
Orange Free State The Orange Free State ( nl, Oranje Vrijstaat, af, Oranje-Vrystaat, abbreviated as OVS) was an independent Boer Boers () ( af , Boere) refers to the descendants of the proto-Afrikaans-speaking colonist A settler is a person who ha ...
for its competing land claims, Griqualand West was annexed to the
Cape Colony The Cape Colony ( nl, Kaapkolonie), also known as the Cape of Good Hope, was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Cro ...
in 1877. The Cape Prime Minister
John Molteno Sir John Charles Molteno (5 June 1814 – 1 September 1886) was a soldier, businessman, champion of responsible government and the first Prime Minister of the British Cape Colony, Cape Colony. Early life Born in London into a large Anglo-Ita ...
initially had serious doubts about annexing the heavily indebted region, but, after striking a deal with the Home Government and receiving assurances that the local population would be consulted in the process, he passed the Griqualand West Annexation Act on 27 July 1877.


Big Hole and other mines

As miners arrived in their thousands the hill disappeared and subsequently became known as the
Big Hole The Kimberley Mine or Tim Kuilmine ( af, Groot Gat) is an open-pit mining, open-pit and underground mine in Kimberley, South Africa, and claimed to be the deepest hole excavated by hand, although this claim is disputed. History and size The ...

Big Hole
(or ''Kimberley se Gat'' in Afrikaans) or, more formally, . From mid-July 1871 to 1914, 50,000 miners dug the hole with picks and shovels, yielding 2,722 kg of
diamond Diamond is a Allotropes of carbon, solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. At Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, room temperature and pressure, another solid form of ...

diamond
s. The Big Hole has a surface of and is 463 metres wide. It was excavated to a depth of 240 m, but then partially infilled with debris reducing its depth to about 215 m; since then it has accumulated water to a depth of 40 m leaving 175 m visible. Beneath the surface, the Kimberley Mine underneath the Big Hole was mined to a depth of 1097 metres. A popular local myth claims that it is the largest hand-dug hole on the world, however
Jagersfontein Mine Jagersfontein Mine is an abandoned open-pit mine in South Africa, located close to the town of Jagersfontein and about south-west of Bloemfontein. The Big Hole is the principal feature of a May 2004 submission which placed "Kimberley Mines and associated early industries" on UNESCO's World Heritage Tentative Lists.Bid to plug Big Hole worldwide
News24News 24 may refer to: *News 24 (Albania), a 24-hour news television channel in Albania *News24 (website), a South Africa-based news website *Rai News24, a 24-hour news television channel in Italy *BBC News 24, now known as BBC News (TV channel), BBC ...
By 1873 Kimberley was the second largest town in South Africa, having an approximate population of 40,000.


Role and influence of De Beers

The various smaller mining companies were amalgamated by
Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British mining magnate A magnate, from the late Latin ''magnas'', a great man, itself from Latin ''magnus'', "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or ...
and
Charles Rudd Charles Dunell Rudd (22 October 1844 – 15 November 1916) was the main business associate of Cecil Rhodes. Early life He was the son of Henry Rudd (1809-1884), who had a shipbuilding business in London, and his first wife Mary Stanbridge. R ...
into
De Beers De Beers Group is an international corporation that specializes in diamond Diamond is a Allotropes of carbon, solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. At Standard conditions for ...

De Beers
, and The Kimberley under
Barney Barnato Barney Barnato (21 February 1851 – 14 June 1897), born Barnet Isaacs, was a British Randlord, one of the entrepreneurs who gained control of diamond mining, and later gold mining, in South Africa from the 1870s. He is perhaps best remembere ...
. In 1888, the two companies merged to form
De Beers Consolidated Mines De Beers Group is an international corporation that specializes in diamond mining, diamond exploitation, diamond retail, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors. The company is active in open-pit, large-scale alluvial and c ...

De Beers Consolidated Mines
, which once had a monopoly over the world's diamond market. Very quickly, Kimberley became the largest city in the area, partly due to a massive African migration to the area from all over the continent. The immigrants were accepted with open arms, because the De Beers company was in search of cheap labour to help run the mines. Another group drawn to the city for money was prostitutes, from a wide variety of ethnicities who could be found in bars and saloons. It was praised as a city of limitless opportunity. Five big holes were dug into the earth following the
kimberlite Kimberlite is an igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main The three types of rocks, rock types, the others being Sedimentary rock, sedimentary and metamorphic ...

kimberlite
pipes, which are named after the town. Kimberlite is a diamond-bearing blue ground that sits below a yellow colored soil. The largest, The Kimberley mine or "Big Hole" covering , reached a depth of and yielded three
ton The ton is a unit of measure A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude Magnitude may refer to: Mathematics *Euclidean vector, a quantity defined by both its magnitude and its direction *Magnitude (mathematics), the relative size ...
s of diamonds. The mine was closed in 1914, while three of the holes Dutoitspan, Wesselton and Bultfonteinclosed down in 2005.


Second Boer War

On 14 October 1899, Kimberley was besieged at the beginning of the
Second Boer War The Second Boer War ( af, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, lit. "Second Freedom War", 11 October 189931 May 1902), also known as the Boer War, the Anglo–Boer War, or the South African War, was a conflict fought between the British Empire and the two B ...
. The
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ir ...

British
forces trying to relieve the siege suffered heavy losses. The siege was only lifted on 15 February 1900, but the war continued until May 1902. By that time, the British had built a
concentration camp Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges. The term is especially used for the confinement "of enemy citizens in war War is an intense armed conflict between state ...
at Kimberley to house
Boer Boers () ( af , Boere) refers to the descendants of the proto-Afrikaans-speaking colonist A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize Colonization, or colonisation ...

Boer
women and children.


Amalgamation

The hitherto separately administered Boroughs of Kimberley and Beaconsfield amalgamated as the City of Kimberley in 1912.


Under Apartheid

Although a considerable degree of urban segregation already existed, one of the most significant impacts of
Apartheid Apartheid (South African English South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English language dialects native to South Africans. History British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * B ...

Apartheid
on the city of Kimberley was the implementation of the
Group Areas Act Group Areas Act was the title of three acts The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the f ...
. Communities were divided according to legislated racial categories, namely European (White), Native (Black), Coloured and Indian – now legally separated by the
Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, Act No. 55 of 1949, was an apartheid law in South Africa that prohibited marriages between "whites" and "non-whites". It was among the first pieces of apartheid legislation to be passed following the National ...
. Individual families could be split up to three ways (based on such notorious measures as the ' pencil test') and mixed communities were either completely relocated (as in Malay Camp – although those clearances began before Apartheid as such) or were selectively cleared (as in Greenpoint which became a 'Coloured' Group Area, its erstwhile African and other residents being removed to other parts of town).
Residential segregation Residential segregation in the United States is the physical separation of two or more groups into different neighborhoods—a form of segregation that "sorts population groups into various neighborhood contexts and shapes the living environment a ...
was thus enforced in a process which saw the creation of new townships at the northern and north-eastern edges of the expanding city. Institutions that were hard hit by the
Group Areas Act Group Areas Act was the title of three acts The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the f ...
, Bantu Education and other Acts included churches (such as the Bean Street Methodist Church) and schools (some, such as William Pescod and Perseverance School, moved while the Gore Browne (Native) Training School was closed down). Other Pass Laws Act, legislation restricted the movement of Africans and some public places became 'Europeans Only' preserves in terms of the Reservation of Separate Amenities Act. The Native Laws Amendment Act sought to cleave church communities along racial lines – a law rejected on behalf of all Anglicans in South Africa by Archbishop Geoffrey Hare Clayton, Clayton in 1957 (in terms of which this aspect of apartheid was never completely implemented in churches such as Kimberley's St Cyprian's Cathedral). Resistance to apartheid in Kimberley was mounted as early as mid-1952 as part of the Defiance Campaign. Dr Arthur Letele put together a group of volunteers to defy the segregation laws by occupying 'Europeans Only' benches at Kimberley Railway Station – which led to arrest and imprisonment. Later in the year, the Mayibuye Uprising in Kimberley, on 8 November 1952, revolved around the poor quality of beer served in the beer hall. The fracas resulted in shootings and a subsequent mass funeral on 12 November 1952 at Kimberley's West End Cemetery. Detained following the massacre were alleged 'ring-leaders' Dr Letele, Sam Phakedi, Pepys Madibane, Olehile Sehume, Alexander Nkoane, Daniel Chabalala and David Mpiwa. Archdeacon Wade of St Matthew's Church, as a witness at the subsequent inquiry, placed the blame squarely on the policy of apartheid – including poor housing, lighting and public transport, together with "unfulfilled promises" – which he said "brought about the conditions which led to the riots." A later generation of anti-apartheid activists based in Kimberley included Phakamile Mabija, Bishop Graham Chadwick and two post-apartheid provincial premiers, Manne Dipico and Dipuo Peters. Other prominent figures of the struggle against apartheid who had Kimberley connections include Robert Sobukwe, founder of the Pan Africanist Congress, who was banished (placed under house arrest) in Kimberley after his release from Robben Island in 1969. He died in the city in 1978. Benny Alexander (1955–2010), who later changed his name to Khoisan X, and was General Secretary of the Pan Africanist Congress and of the Pan-Africanist Movement from 1989, was born and grew up in Kimberley. Another leading figure in Coloured politics in the apartheid era was Sonny Leon.


Post-Apartheid

The Northern Cape Province became a political fact in 1994, with Kimberley as its capital. Some quasi-provincial infrastructure was in place from the 1940s, but in the post-1994 period Kimberley underwent considerable development as administrative departments were set up and housed for the governance of the new province. A Northern Cape Legislature was designed and situated to bridge the formerly divided city. The Kimberley City Council of the renamed Sol Plaatje Local Municipality (see below) was enlarged. A new coat of arms and Motto for the city were ushered in. With the abolition of apartheid previously 'whites only' institutions such as schools became accessible to all, as did suburbs previously segregated by the
Group Areas Act Group Areas Act was the title of three acts The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the f ...
. In practice this process has been one of upward mobility by those who could afford the more costly options, while by far the majority of Black people remain in the townships where poverty levels are high. Major township residential developments, with 'Reconstruction and Development Programme, RDP housing', were implemented – not without criticism concerning quality. There has been an increase in Kimberley's population, urbanization being spurred on in part by the abolition of the Influx Control Act. Also added to the city is the settlement of Platfontein created when the !Xun people, !Xun and Khwe community formerly of Schmidtsdrift, Northern Cape, Schmidtsdrift and originally from Angola/Namibia acquired the land in 1996. Most of the community had moved to the new township by the end of 2003. In 1998 the Kimberley Comprehensive Urban Plan estimated that Kimberley had 210,800 people representing 46,207 households living in the city. By 2008 estimates were in the region of 250,000 inhabitants.


Renaming

The shifts from frontier farm names to digger camp names to the established names of the towns of Kimberley and Beaconsfield – which duly amalgamated in 1912 – are outlined above. The only traces of any precolonial settlement within the city's boundaries are scatters of Later Stone Age, Stone Age artefacts and there is no record of what the place/s might have been called before the first nineteenth century frontier overlay of farm names. It lay beyond the areas occupied by Tswana people in the precolonial period. Sites such as the nearby Wildebeest Kuil Rock Art Centre, Wildebeest Kuil testify to a Khoe–San history dating up into the nineteenth century. In the post-1994 era the Kimberley City Council was renamed the Sol Plaatje Local Municipality after the area it served was expanded to include surrounding towns and villages, most notably Ritchie, Northern Cape, Ritchie. Sol Plaatje, the prominent writer and activist, lived for much of his life in Kimberley. Similarly the erstwhile Diamantveld District Council became the Frances Baard District Municipality, with reference to the trade unionist, Frances Baard, who was born in Greenpoint, Kimberley.


Coats of arms

Municipality – The Kimberley borough council assumed a coat of arms in 1878. The arms were registered with the Cape Provincial Administration in December 1964Cape of Good Hope ''Official Gazette'' 3270 (18 December 1964). and at the Bureau of Heraldry in February 1968. The design was a combination of the Union Jack and the charges from the Coat of arms of the Cape Colony, Cape Colony's coat of arms, with a lozenge to represent the diamond-mining industry : ''Azure, a cross and saltire superimposed Gules both fimbriated Argent, in chief three bezants Or, each charged with a fleur de lis Azure, and in base three annulets Or; on a lozenge Or, superimposed over the fess point, a lion rampant Gules''. The motto was ''Spero meliora''. The arms were depicted on a cigarette card issued in 1931. Divisional council – The Kimberley divisional council, which administered the rural areas outside the city, registered its own arms at the Bureau in August 1970. The arms were: ''Per saltire, in chief, barry wavy of six Argent and Azure; in base, Argent, a pale Sable charged with three fusils Argent; dexter, Gules, a shovel and pick in saltire, handles downward, Or; sinister, a staff of Aesculapius, Or''. In layman's terms, the shield was divided in four by two diagonal lines, and depicted (1) six silver and blue stripes with wavy edges, (2) a crossed pick and shovel on a red background, (3) a golden staff of Aesculapius, and (4) three silver diamond-shaped fusils on a black vertical stripe on a silver background. The crest was two crossed rifles in front of an upright sword; the supporters were two kudus; and the motto was "Nitanir semper ad optima".


Economy

Kimberley was the initial hub of industrialisation in South Africa in the late nineteenth century, which transformed the country's agrarian economy into one more dependent on its mineral wealth. A key feature of the new economic arrangement was migrant labour, with the demand for African labour in the mines of Kimberley (and later on the gold fields) drawing workers in growing numbers from throughout the subcontinent. The labour Compound (migrant labour), compound system developed in Kimberley from the 1880s was later replicated on the gold mines and elsewhere. The city housed South Africa's first stock exchange, the Kimberley Royal Stock Exchange, which opened on 2 February 1881. On 2 September 1882, Kimberley became the first town in the Southern Hemisphere to install electricity, electric street lighting. The rising importance of Kimberley led to one of the earliest South African and International Exhibitions to be staged in Kimberley in South African and International Exhibition, 1892. It was opened by Sir Henry Loch, the then Governor of the Cape of Good Hope on 8 September. It presented exhibits of art, an exhibition of paintings from the royal collection of Queen Victoria and mining machinery and implements amongst other items. The exhibition aroused considerable interest at international level, which resulted in a competition for display space. South Africa's first Old School of Mines, Kimberley, school of mines was opened here in 1896 and later relocated to Johannesburg, becoming the core of the University of the Witwatersrand. A Pretoria campus later became the University of Pretoria. In fact the first two years were attended at colleges elsewhere, in Cape Town, Grahamstown or Stellenbosch, the third year in Kimberley and the fourth year in Johannesburg. Buildings were constructed against a total cost of 9,000 pounds with
De Beers De Beers Group is an international corporation that specializes in diamond Diamond is a Allotropes of carbon, solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. At Standard conditions for ...

De Beers
contributing on a pound for pound basis.


Transport


Aviation

South Africa's History of the South African Air Force, first school of aviation, to train pilots for the proposed South African Aviation Corps (SAAC), was established in Kimberley in 1913. Known as ''Paterson's Aviation Syndicate School of Flying'', it is commemorated in the Pioneers of Aviation Museum (and replica of the first Compton Patterson Biplane preserved there), situated near to Kimberley airport. In the 1930s Kimberley boasted the best night-landing facilities on the continent of Africa. A major air rally was hosted there in 1934. In the war years Kimberley Airport was commandeered by the South African Defence Force, Union Defence Force and run by the 21 Flying School for the training of fighter pilots. Today Kimberley Airport services the area, with regular scheduled flights from Cape Town International Airport, Cape Town and OR Tambo International Airport, Johannesburg.


Railways

Work on connecting Kimberley by rail to the cities along the
Cape Colony The Cape Colony ( nl, Kaapkolonie), also known as the Cape of Good Hope, was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Cro ...
's coastline began in 1872, under the management of the Cape Government Railways. The railway line from Cape Town to Kimberley was completed in 1885, accelerating the transport of both passengers and goods. The railway connected Kimberley with cheaper sources of grain and other products, as well as supplies of coal, so that one of its local impacts was to undercut (mainly African) trade in fresh produce and firewood in Kimberley's hinterland. Another footnote to railway history is its role in the initial rapid spread of the Spanish Influenza epidemic in 1918. The railway reticulation eventually would link Kimberley with Port Elizabeth, Johannesburg, Durban and Bloemfontein. The major junction at De Aar in the Karoo linked early twentieth century lines to Upington (later to Namibia) and to Calvinia. From the 1990s there was a decline in the use of the railways. Today passenger train services to and from Kimberley are provided by Spoornet's Shosholoza Meyl, with connections south to Cape Town and Port Elizabeth and north to Johannesburg. Luxury railway experiences are provided on the main north–south line by the Blue Train and Rovos Rail. The central railway station of Kimberley is Kimberley railway station (South Africa), Kimberley railway station.


Roads

Wagon and coach routes were developed rapidly as the rush for the diamond fields gathered momentum. Two of the major routes were from the Cape and from Port Elizabeth, the nearest maritime port at the time. Contemporary accounts of the 1870s describe the appalling condition of some of the roads and decry the absence of bridges. From the mid-1880s the route through Kimberley and Mafeking (now Mahikeng) became the main axis of British colonial penetration and it was from Kimberley, along that route, that the Pioneer Column for the settlement of Rhodesia set forth in 1890. Today, however, the central arterial route to the north, the N1 road (South Africa), N1 from the Cape to Johannesburg, goes via Bloemfontein, not Kimberley. Kimberley is located at the intersection of the N12 road (South Africa), N12 and N8 road (South Africa), N8 national roads.


Today

Today, Kimberley is the seat of the Provincial Legislature for the Northern Cape and the Provincial Administration. It services the mining and agricultural sectors of the region.


Tourism

The city projects itself as a significant tourist destination, the 'City that Sparkles', boasting a diversity of museums and visitor attractions. It is also a gateway to other Northern Cape destinations including the Mokala National Park, nature reserves and numerous game farms or hunting lodges, as well as historic sites of the region.


Conference-hosting

Kimberley has hosted significant meetings and conferences, developing a major venue, the Mittah Seperepere Convention Centre, and other conference hosting facilities. Recent gatherings have included the founding meeting of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme, Kimberley Process (2000) and a follow-up meeting of this organisation in 2013, and the International Indigenous Peoples Summit on Sustainable Development (2002).


Climate and geography


Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Köppen system Kimberley has a semi-arid climate (BSk) courtesy of its dry winters. Summers are long, wet, and long lasting. Winters are short, mild, and dry with chilly nights.


Water

Kimberley's water is pumped from the Vaal River at Riverton, some 15 km north of the city.


Districts/Suburbs/Townships

*Albertynshof *Ashburnham *Beaconsfield, Kimberley, Beaconsfield *Belgravia *Carters Glen *Cassandra *Colville *De Beers *Diamant Park *Du Toit's Pan *El Torro Park *Ernestville *Floors/Florianville *Galeshewe incl "Old No 2" *Gemdene *Greenpoint *Greenside *Hadison Park *Herlear *Heuwelsig *Hillcrest *Homelite *Homestead *Homevale *Kenilworth *Kestellhof *Kimberley North *Kirstenhof *Klisserville *Labram *Lindene *Lorato Park * Malay Camp *Minerva Gardens *Mint Village *Moghul Park *Monument Heights *Newton *New Park *Platfontein *Rhodesdene *Riviera *Roodepan/Pescodia *Royldene *Roylglen *Southridge *Squarehill Park *Vergenoeg *Verwoerd Park *West End


Demography

According to the South African National Census of 2011, 2011 census, the population of Kimberley "proper" was 96,977, while the township (South Africa), townships Galeshewe and Roodepan had populations of 107,920 and 20,263 respectively. This gives the urban area a total population of 225,160. Of this population, 63.1% identified themselves as "Bantu peoples in South Africa, Black African", 26.8% as "Coloured", 8.0% as "White South African, White" and 1.2% as "Indian South African, Indian or Asian South African, Asian". 43.2% of the population spoke Afrikaans as their first language, 35.8% spoke Setswana, 8.7% spoke South African English, English, 6.0% spoke isiXhosa and 2.7% spoke Sesotho.


Landscapes, urban and rural

Kimberley is set in a relatively flat landscape with no prominent topographic features within the urban limits. The only "hills" are debris dumps generated by more than a century of diamond mining. From the 1990s these were being recycled and poured back into De Beers Mine (by 2010 it was filled to within a few tens of metres of the surface). Certain of the mine dumps, in the vicinity of the Big Hole, have been proclaimed as heritage features and are to be preserved as part of the historic industrial landscape of Kimberley. The surrounding rural landscape, not more than a few minutes' drive from any part of the city, consists of relatively flat plains dotted with hills, mainly outcropping basement rock (andesite) to the north and north west, or Karoo age dolerite to the south and east. Shallow pans formed in the plains. One of Kimberley's famous features is Kamfers Dam, a large pan north of the city, which is an important wetland supporting a breeding colony of lesser flamingos. Conservation initiatives in the area aim to bring people from the city in touch with its wildlife. In 2012 rising water levels flooded the artificial island built to enhance flamingo breeding, while in December 2013 a local outbreak of avian botulism bacteria resulted in the deaths of hundreds of birds. The island has since re-emerged.


Local and provincial government

The administration of the Crown Colony of
Griqualand West Griqualand West is an area of central South Africa with an area of 40,000 km2 that now forms part of the Northern Cape Province. It was inhabited by the Griqua people – a semi-nomadic, Afrikaans-speaking nation of mixed-race origin, who ...
(from 1873) was conducted from Government Buildings in Kimberley up until the annexation of the Colony to the Cape Colony, Cape in 1880. At the level of local government, separate Borough Councils operated in Kimberley and Beaconsfield up to the time of their amalgamation as the City of Kimberley in 1912. Thereafter a single City Council regulated the affairs of the city, while a Divisional Council administered the surrounding rural district. In the 1980s, in the last days of apartheid, a separate political entity referred to as Galeshewe (with Mankurwane) was brought into existence with its own council. Post-1994 the Kimberley City Council became the Sol Plaatje Local Municipality while the successor to what had become the Diamandveld Regional Services Council was the Frances Baard District Municipality. The idea of establishing the Northern Cape as a distinct geographic entity dates from the 1940s but it became a political and administrative fact only in 1994, with Kimberley formally becoming the new province's legislative capital. The Northern Cape Provincial Legislature, provincial legislature initially occupied the old Cape Provincial Administration building at the Civic Centre before moving into a purpose-built Legislature deliberately situated between one of the townships and erstwhile white suburbs. Kimberley is also the seat of the Northern Cape Division of the High Court of South Africa, which exercises jurisdiction over the province.


Education

Education is a major sector in Kimberley's social and economic life.


Primary education

*Beacon Primary School *Diamantveld Laerskool *Endeavor Primary School *Eureka Primary School *Flamingo Primary School *Floors North Primary School *Herlear Primary School *Homevale Primary School *Isago Primary School *Kim Kgolo Primary School *Kimberley Junior School *Letshego Primary School *Masiza Primary School *Molehabangwe Primary School *Montshiwa Primary School *Newton Primary School *St Cyprian's Grammar School, Kimberley, St Cyprian's Grammar School *St Peters Primary School *Staats Primary School (formerly Staats President Swart Primary School) *Tshiamo Primary school *Tshwarelela Primary school *West End Primary School *Zingisa Primary School *Vooruitsig Primary School *Venus Primary School *Ryva Academy of Learning


Secondary education

*Adamantia High School *Diamantveld High School *Emang Mmogo Comprehensive secondary School *Emmanuel Secondary School *Floors High School *Greenpoint High School *Homevale Secondary High School *HTS Kimberley *Kimberley Boys' High School *Kimberley Girls' High School *Northern Cape High School *St. Boniface High School (Kimberley, South Africa), St. Boniface High School *St Patrick's Christian Brothers' College, Kimberley, Christian Brothers College *Tetlanyo High School *Thabane High School *William Pescod High School


Tertiary education

*Henrietta Stockdale Training College for nurses *Kimberley Academy of Music aligned with NIHE *National Institute of Higher Education, Kimberley, incorporating the former Phatsimang and Perseverance Colleges *Northern Cape Urban FET College, incorporating the former Northern Cape, Moremogolo and RC Elliott Technical Colleges *Qualitas Career Academy, (Nationally brand, private college). Offering full-time and part-time studies for students as well as corporate training and consulting services for businesses and government departments.


Sol Plaatje University

The Sol Plaatje University opened in Kimberley in 2014, accommodating a modest initial intake of 135 students. Announcing the name for the university, former President Jacob Zuma mentioned the development of academic niche areas that did not exist elsewhere, or were under-represented, in South Africa. "Given the rich heritage of Kimberley and the Northern Cape, South Africa, Northern Cape in general," Zuma said, "it is envisaged that Sol Plaatje will specialise in heritage studies, including interconnected academic fields such as museology, museum management, archaeology, indigenous languages, and Architectural conservation, restoration architecture."


Defunct tertiary institutions

Tertiary education institutions no longer in existence (or absorbed into the above organisational configurations): *Gore Browne Training Institute *Moremogolo Technical College / Taemaneng Technical Centre *Northern Cape Technical College *Perseverance School, Perseverance Teachers' Training College *Phatsimang Teachers' Training College *RC Elliott Technical College


Society and culture


Religion

Kimberley, from its earliest days, attracted people of diverse faiths which are still reflected by practising faith communities in the city. Pre-eminently these are various denominations of Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, as well as other faiths. Traditional African beliefs continue as an element in the Zionist Churches, Zionist Christian Church (ZCC). Kimberley is the seat of the Anglican Diocese of Kimberley and Kuruman and also of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kimberley – previously the Apostolic Vicariate of Kimberley in Orange. Other denominations having churches in the city are the Methodist Church of Southern Africa, Methodist Church, the Presbyterian Church, the United Congregational Church of Southern Africa, Congregational Church, the Dutch Reformed Church (Afrikaans: Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk), the Baptist Church, the Afrikaans Baptist Church (Afrikaans: Afrikaanse Baptiste Kerk), the Apostolic Church (denomination), Apostolics, Pentecostalism, Pentecostalists. The Seventh-day Adventist Church, Seventh-day Adventist Church in South Africa was first established in Kimberley.


Art, music, film and literature

Notable artists from Kimberley include William M. Timlin, William Timlin and Walter Westbrook (artist), Walter Westbrook, while an artist noted for his depiction of Kimberley was Philip Bawcombe. Writers from the city or with strong Kimberley links include Diane Awerbuck, Benjamin Bennett (writer), Benjamin Bennett, Lawrence G. Green, Lawrence Green, Dorian Haarhoff, Dan Jacobson, E P Lekhela, Z.K. Matthews, Sarah Gertrude Millin, Sol Plaatje, F.T. Prince, Frank Templeton Prince, Olive Schreiner, A.H.M. Scholtz. A notable reggae and Contemporary R&B, rhythm and blues musician from Kimberley is Dr Victor.


Museums, monuments and memorials

*The
Big Hole The Kimberley Mine or Tim Kuilmine ( af, Groot Gat) is an open-pit mining, open-pit and underground mine in Kimberley, South Africa, and claimed to be the deepest hole excavated by hand, although this claim is disputed. History and size The ...

Big Hole
, previously known as the Kimberley Mine Museum, is a recreated townscape and museum, with Big Hole viewing platform and other features, situated next to the Kimberley Mine ("Big Hole"). It houses a rich collection of artefacts and information from the early days of the city. *The McGregor Museum, which celebrated its centennial in 2007, curates and studies major research collections and information about the history and ecology of the Northern Cape, which are reflected in displays at the museum's headquarters at the Sanatorium in Belgravia and nine branch museums. *The William Humphreys Art Gallery. *The Kimberley Africana Library. *Dunluce and Rudd House Museums. *Pioneers of Aviation Museum: In 1913, South Africa's first flying school opened at Kimberley and started training the pilots of the South African Aviation Corps, later to become the South African Air Force. The museum is located on the site of that flying school and houses a replica of a Compton Paterson biplane, one of the first aircraft to be used for flight training. The first female on the African continent to receive her pilot's license, Ann Maria Bocciarelli, was trained at this facility. *Robert Sobukwe's Law Office *The Sol Plaatje Museum is located in the house where Sol Plaatje lived and wrote ''Mhudi''. * Transport Spoornet Museum *Clyde N. Terry Hall of Militaria *Freddie Tate Museum * A heritage tramway was opened in 1985, putting one of Trams in Kimberley, Northern Cape, Kimberley's historic trams back on the rails. *On the outskirts of Kimberley, on the Barkly West Road, the Wildebeest Kuil Rock Art Centre, as well as Nooitgedacht Glacial Pavements. To the south of the city, the Magersfontein Battlefield Museum (see Battle of Magersfontein), while blockhouses can be seen at Modder River, Northern Cape, Modder River. Memorials include: *The Miners' Memorial, also known as the Diggers' Fountain, located in the Oppenheimer Gardens and designed by Herman Wald. It was built in honour of all the miners of Kimberley. The memorial consists of five life-sized diggers lifting a diamond sieve. *The Honoured Dead Memorial commemorates those who died defending the city during the Siege of Kimberley in the Anglo-Boer War. * The Cenotaph erected originally to commemorate the fallen of World War I, with plaques added in memory of fallen Kimberley volunteers in World War II. There is a memorial dedicated to the Cape Corps, Kimberley Cape Coloured Corps who died in the Battle of Square Hill during World War I. Consisting of a gun captured at the battle, it originally stood in Victoria Crescent, Malay Camp, but, post-1994, was moved to the Cenotaph. *The Concentration Camp Memorial remembers those who were interned in the Kimberley concentration camp during the
Second Boer War The Second Boer War ( af, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, lit. "Second Freedom War", 11 October 189931 May 1902), also known as the Boer War, the Anglo–Boer War, or the South African War, was a conflict fought between the British Empire and the two B ...
, and is located in front of the Dutch Reformed Mother Church. *The Henrietta Stockdale statue, by Jack Penn, commemorates the Anglican nun, Sister Henrietta CSM&AA (her reinterred remains are buried alongside), who petitioned the Cape Parliament to pass a law recognizing nursing as a profession and requiring compulsory state registration of nurses - a first in the world. *The statue of Frances Baard was unveiled by Premier Hazel Jenkins on Women's Day, 9 August 2009. *The Sol Plaatje Statue was unveiled by South African President Jacob Zuma on 9 January 2010, the 98th anniversary of the founding of the African National Congress. Sculpted by Johan Moolman, it is at the Civic Centre, formerly the Malay Camp, and situated approximately where Plaatje had his printing press in 1910–13.Plaatje Statue unveiled, ''Diamond Fields Advertiser'', 11 Jan 2010, p 6. (Reports in the ''Sunday Argus'' and ''Independent on Line'' [10 January 2010 at 12:42PM] incorrectly state that the unveiling of this statue took place in Cape Town) *Burger Monument near Magersfontein Battlefield *Cape Police Memorial *Mayibuye Memorial *Rhodes equestrian statue *Malay Camp Memorial


Architecture

*McGregor Museum, Alexander McGregor Memorial Museum (1907) *De Beers Head Office *Dunluce (Late Victorian) *Harry Oppenheimer House (mid-1970s) *Honoured Dead Memorial *Kimberley Africana Library *Kimberley City Hall (Neo-classical) *Kimberley Club *Kimberley Regiment Drill Hall (1892) *Kimberley Sanatorium (McGregor Museum) (1897) *Kimberley Undenominational Schools *Masonic Temple *Northern Cape Provincial Legislature *Old School of Mines, Kimberley, Old School of Mines (Late Victorian) *Rudd House (The Bungalow) *Duggan-Cronin Gallery, The Lodge (Duggan-Cronin Gallery)


Notable religious buildings

* Dutch Reformed Mother Church Newton is a good example of Stucco architecture in Kimberley. It was declared a National heritage sites (South Africa), National Monument in 1976, now a Provincial Heritage Site. * Kimberley's older Mosques were replaced by newer ones as a result of the Group Areas Act and the forced resettlement of the city's Muslim communities. * Kimberley Seventh-day Adventist Church is a small L shaped corrugated-iron building and is considered the mother church of Seventh-day Adventists in South Africa. It was declared a National heritage sites (South Africa), National Monument in 1967, now a Provincial Heritage Site. * St Cyprian's Cathedral, Kimberley, St Cyprian's Anglican Cathedral was designed by Arthur Lindley of the firm of Greatbatch, the building of the nave being completed in 1908. The remainder of the cathedral was completed in stages, partly under guidance of William M. Timlin (also of the firm of Greatbatch). In 1926 the Chancel was dedicated (and as a World War I memorial); in 1936 the Lady Chapel (Kimberley), Lady Chapel, Vestry & new organ were added; and in 1961, the tower (a World War II memorial). The cathedral contains notable stained glass windows including works by the Pretoria artist Leo Theron. * St Mary's Roman Catholic Cathedral. * Synagogue in the Byzantine style designed by D.W. Greatbatch, and based on the synagogue in Florence, Italy.


Media


Newspapers

The earliest newspaper here was the ''Diamond Field'', published initially at Pniel on 15 October 1870. Other early papers with the ''Diamond News'' and the ''Independent''. The ''Diamond Fields Advertiser'' is Kimberley's current daily newspaper, published since 23 March 1878. The Volksblad, with a free local supplement called ''Noordkaap'', is read by Afrikaans-speaking readers.


Radio

Two community radio stations were founded in the 1990s: *''Radio Teemaneng Stereo 89.1 FM, Radio Teemaneng'' *''XKfm'' which is based in the !Xun and Khwe settlement of Platfontein outside Kimberley and broadcasts in the two KhoeSan languages spoken at Platfontein (!Kung language, !Xun and Khwedam)


Sport


Cricket

Kimberley has contributed to much of cricket's history having supplied several international players. There was Frank (Nipper) Nicholson, Xen Balaskas, Xenophon Balaskas born in Kimberley to Greek parents and Ken Viljoen, Ronnie Draper and in more recent times Pat Symcox and the South Africa national cricket team, Proteas coach Mickey Arthur. Kimberley hosted a match from the 2003 ICC Cricket World Cup. Elsie McDonald was a Springbok bowler.


Rugby

Frank Dobbin known as Uncle Dobbin was a member of Paul Roos (rugby player), Paul Roos' original South Africa national rugby union team, Springboks in the tour to the 1906–07 South Africa rugby union tour, British Isles in 1906/1907. His memory lives in his old colonial-style home in Roper street, bearing a simple brass plaque with the name 'Dobbin'. Later Springboks to wear green and gold included Ian Kirkpatrick (South African rugby player), Ian Kirkpatrick, Tommy Bedford and Gawie Visagie, brother of Ammosal-based Springbok flyhalf Piet Visagie. Kimberley is home to the Griquas (rugby), Griquas rugby team, which has won the Currie Cup three times in 1899, 1911 and 1970. Ronnie Bauser an ex-mayor of Kimberley were involved in Griquas rugby for 1950–1971.


Football

Richard Henyekane, South African footballer, is from Kimberley, his younger brother Joseph played for Golden Arrows. Jimmy Tau is from Kimberley.


Swimming

Karen Muir, born in Kimberley, became in 1965 the youngest person to break a world record in any sport. This age group record stands to this day.Swimming in South Africa
. Last accessed 2008-04-12
She set it in August 1965 at the junior world champions in Blackpool, England in the backstroke at the age of 12. She went on to break many more world records but was denied a role in world swimming when she lost the opportunity to represent her country at the 1968 Summer Olympics, 1968 Olympic games in Mexico City as a result of South Africa being excluded due to its racial apartheid policies. Kimberley also saw a world record broken in the municipal pool which now bears Karen Muir's name. It was Johannesburg's Anne Fairlie who beat Karen Muir and Frances Kikki Caron in world record breaking time. Charl Bouwer, the paralympic swimmer from
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
who won gold in the 50m freestyle at the 2012 Summer Paralympics in London, was born in Kimberley.


Athletics

Bevil Rudd, Olympic medallist.


Cycling

Prominent cyclists have been Joe Billett, Steve Viljoen and Eddie Fortune. Joe Billett qualified for the 1968 Olympics to be held in Mexico. Joe was the backbone of cycling in Kimberley for years to come and inspired cyclists like the Hendriks brothers and Hennie champ Schoeman.


Skateboarding

The first Maloof Money Cup World Skateboarding Championships were held in Kimberley in September 2011 and again in 2012. When the Maloof family sponsorship ended in 2013 the event became known as the Kimberley Diamond Cup.


Sporting facilities

* ABSA Park * De Beers Diamond Oval* * Flamingo Park (Thoroughbred horse racing) * Galeshewe Stadium * Karen Muir Swimming Pool


Quotations

"Kimberley has had a profound effect on the course of history in Southern Africa. The discovery of diamonds there, more than a century ago, proved to be the first step in the transformation of South Africa from an agricultural into an industrial country. When gold and other minerals were later discovered to the north, there were already Kimberley men of vision and enterprise with the capital and technology to develop the new resources." - Harry Oppenheimer, H.F. Oppenheimer, 1976. Foreword to Brian Roberts’ book, ''Kimberley, turbulent city''. Anthony Trollope visited Kimberley in 1877 and was notoriously put off by the heat, enervating and hideous, while the dust and the flies of the early mining town almost drove him mad: "I sometimes thought that the people of Kimberley were proud of their flies and their dust." Of the townscape, largely built of sun-dried brick, and of plank and canvas and corrugated iron sheets brought up by ox-wagon from the coast, he remarked: "In Kimberley there are two buildings with a storey above the ground, and one of these is in the square: this is its only magnificence. There is no pavement. The roadway is all dust and holes. There is a market place in the midst which certainly is not magnificent. Around are the corrugated iron shops of the ordinary dealers in provisions. An uglier place I do not know how to imagine." A.H.J. Bourne, a former headmaster of Kimberley Boys' High School, returned to the city in 1937, observing that: "The history of Kimberley would appear remarkable to any stranger who could not fail to think that some supermind was behind its destinies. In so short a time it has grown from bare veld." In the early 1990s writer Dan Jacobson returned to Kimberley, where he had grown up in the 1930s, giving a sense of how things had changed: "The people I had known had vanished; so had their language. That contributed to my ghostlike state. In my earliest years the whites of Kimberley spoke English only; Afrikaans was the tongue of the Cape Coloured people ... Now I was addressed in Afrikaans everywhere I went, by white, black, and Coloured alike". Kimberley dull? – asked ''virtualtourist'' reviewer Catherine Reichardt: "Happily, the answer is a resounding 'No', provided that you have a passion for history - in which case Kimberley has it in spades, and you'll probably need to overnight to fully appreciate its attractions and charms. In many ways, exploring Kimberley and its heritage is like experiencing South African history in microcosm."


Miscellany

* The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) is an initiative for preventing trade in "conflict diamonds" used to finance the undermining of legitimate governments. It was founded in 2003, following a May 2000 meeting of Southern African diamond-producing states in Kimberley. A tenth anniversary meeting of the Kimberley Process was held at the Mittah Seperepere Convention Centre, Kimberley, on 4--7 June 2013, bringing together representatives of Governments, the diamond industry and civil society. A commemorative event was held at the Kimberley Tabernacle, the venue for the original meeting of the KPCS, where 23 individuals present at the very first meeting were honoured for their involvement. South African Minister of Mineral Resources, Susan Shabangu, addressed the closing session, noting the role of the KPCS in minimising "blood diamond" trade, as well as its "significant developmental impact in improving the lives of people dependent on the trade in diamonds." * The Indigenous intellectual property#Kimberley Declaration.2C August.2C 2002, Kimberley Declaration is a statement, inter alia on respect, promotion and protection of traditional knowledge systems, published by the Indigenous Peoples Council on Biocolonialism, on behalf of the ''International Indigenous Peoples Summit on Sustainable Development, Khoi-San Territory, Kimberley, South Africa'', 20–23 August 2002Kimberley Declaration
Accessed on 7 June 2013


See also

* Apostolic Vicariate of Kimberley in Orange for the region's Catholic missionary history * List of heritage sites in Kimberley * Mokala National Park * People of Kimberley * Trams in Kimberley, Northern Cape


References


External links


The Kimberley City Portal
- An on-line directory for tourists, travellers and residents of Kimberley. Detailed listings of business, attractions, activities and events with photos, contact information and geo-locations.
"Diamond Mines of South Africa"
by Gardner Williams (General manager De Beers), Chapter 15 (25-page history + images). {{Authority control Kimberley, Northern Cape, Provincial capitals in South Africa Second Boer War concentration camps Mining communities in South Africa