1 Name 2 History
2.1 Origin 2.2 Invitation of the Varangians 2.3 Foundation of the Kievan state 2.4 Early foreign relations
2.4.1 Volatile steppe politics
Byzantine relations 2.4.3 Sviatoslav
2.5 Reign of Vladimir and Christianisation 2.6 Golden age 2.7 Fragmentation and decline
Novgorod Republic 2.7.2 Northeast 2.7.3 Southwest
2.8 Final disintegration
3 Economy 4 Society 5 Historical assessment 6 Foreign relations
Byzantine Empire 6.3 Military campaigns
7 Administrative divisions 8 Principal cities 9 Religion 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References
12.1 Citations 12.2 Sources
13 Further reading 14 External links
Rus' (name) and Ruthenia During its existence, Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus' was known as the "land of the Rus'" (Old East Slavic: Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, from the ethnonym Рѹ́сь; Greek: Ῥῶς; Arabic: الروس al-Rūs), in Greek as Ῥωσία, in Old French as Russie, Rossie, in Latin as Russia
Russia (with local German spelling variants Ruscia and Ruzzia), and from the 12th century also Ruthenia. Various etymologies have been proposed, including Ruotsi, the Finnish designation for Sweden, and Ros, a tribe from the middle Dnieper
Dnieper valley region. In the Norse sources, the sagas, the principality is called Garðariki, and the peoples, according to Snorre Sturlason, are called Suiones, the confederation of Great Sviþjoð (Þjoð means people in Norse; cf. etymology of Sweden) were made up of the peoples along the Dniepr
Dniepr called Tanais
Tanais that separated Asia and Europe
Europe (called Enea by Snorri Sturluson), all the way to the Baltics and Scandinavia. The term Kievan Rus' (Ки́евская Русь Kievskaya Rus’) was coined in the 19th century in Russian historiography
Russian historiography to refer to the period when the centre was in Kiev. In English, the term was introduced in the early 20th century, when it was found in the 1913 English translation of Vasily Klyuchevsky's A History of Russia, to distinguish the early polity from successor states, which were also named Rus. Later, the Russian term was rendered into Belarusian and Ukrainian as Кіеўская Русь (Kijeŭskaja Rus’) and Ки́ївська Русь (Kyivs'ka Rus’), respectively.
See also: Rus' Khaganate
Prior to the emergence of
Kievan Rus' in the 9th century AD, the lands between the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea and Black Sea
Black Sea were primarily populated by eastern Slavic tribes. In the northern region around Novgorod
Novgorod were the Ilmen Slavs and neighboring Krivichi, who occupied territories surrounding the headwaters of the West Dvina, Dnieper, and Volga Rivers. To their north, in the Ladoga and Karelia regions, were the Finnic Chud
Chud tribe. In the south, in the area around Kiev, were the Poliane, a group of Slavicized tribes with Iranian origins, the Drevliane to the west of the Dnieper, and the Severiane to the east. To their north and east were the Vyatichi, and to their south was forested land settled by Slav farmers, giving way to steppelands populated by nomadic herdsmen.
Approximate ethno-linguistic map of
Kievan Rus' in the 9th century: Five Volga Finnic groups of the Merya, Mari, Muromians, Meshchera and Mordvins
Mordvins are shown as surrounded by the Slavs
Slavs to the west; the three Finnic groups of the Veps, Ests and Chuds, and Indo-European Balts
Balts to the northwest; the Permians
Permians to the northeast the (Turkic) Bulghars
Bulghars and Khazars
Khazars to the southeast and south. Controversy persists over whether the Rus' were Varangians
Varangians (Vikings) or Slavs. This uncertainty is due largely to a paucity of contemporary sources. Attempts to address this question instead rely on archaeological evidence, the accounts of foreign observers, and legends and literature from centuries later. To some extent the controversy is related to the foundation myths of modern states in the region. According to the "Normanist" view, the Rus' were Scandinavians, while Russian and Ukrainian nationalist historians generally argue that the Rus' were themselves Slavs. Normanist theories focus on the earliest written source for the East Slavs, the Primary Chronicle, although even this account was not produced until the 12th century. Nationalist accounts have suggested that the Rus' were present before the arrival of the Varangians, noting that only a handful of Scandinavian words can be found in modern Russian and that Scandinavian names in the early chronicles were soon replaced by Slavic names. Nevertheless, archaeological evidence from the area suggests that a Scandinavian population was present during the 10th century at the latest. On balance, it seems likely that the Rus' proper were a small minority of Scandinavians who formed an elite ruling class, while the great majority of their subjects were Slavs. Considering the linguistic arguments mounted by nationalist scholars, if the proto-Rus' were Scandinavians, they must have quickly become nativized, adopting Slavic languages and other cultural practices. Ahmad ibn Fadlan, an Arab
Arab traveler during the 10th century, provided one of the earliest written descriptions of the Rus': "They are as tall as a date palm, blond and ruddy, so that they do not need to wear a tunic nor a cloak; rather the men among them wear garments that only cover half of his body and leaves one of his hands free." Liutprand of Cremona, who was twice an envoy to the Byzantine
Byzantine court (949 and 968), identifies the "Russi" with the Norse ("the Russi, whom we call Norsemen
Norsemen by another name") but explains the name as a Greek term referring to their physical traits ("A certain people made up of a part of the Norse, whom the Greeks call [...] the Russi on account of their physical features, we designate as Norsemen because of the location of their origin."). Leo the Deacon, a 10th-century Byzantine
Byzantine historian and chronicler, refers to the Rus' as "Scythians" and notes that they tended to adopt Greek rituals and customs. But 'Scythians' in Greek parlance is used predominantly as a generic term for nomads.
Invitation of the Varangians
The Invitation of the
Varangians by Viktor Vasnetsov: Rurik
Rurik and his brothers Sineus and Truvor
Sineus and Truvor arrive at the lands of the Ilmen Slavs. According to the Primary Chronicle, the territories of the East Slavs in the 9th century were divided between the Varangians
Varangians and the Khazars. The Varangians
Varangians are first mentioned imposing tribute from Slavic and Finnic tribes in 859. In 862, the Finnic and Slavic tribes in the area of Novgorod
Novgorod rebelled against the Varangians, driving them "back beyond the sea and, refusing them further tribute, set out to govern themselves." The tribes had no laws, however, and soon began to make war with one another, prompting them to invite the Varangians
Varangians back to rule them and bring peace to the region:
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said to themselves, "Let us seek a prince who may rule over us, and
judge us according to the Law." They accordingly went overseas to the
Varangian Rus'. … The Chuds, the Slavs, the
Krivichs and the Ves then said to the Rus', "Our land is great and rich, but there is no order in it. Come to rule and reign over us". They thus selected three brothers with their kinfolk, who took with them all the Rus' and migrated.— The Primary Chronicle
The three brothers—Rurik, Sineus, and Truvor—established
themselves in Novgorod, Beloozero, and Izborsk,
respectively. Two of the brothers died, and
Rurik became the sole ruler of the territory and progenitor of the Rurik Dynasty. A short time later, two of Rurik’s men, Askold and Dir, asked him for permission to go to Tsargrad (Constantinople). On their way south, they discovered "a small city on a hill," Kiev, captured it and the surrounding country from the Khazars, populated the region with more Varangians, and "established their dominion over the country of the Polyanians." The Chronicle reports that Askold and Dir
Askold and Dir continued to Constantinople with a navy to attack the city in 863–66, catching the Byzantines by surprise and ravaging the surrounding area, though other accounts date the attack in 860. Patriarch Photius vividly describes the "universal" devastation of the suburbs and nearby islands, and another account further details the destruction and slaughter of the invasion. The Rus' turned back before attacking the city itself, due either to a storm dispersing their boats, the return of the Emperor, or in a later account, due to a miracle after a ceremonial appeal by the Patriarch and the Emperor to the Virgin. The attack was the first encounter between the Rus' and Byzantines and led the Patriarch to send missionaries north to engage and attempt to convert the Rus' and the Slavs.
Foundation of the Kievan state
East-Slavic tribes and peoples, 8th–9th centuries
Rurik led the Rus' until his death in about 879, bequeathing his kingdom to his kinsman, Prince Oleg, as regent for his young son, Igor. In 880-82, Oleg led a military force south along the Dnieper
Dnieper river, capturing Smolensk
Smolensk and Lyubech
Lyubech before reaching Kiev, where he deposed and killed Askold and Dir, proclaimed himself prince, and declared Kiev
Kiev the "mother of Rus' cities."[note 1] Oleg set about consolidating his power over the surrounding region and the riverways north to Novgorod, imposing tribute on the East Slav tribes. In 883, he conquered the Drevlians, imposing a fur tribute on them. By 885 he had subjugated the Poliane, Severiane, Vyatichi, and Radimichs, forbidding them to pay further tribute to the Khazars. Oleg continued to develop and expand a network of Rus' forts in Slav lands, begun by Rurik
Rurik in the north. The new Kievan state prospered due to its abundant supply of furs, beeswax, honey, and slaves for export, and because it controlled three main trade routes of Eastern Europe. In the north, Novgorod
Novgorod served as a commercial link between the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea and the Volga trade route
Volga trade route to the lands of the Volga Bulgars, the Khazars, and across the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea as far as Baghdad, providing access to markets and products from Central Asia
Central Asia and the Middle East. Trade from the Baltic also moved south on a network of rivers and short portages along the Dnieper
Dnieper known as the "route from the Varangians
Varangians to the Greeks," continuing to the Black Sea and on to Constantinople. Kiev
Kiev was a central outpost along the Dnieper
Dnieper route and a hub with the east-west overland trade route between the Khazars
Khazars and the Germanic lands of Central Europe. These commercial connections enriched Rus' merchants and princes, funding military forces and the construction of churches, palaces, fortifications, and further towns. Demand for luxury goods fostered production of expensive jewelry and religious wares, allowing their export, and an advanced credit and money-lending system may have also been in place.
Early foreign relations
Volatile steppe politics
The rapid expansion of the Rus' to the south led to conflict and
volatile relationships with the
Khazars and other neighbors on the Pontic steppe. The Khazars dominated the Black Sea
Black Sea steppe during the 8th century, trading and frequently allying with the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire against Persians and Arabs. In the late 8th century, the collapse of the Göktürk Khaganate led the Magyars
Magyars and the Pechenegs, Ugric and Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples from Central Asia, to migrate west into the steppe region, leading to military conflict, disruption of trade, and instability within the Khazar Khaganate. The Rus' and Slavs
Slavs had earlier allied with the Khazars
Khazars against Arab
Arab raids on the Caucasus, but they increasingly worked against them to secure control of the trade routes.
Volga trade route
Volga trade route (red), the "route from the Varangians
Varangians to the Greeks" (purple) and other trade routes of the 8th–11th centuries (orange) The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire was able to take advantage of the turmoil to expand its political influence and commercial relationships, first with the Khazars
Khazars and later with the Rus' and other steppe groups. The Byzantines established the Theme of Cherson, formally known as Klimata, in the Crimea in the 830s to defend against raids by the Rus' and to protect vital grain shipments supplying Constantinople. Cherson also served as a key diplomatic link with the Khazars
Khazars and others on the steppe, and it became the centre of Black Sea
Black Sea commerce. The Byzantines also helped the Khazars
Khazars build a fortress at Sarkel
Sarkel on the Don river to protect their northwest frontier against incursions by the Turkic migrants and the Rus', and to control caravan trade routes and the portage between the Don and Volga rivers. The expansion of the Rus' put further military and economic pressure on the Khazars, depriving them of territory, tributaries, and trade. In around 890, Oleg waged an indecisive war in the lands of the lower Dniester and Dnieper
Dnieper rivers with the Tivertsi
Tivertsi and the Ulichs, who were likely acting as vassals of the Magyars, blocking Rus' access to the Black Sea. In 894, the Magyars
Magyars and Pechenegs
Pechenegs were drawn into the wars between the Byzantines and the Bulgarian Empire. The Byzantines arranged for the Magyars
Magyars to attack Bulgarian territory from the north, and Bulgaria in turn persuaded the Pechenegs
Pechenegs to attack the Magyars
Magyars from their rear. Boxed in, the Magyars
Magyars were forced to migrate further west across the Carpathian Mountains
Carpathian Mountains into the Hungarian plain, depriving the Khazars of an important ally and a buffer from the Rus'. The migration of the Magyars
Magyars allowed Rus' access to the Black Sea, and they soon launched excursions into Khazar territory along the sea coast, up the Don river, and into the lower Volga region. The Rus' were raiding and plundering into the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea region from 864,[note 2] with the first large-scale expedition in 913, when they extensively raided Baku, Gilan, Mazandaran and penetrated into the Caucasus.[note 3] As the 10th century progressed, the Khazars
Khazars were no longer able to command tribute from the Volga Bulgars, and their relationship with the Byzantines deteriorated, as Byzantium increasingly allied with the Pechenegs
Pechenegs against them. The Pechenegs
Pechenegs were thus secure to raid the lands of the Khazars
Khazars from their base between the Volga and Don rivers, allowing them to expand to the west. Rus' relations with the Pechenegs
Pechenegs were complex, as the groups alternately formed alliances with and against one another. The Pechenegs
Pechenegs were nomads roaming the steppe raising livestock which they traded with the Rus' for agricultural goods and other products. The lucrative Rus' trade with the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire had to pass through Pecheneg-controlled territory, so the need for generally peaceful relations was essential. Nevertheless, while the Primary Chronicle reports the Pechenegs
Pechenegs entering Rus' territory in 915 and then making peace, they were waging war with one another again in 920. Pechenegs
Pechenegs are reported assisting the Rus' in later campaigns against the Byzantines, yet allied with the Byzantines against the Rus' at other times.
Byzantine relations Rus' under the walls of Constantinople
Constantinople (860) After the Rus' attack on Constantinople
Constantinople in 860, the Byzantine Patriarch Photius sent missionaries north to convert the Rus' and the Slavs. Prince Rastislav of Moravia
Rastislav of Moravia had requested the Emperor to provide teachers to interpret the holy scriptures, so in 863 the brothers Cyril and Methodius were sent as missionaries, due to their knowledge of the Slavonic language. The Slavs
Slavs had no written language, so the brothers devised the Glagolitic alphabet, later developed into Cyrillic, and standardized the language of the Slavs, later known as Old Church Slavonic. They translated portions of the Bible and drafted the first Slavic civil code and other documents, and the language and texts spread throughout Slavic territories, including Kievan Rus'. The mission of Cyril and Methodius served both evangelical and diplomatic purposes, spreading Byzantine
Byzantine cultural influence in support of imperial foreign policy. In 867 the Patriarch announced that the Rus' had accepted a bishop, and in 874 he speaks of an "Archbishop of the Rus'." Relations between the Rus' and Byzantines became more complex after Oleg took control over Kiev, reflecting commercial, cultural, and military concerns. The wealth and income of the Rus' depended heavily upon trade with Byzantium. Constantine Porphyrogenitus described the annual course of the princes of Kiev, collecting tribute from client tribes, assembling the product into a flotilla of hundreds of boats, conducting them down the Dnieper
Dnieper to the Black Sea, and sailing to the estuary of the Dniester, the Danube delta, and on to Constantinople. On their return trip they would carry silk fabrics, spices, wine, and fruit. The importance of this trade relationship led to military action when disputes arose. The Primary Chronicle
Primary Chronicle reports that the Rus' attacked Constantinople
Constantinople again in 907, probably to secure trade access. The Chronicle glorifies the military prowess and shrewdness of Oleg, an account imbued with legendary detail. Byzantine
Byzantine sources do not mention the attack, but a pair of treaties in 907 and 911 set forth a trade agreement with the Rus', the terms suggesting pressure on the Byzantines, who granted the Rus' quarters and supplies for their merchants and tax-free trading privileges in Constantinople. The Chronicle provides a mythic tale of Oleg's death. A sorcerer prophesies that the death of the Grand Prince
Grand Prince would be associated with a certain horse. Oleg has the horse sequestered, and it later dies. Oleg goes to visit the horse and stands over the carcass, gloating that he had outlived the threat, when a snake strikes him from among the bones, and he soon becomes ill and dies. The Chronicle reports that Prince Igor succeeded Oleg in 913, and after some brief conflicts with the Drevlians
Drevlians and the Pechenegs, a period of peace ensued for over twenty years.
Princess Olga's avenge to the Drevlians. Radzivill chronicle
In 941, Igor led another major Rus' attack on Constantinople, probably
over trading rights again. A navy of 10,000
Pecheneg allies, landed on the Bithynian coast and devastated the Asiatic shore of the Bosphorus. The attack was well-timed, perhaps due to intelligence, as the Byzantine
Byzantine fleet was occupied with the Arabs in the Mediterranean, and the bulk of its army was stationed in the east. The Rus' burned towns, churches, and monasteries, butchering the people and amassing booty. The emperor arranged for a small group of retired ships to be outfitted with Greek fire throwers and sent them out to meet the Rus', luring them into surrounding the contingent before unleashing the Greek fire. Liutprand of Cremona wrote that "the Rus', seeing the flames, jumped overboard, preferring water to fire. Some sank, weighed down by the weight of their breastplates and helmets; others caught fire." Those captured were beheaded. The ploy dispelled the Rus' fleet, but their attacks continued into the hinterland as far as Nicomedia, with many atrocities reported as victims were crucified and set up for use as targets. At last a Byzantine
Byzantine army arrived from the Balkans to drive the Rus' back, and a naval contingent reportedly destroyed much of the Rus' fleet on its return voyage (possibly an exaggeration since the Rus' soon mounted another attack). The outcome indicates increased military might by Byzantium since 911, suggesting a shift in the balance of power. Igor returned to Kiev
Kiev keen for revenge. He assembled a large force of warriors from among neighboring Slavs
Slavs and Pecheneg
Pecheneg allies, and sent for reinforcements of Varangians
Varangians from “beyond the sea.” In 944 the Rus' force advanced again on the Greeks, by land and sea, and a Byzantine
Byzantine force from Cherson responded. The Emperor sent gifts and offered tribute in lieu of war, and the Rus' accepted. Envoys were sent between the Rus', the Byzantines, and the Bulgarians in 945, and a peace treaty was completed. The agreement again focused on trade, but this time with terms less favorable to the Rus', including stringent regulations on the conduct of Rus' merchants in Cherson and Constantinople
Constantinople and specific punishments for violations of the law. The Byzantines may have been motivated to enter the treaty out of concern of a prolonged alliance of the Rus', Pechenegs, and Bulgarians against them, though the more favorable terms further suggest a shift in power.
Madrid Skylitzes, meeting between John Tzimiskes and Sviatoslav
Following the death of
Grand Prince Igor in 945, his wife Olga ruled as regent in Kiev
Kiev until their son Sviatoslav reached maturity (ca. 963).[note 4] His decade-long reign over Rus' was marked by rapid expansion through the conquest of the Khazars
Khazars of the Pontic steppe and the invasion of the Balkans. By the end of his short life, Sviatoslav carved out for himself the largest state in Europe, eventually moving his capital from Kiev
Kiev to Pereyaslavets on the Danube in 969. In contrast with his mother's conversion to Christianity, Sviatoslav, like his druzhina, remained a staunch pagan. Due to his abrupt death in an ambush in 972, Sviatoslav's conquests, for the most part, were not consolidated into a functioning empire, while his failure to establish a stable succession led to a fratricidal feud among his sons, which resulted in two of his three sons being killed.
Reign of Vladimir and Christianisation
Christianization of Kievan Rus' Rogneda of Polotsk, Vladimir I of Kiev
Kiev and Izyaslav of Polotsk Baptism of Saint Prince Vladimir, by Viktor Vasnetsov, in the St Volodymyr's Cathedral It is not clearly documented when the title of the Grand Duke was first introduced, but the importance of the Kiev
Kiev principality was recognized after the death of Sviatoslav I in 972 and the ensuing struggle between Vladimir the Great
Vladimir the Great and Yaropolk I. The region of Kiev dominated the state of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus' for the next two centuries. The Grand Prince
Grand Prince ("velikiy kniaz'") of Kiev
Kiev controlled the lands around the city, and his formally subordinate relatives ruled the other cities and paid him tribute. The zenith of the state's power came during the reigns of Vladimir the Great
Vladimir the Great (980–1015) and Prince Yaroslav I the Wise
Yaroslav I the Wise (1019–1054). Both rulers continued the steady expansion of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus' that had begun under Oleg. Vladimir had been prince of Novgorod
Novgorod when his father Sviatoslav I died in 972. He was forced to flee to Scandinavia
Scandinavia in 976 after his half-brother Yaropolk had murdered his other brother Oleg and taken control of Rus. In Scandinavia, with the help of his relative Earl Håkon Sigurdsson, ruler of Norway, Vladimir assembled a Viking
Viking army and reconquered Novgorod
Novgorod and Kiev
Kiev from Yaropolk. As Prince of Kiev, Vladimir's most notable achievement was the Christianization of Kievan Rus', a process that began in 988. The Primary Chronicle states that when Vladimir had decided to accept a new faith instead of the traditional idol-worship (paganism) of the Slavs, he sent out some of his most valued advisors and warriors as emissaries to different parts of Europe. They visited the Christians of the Latin Rite, the Jews, and the Muslims
Muslims before finally arriving in Constantinople. They rejected Islam because, among other things, it prohibited the consumption of alcohol, and Judaism because the god of the Jews had permitted his chosen people to be deprived of their country. They found the ceremonies in the Roman church to be dull. But at Constantinople, they were so astounded by the beauty of the cathedral of Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia and the liturgical service held there that they made up their minds there and then about the faith they would like to follow. Upon their arrival home, they convinced Vladimir that the faith of the Byzantine Rite
Byzantine Rite was the best choice of all, upon which Vladimir made a journey to Constantinople
Constantinople and arranged to marry Princess Anna, the sister of Byzantine
Byzantine emperor Basil II.
Ivan Eggink's painting represents Vladimir listening to the Orthodox
priests, while the papal envoy stands aside in discontent.
Vladimir's choice of Eastern Christianity may also have reflected his
close personal ties with Constantinople, which dominated the Black Sea
and hence trade on Kiev's most vital commercial route, the Dnieper
River. Adherence to the
Eastern Church had long-range political, cultural, and religious consequences. The church had a liturgy written in Cyrillic
Cyrillic and a corpus of translations from Greek that had been produced for the Slavic peoples. This literature facilitated the conversion to Christianity of the Eastern Slavs
Slavs and introduced them to rudimentary Greek philosophy, science, and historiography without the necessity of learning Greek (there were some merchants who did business with Greeks and likely had an understanding of contemporary business Greek). In contrast, educated people in medieval Western and Central Europe
Europe learned Latin. Enjoying independence from the Roman authority and free from tenets of Latin learning, the East Slavs
Slavs developed their own literature and fine arts, quite distinct from those of other Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox countries. (See Old East Slavic language
Old East Slavic language and Architecture of Kievan Rus for details). Following the Great Schism of 1054, the Rus' church maintained communion with both Rome and Constantinople
Constantinople for some time, but along with most of the Eastern churches it eventually split to follow the Eastern Orthodox. That being said, unlike other parts of the Greek world, Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus' did not have a strong hostility to the Western world.
Golden Gate, Kiev
Yaroslav, known as "the Wise", struggled for power with his brothers.
A son of Vladimir the Great, he was vice-regent of
Novgorod at the time of his father's death in 1015. Subsequently, his eldest surviving brother, Svyatopolk the Accursed, killed three of his other brothers and seized power in Kiev. Yaroslav, with the active support of the Novgorodians and the help of Viking
Viking mercenaries, defeated Svyatopolk and became the grand prince of Kiev
Kiev in 1019. Although he first established his rule over Kiev
Kiev in 1019, he did not have uncontested rule of all of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus' until 1036. Like Vladimir, Yaroslav was eager to improve relations with the rest of Europe, especially the Byzantine
Byzantine Empire. Yaroslav's granddaughter, Eupraxia the daughter of his son Vsevolod I, Prince of Kiev, was married to Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. Yaroslav also arranged marriages for his sister and three daughters to the kings of Poland, France, Hungary
Hungary and Norway. Yaroslav promulgated the first East Slavic law code, Russkaya Pravda; built Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev
Kiev and Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod; patronized local clergy and monasticism; and is said to have founded a school system. Yaroslav's sons developed the great Kiev
Kiev Pechersk Lavra (monastery), which functioned in Kievan Rus' as an ecclesiastical academy. In the centuries that followed the state's foundation, Rurik's descendants shared power over Kievan Rus'. Princely succession moved from elder to younger brother and from uncle to nephew, as well as from father to son. Junior members of the dynasty usually began their official careers as rulers of a minor district, progressed to more lucrative principalities, and then competed for the coveted throne of Kiev.
Fragmentation and decline
The gradual disintegration of the
Kievan Rus' began in the 11th century, after the death of Yaroslav the Wise. The position of the Grand Prince
Grand Prince of Kiev
Kiev was weakened by the growing influence of regional clans. An unconventional power succession system was established (rota system) whereby power was transferred to the eldest member of the ruling dynasty rather than from father to son, i.e. in most cases to the eldest brother of the ruler, fomenting constant hatred and rivalry within the royal family. Familicide was frequently deployed to obtain power and can be traced particularly during the time of the Yaroslavichi (sons of Yaroslav), when the established system was skipped in the establishment of Vladimir II Monomakh as the Grand Prince
Grand Prince of Kiev,[clarification needed] in turn creating major squabbles between Olegovichi from Chernihiv, Monomakhs from Pereyaslav, Izyaslavichi from Turov/Volhynia, and Polotsk
Polotsk Princes.
The Nativity, a Kievan (possibly Galician) illumination from the
The most prominent struggle for power was the conflict that erupted
after the death of Yaroslav the Wise. The rivaling
Principality of Polotsk
Polotsk was contesting the power of the Grand Prince
Grand Prince by occupying Novgorod, while Rostislav Vladimirovich was fighting for the Black Sea port of Tmutarakan
Tmutarakan belonging to Chernihiv. Three of Yaroslav's sons that first allied together found themselves fighting each other especially after their defeat to the Cuman
Cuman forces in 1068 at the Battle of the Alta River. At the same time, an uprising took place in Kiev, bringing to power Vseslav of Polotsk
Vseslav of Polotsk who supported the traditional Slavic paganism. The ruling Grand Prince
Grand Prince Iziaslav fled to Poland
Poland asking for support and in couple of years returned to establish the order. The affairs became even more complicated by the end of the 11th century driving the state into chaos and constant warfare. On the initiative of Vladimir II Monomakh
Vladimir II Monomakh in 1097 the first federal council of Kievan Rus took place near Chernihiv
Chernihiv in the city of Liubech
Liubech with the main intention to find an understanding among the fighting sides. However, even though that did not really stop the fighting, it certainly cooled things off. By 1130, all descendants of Vseslav the Seer had been exiled to the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire by Mstislav the Great. The most fierce resistance to Monomakhs posed Olegovichi when the izgoi Vsevolod II managed to become the Grand Prince
Grand Prince of Kiev. Rostislavichi who have initially established in Halych
Halych lands by 1189 were defeated by the Monomakh-Piast descendant Roman the Great. The decline of Constantinople – a main trading partner of Kievan Rus' – played a significant role in the decline of the Kievan Rus'. The trade route from the Varangians
Varangians to the Greeks, along which the goods were moving from the Black Sea
Black Sea (mainly Byzantine) through eastern Europe
Europe to the Baltic, was a cornerstone of Kiev
Kiev wealth and prosperity. Kiev
Kiev was the main power and initiator in this relationship, once the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire fell into turmoil and the supplies became erratic, profits dried out, and Kiev
Kiev lost its appeal. The last ruler to maintain a united state was Mstislav the Great. After his death in 1132, the Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus' fell into recession and a rapid decline, and Mstislav's successor Yaropolk II of Kiev
Kiev instead of focusing on the external threat of the Cumans
Cumans was embroiled in conflicts with the growing power of the Novgorod
Novgorod Republic. In 1169, as the Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus' state was full of internal conflict, Andrei Bogolyubsky of Vladimir sacked the city of Kiev. The sack of the city fundamentally changed the perception of Kiev
Kiev and was evidence of the fragmentation of the Kievan Rus'. By the end of the 12th century, the Kievan state became even further fragmented and had been divided into roughly twelve different principalities. The Crusades
Crusades brought a shift in European trade routes that accelerated the decline of Kievan Rus'. In 1204, the forces of the Fourth Crusade sacked Constantinople, making the Dnieper
Dnieper trade route marginal. At the same time, the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights (of the Northern Crusades) were conquering the Baltic region
Baltic region and threatening the Lands of Novgorod. Concurrently with it, the Ruthenian Federation of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus' started to disintegrate into smaller principalities as the Rurik dynasty
Rurik dynasty grew. The local Orthodox Christianity
Orthodox Christianity of Kievan Rus', while struggling to establish itself in the predominantly pagan state and losing its main base in Constantinople, was on the brink of extinction. Some of the main regional centres that developed later were Novgorod, Chernigov, Halych, Kiev, Ryazan, Vladimir-upon-Klyazma, Volodimer-Volyn and Polotsk.
Novgorod Republic Main article: Republic of Novgorod In the north, the Republic of Novgorod
Novgorod prospered because it controlled trade routes from the River Volga
River Volga to the Baltic Sea. As Kievan Rus' declined, Novgorod
Novgorod became more independent. A local oligarchy ruled Novgorod; major government decisions were made by a town assembly, which also elected a prince as the city's military leader. In 1136, Novgorod
Novgorod revolted against Kiev, and became independent. Now an independent city republic, and referred to as "Lord Novgorod the Great" it would spread its "mercantile interest" to the west and the north; to the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea and the low-populated forest regions respectively. In 1169, Novgorod
Novgorod acquired its own archbishop, named Ilya, a sign of further increased importance and political independence. Novgorod
Novgorod enjoyed a wide degree of autonomy although being closely associated with the Kievan Rus.
Main article: Vladimir-Suzdal
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1139 map of the Grand Duchy of Kiev, where northeastern territories
identified as the Transforrest Colonies (Zalesie) by Joachim Lelewel
In the northeast,
Slavs from the Kievan region colonized the territory that later would become the Grand Duchy of Moscow
Grand Duchy of Moscow by subjugating and merging with the Finnic tribes already occupying the area. The city of Rostov, the oldest centre of the northeast, was supplanted first by Suzdal
Suzdal and then by the city of Vladimir, which become the capital of Vladimir-Suzdal'. The combined principality of Vladimir-Suzdal asserted itself as a major power in Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus' in the late 12th century. In 1169, Prince Andrey Bogolyubskiy
Prince Andrey Bogolyubskiy of Vladimir-Suzdal
Vladimir-Suzdal sacked the city of Kiev
Kiev and took over the title of the (Великий Князь/Velikiy Knyaz/ Grand Prince
Grand Prince or Grand Duke) to claim primacy in Rus'. Prince Andrey then installed his younger brother, who ruled briefly in Kiev
Kiev while Andrey continued to rule his realm from Suzdal. In 1299, in the wake of the Mongol invasion, the metropolitan moved from Kiev
Kiev to the city of Vladimir and Vladimir-Suzdal.
Main article: Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
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To the southwest, the principality of
Halych had developed trade relations with its Polish, Hungarian and Lithuanian neighbours and emerged as the local successor to Kievan Rus'. In 1199, Prince Roman Mstislavych united the two previously separate principalities. In 1202 he conquered Kiev, and assumed the title of Knyaz
Knyaz of Kievan Rus', which was held by the rulers of Vladimir-Suzdal
Vladimir-Suzdal since 1169. His son, Prince Daniel
Prince Daniel (r. 1238–1264) looked for support from the West. He accepted a crown as a "Rex Rusiae" ("King of Rus") from the Roman papacy, apparently doing so without breaking with Constantinople. In 1370, the patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church in Constantinople granted the King of Poland
Poland a metropolitan for his Ruthenian subjects. Lithuanian rulers also requested and received a metropolitan for Novagrudok shortly afterwards. Cyprian, a candidate pushed by the Lithuanian rulers, became Metropolitan of Kiev
Kiev in 1375 and metropolitan of Moscow
Moscow in 1382; this way the church in the Russian countries was reunited for some time. In 1439, Kiev
Kiev became the seat of a separate "Metropolitan of Kiev, Halych
Halych and all Rus'" for all Greek Orthodox Christians under Polish-Lithuanian rule. However, a long and unsuccessful struggle against the Mongols combined with internal opposition to the prince and foreign intervention weakened Galicia-Volhynia. With the end of the Mstislavich branch of the Rurikids
Rurikids in the mid-14th century, Galicia- Volhynia
Volhynia ceased to exist; Poland
Poland conquered Halych; Lithuania
Lithuania took Volhynia, including Kiev, conquered by Gediminas
Gediminas in 1321 ending the rule of Rurikids
Rurikids in the city. Lithuanian rulers then assumed the title over Ruthenia.
Lilac borders: Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, one of the successor
states of Kievan Rus'
The state finally disintegrated under the pressure of the Mongol
invasion of Rus', fragmenting it into successor principalities who
paid tribute to the
Golden Horde (the so-called Tatar Yoke). In the late 15th century, the Muscovite Grand Dukes began taking over former Kievan territories and proclaimed themselves the sole legal successors of the Kievan principality according to the protocols of the medieval theory of translatio imperii. On the western periphery, Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus' was succeeded by the Principality
Principality of Galicia-Volhynia. Later, as these territories, now part of modern central Ukraine
Ukraine and Belarus, fell to the Gediminids, the powerful, largely Ruthenized Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania drew heavily on Rus' cultural and legal traditions. Due to the fact of the economic and cultural core of Rus' being located on the territory of modern Ukraine, Ukrainian historians and scholars consider Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus' to be a founding Ukrainian state. On the north-eastern periphery of Kievan Rus', traditions were adapted in the Vladimir-Suzdal
Principality that gradually gravitated towards Moscow. To the very north, the Novgorod
Novgorod and Pskov Feudal Republics were less autocratic than Vladimir- Suzdal- Moscow
Moscow until they were absorbed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Russian historians consider Kievan Rus the first period of Russian history.
During the Kievan era, trade and transport depended largely on
networks of rivers and portages. The peoples of Rus'
experienced a period of great economic expansion, opening trade routes
Vikings to the north and west and with the Byzantine
Byzantine Greeks to the south and west; traders also began to travel south and east, eventually making contact with Persia
Persia and the peoples of Central Asia.
Old Russian Law
Old Russian Law and Russkaya Pravda Administering justice in Kievan Rus, by Ivan Bilibin Ship burial
Ship burial of a Rus' chieftain as described by the Arab
Arab traveler Ahmad ibn Fadlan, who visited North-Eastern Europe
Europe in the 10th century. Henryk Siemiradzki
Henryk Siemiradzki (1883) Due to the expansion of trade and its geographical proximity, Kiev became the most important trade centre and chief among the communes; therefore the leader of Kiev
Kiev gained political "control" over the surrounding areas. This princedom emerged from a coalition of traditional patriarchic family communes banded together in an effort to increase the applicable workforce and expand the productivity of the land. This union developed the first major cities in the Rus' and was the first notable form of self-government. As these communes became larger, the emphasis was taken off the family holdings and placed on the territory that surrounded. This shift in ideology became known as the verv'. In the 11th and the 12th centuries, the princes and their retinues, which were a mixture of Slavic and Scandinavian elites, dominated the society of Kievan Rus'. Leading soldiers and officials received income and land from the princes in return for their political and military services. Kievan society lacked the class institutions and autonomous towns that were typical of Western European feudalism. Nevertheless, urban merchants, artisans and labourers sometimes exercised political influence through a city assembly, the veche (council), which included all the adult males in the population. In some cases, the veche either made agreements with their rulers or expelled them and invited others to take their place. At the bottom of society was a stratum of slaves. More important was a class of tribute-paying peasants, who owed labour duty to the princes. The widespread personal serfdom characteristic of Western Europe
Europe did not exist in Kievan Rus'. The change in political structure led to the inevitable development of the peasant class or smerdy. The smerdy were free un-landed people that found work by labouring for wages on the manors that began to develop around 1031 as the verv' began to dominate socio-political structure. The smerdy were initially given equality in the Kievian law code, they were theoretically equal to the prince, so they enjoyed as much freedom as can be expected of manual labourers. However, in the 13th century, they slowly began to lose their rights and became less equal in the eyes of the law.
The field of Igor Svyatoslavich's battle with the Polovtsy, by
Kievan Rus', although sparsely populated compared to Western
Europe, was not only the largest contemporary European
state in terms of area but also culturally advanced.
Literacy in Kiev,
Novgorod and other large cities was high. As birch bark documents attest, they exchanged love letters and prepared cheat sheets for schools. Novgorod had a sewage system and wood paving not often found in other cities at the time. The Russkaya Pravda
Russkaya Pravda confined punishments to fines and generally did not use capital punishment. Certain rights were accorded to women, such as property and inheritance rights. The economic development of Kievan Rus may be translated into demographic statistics. Around 1200, Kiev
Kiev had a population of 50,000, Novgorod
Novgorod and Chernigov both had around 30,000. Constantinople
Constantinople had population of about 400,000 around 1180. The Soviet scholar Mikhail Tikhomirov calculated that Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus' on the eve of the Mongol invasion had around 300 urban centres. Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus' also played an important genealogical role in European politics. Yaroslav the Wise, whose stepmother belonged to the Macedonian dynasty, which ruled the Byzantine
Byzantine empire from 867 to 1056, married the only legitimate daughter of the king who Christianized Sweden. His daughters became queens of Hungary, France and Norway, his sons married the daughters of a Polish king and a Byzantine
Byzantine emperor (not to mention a niece of the Pope), while his granddaughters were a German Empress and (according to one theory) the queen of Scotland. A grandson married the only daughter of the last Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon king of England. Thus the Rurikids
Rurikids were a well-connected royal family of the time.
Varangians and Grand Prince
Grand Prince of Kiev Turco-Mongols See also: Schechter Letter
Schechter Letter and Mongol invasion of Rus' The sacking of Suzdal, by Batu Khan From the 9th century, the Pecheneg
Pecheneg nomads began an uneasy relationship with Kievan Rus′. For over two centuries they launched sporadic raids into the lands of Rus′, which sometimes escalated into full-scale wars (such as the 920 war on the Pechenegs
Pechenegs by Igor of Kiev reported in the Primary Chronicle), but there were also temporary military alliances (e.g. the 943 Byzantine
Byzantine campaign by Igor).[note 5] In 968, the Pechenegs
Pechenegs attacked and besieged the city of Kiev. Some speculation exists that the Pechenegs
Pechenegs drove off the Tivertsi
Tivertsi and the Ulichs
Ulichs to the regions of the upper Dniester river in Bukovina. The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire was known to support the Pechenegs
Pechenegs in their military campaigns against the Eastern Slavic states. Boniak was a Cuman
Cuman khan who led a series of invasions on Kievan Rus′. In 1096, Boniak attacked Kiev, plundered the Kiev
Monastery of the Caves, and burned down the prince's palace in Berestovo. He was defeated in 1107 by Vladimir Monomakh, Oleg, Sviatopolk and other Rus′ princes. The Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev. Giovanni de Plano Carpini, the Pope's envoy to the Mongol Great Khan, traveled through Kiev
Kiev in February 1246 and wrote:
"They [the Mongols] attacked Rus, where they made great havoc,
destroying cities and fortresses and slaughtering men; and they laid
siege to Kiev, the capital of Rus; after they had besieged the city
for a long time, they took it and put the inhabitants to death. When
we were journeying through that land we came across countless skulls
and bones of dead men lying about on the ground.
Kiev had been a very large and thickly populated town, but now it has been reduced almost to nothing, for there are at the present time scarce two hundred houses there and the inhabitants are kept in complete slavery" Byzantine
Byzantine Empire See also: Rus'– Byzantine
Byzantine War Druzhina Byzantium quickly became the main trading and cultural partner for Kiev, but relations were not always friendly. The most serious conflict between the two powers was the war of 968–971 in Bulgaria, but several Rus' raiding expeditions against the Byzantine
Byzantine cities of the Black Sea
Black Sea coast and Constantinople
Constantinople itself are also recorded. Although most were repulsed, they were concluded by trade treaties that were generally favourable to the Rus'. Rus'- Byzantine
Byzantine relations became closer following the marriage of the porphyrogenita Anna to Vladimir the Great, and the subsequent Christianization
Christianization of the Rus': Byzantine
Byzantine priests, architects and artists were invited to work on numerous cathedrals and churches around Rus', expanding Byzantine
Byzantine cultural influence even further. Numerous Rus' served in the Byzantine
Byzantine army as mercenaries, most notably as the famous Varangian Guard.
Caspian expeditions of the Rus'
Caspian expeditions of the Rus' (864 - 1041) Rus'– Byzantine
Byzantine Wars (830 - 1043) 1018 Polish intervention
See also: List of early East Slavic states
Novgorod Land 862–1478 the allied territory of Kievan Rus'; from 1136 the Novgorod
Novgorod Republic Principality
Principality of Rostov- Suzdal
Principality until 1125; became Vladimir-Suzdal
Principality in 1155 Principality of Polotsk
Principality of Polotsk 9th century-14th century (separatist territory, partial suzerainty under Kievan Rus') Principality
Principality of Minsk Principality
Principality of Smolensk
Smolensk from 1054 Principality
Principality of Pereyaslavl Principality
Principality of Volhynia Principality
Principality of Kiev
Kiev from 1132–1399 Principality
Principality of Galicia Principality of Turov
Principality of Turov and Pinsk Principality
Principality of Chernigov Murom- Ryazan
Principality until 1078 Principality
Principality of Novgorod-Seversk City of Tmutarakan
Tmutarakan from 988 until some time in the 12th century Belaya Vezha from 965 until some time in the 12th century Southern dependencies Oleshky, New Galich, Peresechen' Drevlian territories annexed to Rus' by Oleg ?-884; 912–946 (vassal of Rus' from 914, Drevlians
Drevlians Uprising in 945) Principal cities Belgorod Kievsky, capital of Rus' under Rurik
Rurik Rostislavich Chernihiv, capital along with Kiev
Kiev from 1024–1036 (joint rule between Yaroslav and Mstislav) Halych Kiev Minsk, centre of Principality
Principality of Minsk Murom Pereyaslavets, capital of Rus' from 969–971 (in current day Romania) Polotsk Rostov
Rostov Veliky Ryazan Smolensk Staraya Ladoga Suzdal Tmutarakan Veliky Novgorod Vladimir Vyshgorod, princes' residence and royal library (at Mezhyhirya) Religion Model of the original Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev; used on modern 2 hryvni of Ukraine Saint Sophia Cathedral in Polotsk
Polotsk (rebuilt in the mid-18th century after destruction by Russian army) Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod, mid-11th century Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir, 1160 In 988, the Christian Church in Rus' territorially fell under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople
Constantinople after it was officially adopted as the state religion. According to several chronicles after that date the predominant cult of Slavic paganism
Slavic paganism was persecuted. The exact date of creation of the Kiev
Kiev Metropolis is uncertain, as well as who was the first leader of the church. Predominantly it is considered that the first head was Michael I of Kiev, however some sources also claim Leontiy who is often placed after Michael or Anastas Chersonesos, became the first bishop of the Church of the Tithes. The first metropolitan to be confirmed by historical sources is Theopemp, who was appointed by Patriarch Alexius of Constantinople in 1038. Before 1015 there were five dioceses: Kiev, Chernihiv, Bilhorod, Volodymyr, Novgorod, and soon thereafter Yuriy-upon-Ros. The Kiev
Kiev Metropolitan sent his own delegation to the Council of Bari
Council of Bari in 1098. After the sacking of Kiev
Kiev in 1169, part of the Kiev
Kiev metropolis started to move to Vladimir-upon-Klyazma, concluding the move sometime after 1240 when Kiev
Kiev was taken by Batu Khan. Metropolitan Maxim was the first metropolitan who chose Vladimir-upon-Klyazma as his official residence in 1299. As a result, in 1303, Lev I of Galicia
Lev I of Galicia petitioned Patriarch Athanasius I of Constantinople
Constantinople for the creation of a new Halych
Halych metropolis; however, it only existed until 1347. The Church of the Tithes
Church of the Tithes was chosen as the first Cathedral Temple. In 1037, the cathedral was transferred to the newly built Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev. Upon the transferring of the metropolitan seat in 1299, the Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir
Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir was chosen as the new cathedral. By the mid 13th century, the dioceses of Kiev
Kiev Metropolis (988) were as follows: Kiev
Kiev (988), Pereyaslav, Chernihiv
Chernihiv (991), Volodymyr-Volynsky (992), Turov (1005), Polotsk
Polotsk (1104), Novgorod
Novgorod (~990s), Smolensk (1137), Murom
Murom (1198), Peremyshl (1120), Halych
Halych (1134), Vladimir-upon-Klyazma (1215), Rostov
Rostov (991), Bilhorod, Yuriy (1032), Chełm (1235), Tver (1271). There also were dioceses in Zakarpattia and Tmutarakan. In 1261 the Sarai-Batu diocese was established.
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^ Normanist scholars accept this moment as the foundation of the
Kievan Rus' state, while anti-Normanists point to other Chronicle entries to argue that the East Slav Polianes were already in the process of forming a state independently.
^ Abaskun, first recorded by
Ptolemy as Socanaa, was documented in Arab
Arab sources as "the most famous port of the Khazarian Sea". It was situated within three days' journey from Gorgan. The southern part of the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea was known as the "Sea of Abaskun".
^ The Khazar khagan initially granted the Rus' safe passage in exchange for a share of the booty but attacked them on their return voyage, killing most of the raiders and seizing their haul.
^ If Olga was indeed born in 879, as the
Primary Chronicle seems to imply, she would have been about 65 at the time of Sviatoslav's birth. There are clearly some problems with chronology.
^ Б.Ц.Урланис. Рост населения в Европе (PDF) (in Russian). p. 89..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em
^ a b ‹See Tfd›(in Russian) Назаренко А. В. Глава I // Древняя Русь на международных путях: Междисциплинарные очерки культурных, торговых, политических связей IX—XII вв. — М.: Языки русской культуры, 2001. — c. 40, 42—45, 49—50. — ISBN 5-7859-0085-8.
^ Magocsi (2010), p. 73.
^ a b c John Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of
Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
^ a b Kievan Rus, Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
^ a b Plokhy, Serhii (2006). The Origins of the Slavic Nations:
Premodern Identities in Russia, Ukraine, and
Belarus (PDF). New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 10–15. ISBN 978-0-521-86403-9. Retrieved 2010-04-27. For all the salient differences between these three post-Soviet nations, they have much in common when it comes to their culture and history, which goes back to Kievan Rus', the medieval East Slavic state based in the capital of present-day Ukraine.
^ Kyivan Rus’, Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 2 (1988), Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies.
^ See Historical map of
Kievan Rus' from 980 to 1054.
^ Bushkovitch, Paul. A Concise History of Russia. Cambridge University Press. 2011.
^ Paul Robert Magocsi, Historical Atlas of East Central
Europe (1993), p.15.
^ a b "Civilization in Eastern
Europe Byzantium and Orthodox Europe". occawlonline.pearsoned.com. 2000. Archived from the original on 22 January 2010.
^ Paul R. Magocsi, A History of
Ukraine (2010), pp.56-57.
^ Tolochko, A. P. (1999). "Khimera "Kievskoy Rusi"". Rodina (in Russian) (8): 29–33.
^ Vasily Klyuchevsky, A History of Russia, vol. 3, pp. 98, 104
^ Janet Martin, Medieval Russia, 980–1584 (Cambridge, 2003), pp.2-4.
^ Carl Waldman & Catherine Mason, Encyclopedia of European Peoples (2006), p.415.
^ Martin (2003), p.4.
^ Janet Martin, From
Kiev to Muscovy: The Beginnings to 1450, in Russia: A History (Oxford Press, 1997, edited by Gregory Freeze), p. 2.
^ Magocsi (2010), p. 55.
^ Magocsi (2010), p. 56.
^ Nicholas V. Riasanovsky, A History of Russia, pp. 23-28 (Oxford Press, 1984).
^ Internet Encyclopedia of
Ukraine Normanist theory
^ The Russian Primary Chronicle, Encyclopædia Britannica Online;
Primary Chronicle Archived 2014-05-30 at the Wayback Machine, Selected Text, University of Toronto (retrieved June 4, 2013).
^ Riasanovsky, p. 25.
^ Riasanovsky, pp. 25-27.
^ a b David R. Stone, A Military History of Russia: From Ivan the Terrible to the war in Chechnya (2006), pp. 2-3.
^ Simon Franklin and Jonathan Shepherd, The Emergence of Rus 750–1200 (Harlow, Essex: 1996), pp. 38–39.
^ Fadlan, Ibn (2005). (Richard Frey) Ibn Fadlan's Journey to Russia. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers.
^ Rusios, quos alio nos nomine Nordmannos apellamus. ‹See Tfd›(in Polish) Henryk Paszkiewicz (2000). Wzrost potęgi Moskwy, s.13, Kraków. ISBN 83-86956-93-3
^ Gens quaedam est sub aquilonis parte constituta, quam a qualitate corporis Graeci vocant [...] Rusios, nos vero a positione loci nominamus Nordmannos. James Lea Cate. Medieval and Historiographical Essays in Honor of James Westfall Thompson. p.482. The University of Chicago Press, 1938
^ Leo the Deacon, The History of Leo the Deacon:
Byzantine Military Expansion in the Tenth Century (Alice-Mary Talbot & Denis Sullivan, eds., 2005), pp. 193-94.
^ Magocsi (2010), p. 59.
Primary Chronicle Archived 2014-05-30 at the Wayback Machine, p.6.
Primary Chronicle Archived 2014-05-30 at the Wayback Machine, pp.6–7.
^ Magocsi (2010), pp. 55, 59–60
^ Thomas McCray,
Russia and the Former Soviet Republics (2006), p. 26
^ a b Janet Martin, "The First East Slavic State", A Companion to Russian History (Abbott Gleason, ed., 2009), p. 37
^ a b c
Primary Chronicle Archived 2014-05-30 at the Wayback Machine, p.8.
^ Georgije Ostrogorski, History of the
Byzantine State (2002), p.228; George Majeska, "Rus' and the Byzantine
Byzantine Empire", A Companion to Russian History (Abbott Gleason, ed., 2009), p.51.
^ F. Donald Logan, The
Vikings in History (2005), pp.172–73.
^ The Life of St. George of Amastris describes the Rus' as a barbaric people "who are brutal and crude and bear no remnant of love for humankind." David Jenkins, The Life of St. George of Amastris (University of Notre Dame Press, 2001), p.18.
Primary Chronicle Archived 2014-05-30 at the Wayback Machine, p.8; Ostrogorski (2002), p.228; Majeska (2009), p.51.
^ a b c d e Majeska (2009), p.52.
^ a b Dimitri Obolensky, Byzantium and the
Slavs (1994), p.245.
^ Martin (1997), p. 3.
^ Martin (2009), pp. 37–40.
Primary Chronicle Archived 2014-05-30 at the Wayback Machine, pp.8-9.
Primary Chronicle Archived 2014-05-30 at the Wayback Machine, p. 9.
^ George Vernadsky, Kievan
Russia (1976), p. 23.
^ a b Walter Moss, A History of Russia: To 1917 (2005), p. 37.
^ Magocsi (2010), p. 96
^ a b Martin (2009), p. 47.
^ Martin (2009), pp. 40, 47.
^ a b Magocsi (2010), p. 62.
^ a b Magocsi (2010), p.66.
^ Martin (2003), pp. 16–19.
^ Victor Spinei, The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the
Danube Delta from the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century (2009), pp. 47–49.
^ Peter B. Golden,
Central Asia in World History (2011), p. 63.
^ Magocsi (2010), pp.62-63.
^ Vernadsky (1976), p. 20.
^ Majeska (2009), p. 51.
^ Angeliki Papageorgiou, "Theme of Cherson (Klimata)", Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World (Foundation of the Hellenic World, 2008).
^ Kevin Alan Brook, The Jews of Khazaria (2006), pp. 31–32.
^ Martin (2003), pp. 15–16.
^ Vernadsky (1976), pp.24–25.
^ Spanei (2009), p.62.
^ John V. A. Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century (1991), pp. 138–139.
^ Spanei (2009), pp. 66, 70.
^ Vernadsky (1976), p. 28.
^ B. N. Zakhoder (1898–1960). The Caspian Compilation of Records
Europe (online version).
^ Vernadsky (1976), pp. 32–33.
^ Gunilla Larsson. Ship and society: maritime ideology in Late Iron
Sweden Uppsala Universitet, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, 2007. ISBN 9150619152. p. 208.
^ Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique, Volume 35, Number 4. Mouton, 1994. (originally from the University of California, digitalised on 9 March 2010)
^ Moss (2005), p. 29.
^ a b Martin (2003), p. 17.
^ a b Magocsi (2010), p. 67.
^ The Russian Primary Chronicle, Laurentian Text (Samuel Hazzard Cross, trans., 1930), p. 71.
^ Moss (2005), pp.29–30.
^ Saints Cyril and Methodius,  Encyclopædia Britannica.
^ Primary Chronicle, pp.62-63
^ Obolensky (1994), pp..244-246.
^ Magocsi (2010), pp.66-67
^ Vernadsky (1976), pp.28-31.
^ Vernadsky (1976), p.22.
^ John Lind,
Varangians in Europe's Eastern and Northern Periphery, Ennen & nyt (2004:4).
^ Logan (2005), p.192.
^ Vernadsky, pp.22-23
^ Chronicle, p.69
^ Chronicle, pp.71-72
^ a b c Ostrogorski, p.277
^ a b Logan, p.193.
^ Chronicle, p.72.
^ Chronicle, pp.73-78
^ Spinei, p.93.
^ "Vladimir I (grand prince of Kiev) - Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. 2014-03-28. Retrieved 2014-08-07.
^ Janet Martin, Medieval Russia, 980–1584, (Cambridge, 1995), p. 6-7
^ Franklin, Simon (1992). "Greek in Kievan Rus'". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. 46: 69–81. doi:10.2307/1291640.
^ Colucci, Michele (1989). "The Image of Western Christianity in the Culture of Kievan Rus'". Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 12/13: 576–586.
^ "Yaroslav I (prince of Kiev) - Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. 2014-05-22. Retrieved 2014-08-07.
^ Pelenski, Jaroslaw (1987). "The Sack of
Kiev of 1169: Its Significance for the Succession to Kievan Rus'". Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 11: 303–316.
^ Kollmann, Nancy (1990). "Collateral Succession in Kievan Rus". Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 14: 377–387.
^ a b Magocsi 2010, p. 85.
^ William H. McNeill (1 January 1979). Jean Cuisenier (ed.). Europe
as a Cultural Area. World Anthropology. Walter de Gruyter.
pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-3-11-080070-8. Retrieved 8 February
2016. For a while, it looked as if the Scandinavian thrust toward
monarchy and centralization might succeed in building two impressive
and imperial structures: a Danish empire of the northern seas, and a
Varangian empire of the Russian rivers, headquartered at Kiev.... In
the east, new hordes of steppe nomads, fresh from central Asia,
intruded upon the river-based empire of the
Varangians by taking over its southern portion.
^ http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/pop-in-eur.html (archive)
Sherman, Charles Phineas (1917). "Russia". Roman Law in the Modern
World. Boston: The Boston
Book Company. p. 191. The adoption of Christianity by Vladimir... was followed by commerce with the Byzantine
Byzantine Empire. In its wake came Byzantine
Byzantine art and culture. And in the course of the next century, what is now Southeastern Russia
Russia became more advanced in civilization than any western European State of the period, for Russia
Russia came in for a share of Byzantine
Byzantine culture, then vastly superior to the rudeness of Western nations.
^ Tikhomirov, Mikhail Nikolaevich (1956). "Literacy among the citi dwellers". Drevnerusskie goroda (Cities of Ancient Rus) (in Russian). Moscow. p. 261.
^ Vernadsky, George (1973). "Russian Civilization in the Kievan
Period: Education". Kievan Russia. Yale University Press. p. 426.
ISBN 0-300-01647-6. It is to the credit of Vladimir and his
advisors they built not only churches but schools as well. This
compulsory baptism was followed by compulsory education... Schools
were thus founded not only in
Kiev but also in provincial cities. From the "Life of St. Feodosi" we know that a school existed in Kursk around the year of 1023. By the time of Yaroslav's reign (1019–54), education had struck roots and its benefits were apparent. Around 1030, Iaroslav founded a divinity school in Novgorod
Novgorod for 300 children of both laymen and clergy to be instructed in "book-learning". As a general measure, he made the parish priests "teach the people".
^ Miklashevsky, N.; et al. (2000). "Istoriya vodoprovoda v Rossii". ИСТОРИЯ ВОДОПРОВОДА В РОССИИ [History of water-supply in Russia] (in Russian). Saint Petersburg, Russia: ?. p. 240. ISBN 9785820601149.
^ "The most notable aspect of the criminal provisions was that
punishments took the form of seizure of property, banishment, or, more
often, payment of a fine. Even murder and other severe crimes (arson,
organised horse thieving, and robbery) were settled by monetary fines.
Although the death penalty had been introduced by Vladimir the Great,
it too was soon replaced by fines."
Magocsi, Paul Robert
Magocsi, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine, p. 90, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-0830-5.
^ Tikhomirov, Mikhail Nikolaevich (1953). Пособие для изучения Русской Правды (in Russian) (2nd ed.). Moscow: Издание Московского университета. p. 190.
^ Janet Martin, Medieval Russia, 980–1584, (Cambridge, 1995), p. 72
^ Vernadsky, George (1973). "Social organization: Woman". Kievan Russia. Yale University Press. p. 426. ISBN 0-300-01647-6.
^ Janet Martin, Medieval Russia, 980–1584, (Cambridge, 1995), p. 61
^ Tikhomirov, Mikhail Nikolaevich (1956). "The origin of Russian cities". Drevnerusskie goroda (Cities of Ancient Rus) (in Russian). Moscow. pp. 36, 39, 43.
^ "In medieval Europe, a mark of a dynasty's prestige and power was the willingness with which other leading dynasties entered into matrimonial relations with it. Measured by this standard, Yaroslav's prestige must have been great indeed... . Little wonder that Iaroslav is often dubbed by historians as 'the father-in-law of Europe.'" -(Subtelny, Orest (1988). Ukraine: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-8020-5808-6.)
^ "By means of these marital ties, Kievan Rus’ became well known
throughout Europe." —
Magocsi, Paul Robert
Magocsi, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine, p. 76, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-0830-5.
^ Lowe, Steven; Ryaboy, Dmitriy V. The Pechenegs, History and Warfare.
^ Боняк [Boniak].
Great Soviet Encyclopedia
Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). 1969–1978. Archived from the original on 6 July 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
^ "The Destruction of Kiev". Tspace.library.utoronto.ca. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 2013-10-12.
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Russia 980–1584. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993. ISBN 0-521-36832-4 Obolensky, Dimitri (1974) . The Byzantine
Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe, 500-1453. London: Cardinal. Pritsak, Omeljan. The Origin of Rus'. Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1991. Stang, Håkon. The Naming of Russia. Meddelelser, Nr. 77. Oslo: University of Oslo Slavisk-baltisk Avelding, 1996. Alexander F. Tsvirkun E-learning course. History of Ukraine. Journal Auditorium, Kiev
Kiev 2010 Velychenko, Stephen, National history as cultural process : a survey of the interpretations of Ukraine's past in Polish, Russian, and Ukrainian historical writing from the earliest times to 1914" Edmonton,1992. Velychenko, Stephen, "Nationalizing and Denationalizing the Past. Ukraine
Ukraine and Russia
Russia in Comparative Context", Ab Imperio 1 (2007). Velychenko, Stephen "New wine old bottle. Ukrainian history Muscovite-Russian Imperial myths and the Cambridge-History of Russia," http://historians.in.ua/index.php/dyskusiya/853-stephen-velychenko-new-wine-old-bottle-ukrainian-history-muscovite-russian-imperial-myths-and-the-cambridge-history-of-russia External links
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