Kiev (/ˈkiːɛf, -ɛv/ KEE-ef, -ev) or Kyiv (Ukrainian: Київ,
translit. Kyiv [ˈkɪjiu̯] ( listen); Old East Slavic:
Кыѥвъ, translit. Kyjev; Polish: Kijów Polish
pronunciation: [ˈkʲijuf]; Russian: Киев,
translit. Kiyev [ˈkʲiɪf]) is the capital and largest city of
Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the
Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974 (though higher
estimated numbers have been cited in the press), making
7th most populous city in Europe.
Kiev is an important industrial, scientific, educational, and cultural
centre of Eastern Europe. It is home to many high-tech industries,
higher education institutions and world-famous historical landmarks.
The city has an extensive infrastructure and highly developed system
of public transport, including the
The city's name is said to derive from the name of Kyi, one of its
four legendary founders (see Name, below). During its history, Kiev,
one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several
stages of great prominence and relative obscurity. The city probably
existed as a commercial centre as early as the 5th century. A Slavic
settlement on the great trade route between
Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars, until seized
Varangians (Vikings) in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian
rule, the city became a capital of the Kievan Rus', the first East
Slavic state. Completely destroyed during the Mongol invasion in 1240,
the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was
a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the
territories controlled by its powerful neighbours; first the Grand
Duchy of Lithuania, followed by
Poland and Russia.
The city prospered again during the Russian Empire's Industrial
Revolution in the late 19th century. In 1917, after the Ukrainian
National Republic declared independence from the Russian Empire, Kiev
became its capital. From 1921 onwards
Kiev was a city of the Ukrainian
Soviet Socialist Republic, which was proclaimed by the Red Army, and,
Kiev was its capital. During World War II, the city again
suffered significant damage, but quickly recovered in the post-war
years, remaining the third largest city of the Soviet Union.
Following the collapse of the
Soviet Union and Ukrainian independence
Kiev remained the capital of
Ukraine and experienced a steady
migration influx of ethnic
Ukrainians from other regions of the
country. During the country's transformation to a market economy
and electoral democracy,
Kiev has continued to be Ukraine's largest
and richest city. Kiev's armament-dependent industrial output fell
after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology.
But new sectors of the economy such as services and finance
facilitated Kiev's growth in salaries and investment, as well as
providing continuous funding for the development of housing and urban
Kiev emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine
where parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union
dominate during elections.
4 Legal status, local government and politics
4.1 Legal status and local government
4.3.1 Traditional subdivision
4.3.2 Formal subdivision
5.1 Historical population
5.2 Ethnic composition
5.3 Jewish community
7.2 Museums and galleries
9 Education and science
9.1 Scientific research
9.2 University education
9.3 Secondary education
9.4 Public libraries
10.1 Local public transport
10.2 Roads and bridges
10.3 Air transport
11 International relations
11.1 Twin towns and sister cities
11.2 Other cooperation agreements
12 Notable people from Kiev
15 External links
A fragment of Russiae, Moscoviae et Tartariae map by Anthony Jenkinson
London 1562) published by Ortelius in 1570.
Kiev is the traditional and most commonly used English name
for the city. The Ukrainian government however uses Kyiv as the
mandatory romanization where legislative and official acts are
translated into the English language.
As a prominent city with a long history, its English name was subject
to gradual evolution. The early English spelling was derived from Old
East Slavic form Kyjev (Cyrillic: Къıєвъ). The name is
associated with that of Kyi (Кий), the legendary eponymous founder
of the city.
Early English sources use various names, including Kiou, Kiow, Kiew,
Kiovia. On one of the oldest English maps of the region, Russiae,
Moscoviae et Tartariae published by Ortelius (London, 1570) the name
of the city is spelled Kiou. On the 1650 map by Guillaume de Beauplan,
the name of the city is Kiiow, and the region was named Kÿowia. In
the book Travels, by Joseph Marshall (London, 1772), the city is
referred to as Kiovia. The name
Kiev that started to take hold at
later times is based on Russian orthography and pronunciation
[ˈkʲijɪf], during a time when
Kiev was in the
Russian Empire (from
1708, a seat of a governorate).
A fragment from an 1804 John Cary's "New map of Europe, from the
latest authorities" published in "Cary's new universal atlas", London,
Kiev was used in print as early as in 1804 in the John
Cary's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities" in "Cary's new
universal atlas" published in London. The English travelogue titled
New Russia: Journey from
Riga to the
Crimea by way of Kiev, by Mary
Holderness was published in 1823. By 1883, the Oxford English
Kiev in a quotation.
Kiev City State Administration
Kiev City State Administration official request for Wikimedia
Foundation to switch to "Kyiv" from "Kiev".
Kyiv ([ˈkɪjiw]) is the romanized version of the name of the city
used in modern Ukrainian. Following independence in 1991, the
Ukrainian government introduced the national rules for transliteration
of geographic names from Ukrainian into English. According to the
rules, the Ukrainian Київ transliterates into Kyiv. This has
established the use of the spelling Kyiv in all official documents
issued by the governmental authorities since October 1995. The
spelling is used by the United Nations, all English-speaking foreign
diplomatic missions, several international organizations,
Encarta encyclopedia, and by some media in Ukraine. In October
United States federal government changed its official
spelling of the city name to Kyiv, upon the recommendation of the US
Board of Geographic Names. The British government has also started
using Kyiv. The alternate romanizations Kyyiv (BGN/PCGN
transliteration) and Kyjiv (scholarly) are also in use in
English-language atlases. Most major English-language news sources
like the BBC, The Economist, and The New York Times
continue to prefer Kiev.
Main articles: History of Kiev, Timeline of Kiev, Principality of
Kiev, and Grand Prince of Kiev
Kievan Rus 882–1363
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania 1363–1569
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 1569–1649
Cossack Hetmanate 1649–1667
Russian Empire 1667–1917
Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian People's Republic 1917–1921
Soviet Union 1921–1991
Sketch map of
Upper Paleolithic art in Europe
Kyi, Shchek, Khoryv and Lybid in the Radziwiłł Chronicle
Kiev, one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe, played a pivotal
role in the development of the medieval East Slavic civilization as
well as in the modern Ukrainian nation.
Scholars debate as to period of the foundation of the city: some date
the founding to the late 9th century, other historians have
preferred a date of 482 AD. In 1982, the city celebrated its
1,500th anniversary. The first known humans in the territory of
Kiev lived there in the late paleolithic period (Stone Age). The
Kiev during the
Bronze Age formed part of so-called
Tripillian culture, as witnessed by objects found in the area.
During the early
Iron Age there lived around
Kiev settled tribes
practising land cultivation and husbandry and trading with the
Scythians and with ancient states of the northern
Black Sea coast.
Findings of Roman coins of the 2nd to the 4th centuries evidence trade
relations with the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire. The
Zarubintsy culture are considered the direct ancestors of
Slavs who later established Kiev. Notable
archaeologists of the area around
Kiev include Vikentiy Khvoyka.
Legendary accounts tell of the origin of the city; one legend features
a founding-family, members of a Slavic tribe (Polans): the leader Kyi,
the eldest, his brothers Shchek and Khoryv, and also their sister
Lybid, who allegedly founded the city (See the Primary Chronicle).
According to the Chronicle the name Kyiv/
"belonging to Kyi". According to archaeological data, the foundation
Kiev dates to the second half of the 5th century and the first half
of the 6th century. Some claim to find reference to the city in
Ptolemy's 2nd-century work as Metropolity. Another legend states
Saint Andrew passed through the area (1st century CE), and where
he erected a cross, a church was built.[by whom?] Since the Middle
Ages an image of Saint Michael represented the city as well as the
Kiev in 830 (by Pál Vágó); also see: Rus'
There is little historical evidence pertaining to the period when the
city was founded. Scattered Slavic settlements existed in the area
from the 6th century, but it is unclear whether any of them later
developed into the city.8th-century fortifications were built upon a
Slavic settlement apparently abandoned some decades before. It is
still unclear whether these fortifications were built by the
by the Khazars. If it was the
Slavic peoples then it is also uncertain
Kiev fell under the rule of the Khazar empire or whether the city
was, in fact, founded by the Khazars. The Primary
Chronicle (a main source of information about the early history of the
area) mentions Slavic Kievans telling
Askold and Dir
Askold and Dir that they lived
without a local ruler and paid a tribute to the
Khazars in an entry
attributed to the 9th century. At least during the 8th and 9th
Kiev functioned as an outpost of the Khazar empire. A
hill-fortress, called Sambat (Old Turkic for "High Place") was built
to defend the area. At some point during the late 9th or early 10th
Kiev fell under the rule of
Varangians (see Askold and Dir,
and Oleg of Novgorod) and became the nucleus of the Rus' polity. The
Primary Chronicle dates Oleg's conquest of the town in 882, but some
historians, such as
Omeljan Pritsak and Constantine Zuckerman, dispute
this and maintain that Khazar rule continued as late as the 920s
(documentary evidence exists to support this assertion – see the
Kievian Letter and Schechter Letter). Other historians suggest that
Magyar tribes ruled the city between 840 and 878, before migrating
with some Khazar tribes to Hungary. According to these scholars the
building of the fortress of
Kiev was finished in 840 under the
leadership of Keő (Keve), Csák and Geréb, the three brothers,
possibly members of the Tarján tribe. (The three names appear in the
Kiev Chronicle as
Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv
Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv – none of these names are
Slavic, and Russian historians have always struggled to account for
their meanings and origins. Their names were put into the Kiev
Chronicle in the 12th century and they were identified[by whom?] as
old-Russian mythological heroes).
The Baptism of Kievans, a painting by Klavdiy Lebedev.
During the 8th and 9th centuries
Kiev functioned as an outpost of the
Khazar empire. However, the site stood on the historical trade route
Varangians to the Greeks, and in the late 9th century or
early 10th century a Varangian nobility started to rule Kiev, which
became the nucleus of the Rus' polity, whose 'Golden Age' (11th to
early 12th centuries) has from the 19th century become referred to as
Kievan Rus'. In 968 the nomadic
Pechenegs attacked and then besieged
the city. In 1000 AD the city had a population of 45,000.
During 1169 Grand Prince
Andrey Bogolyubsky of
Kiev, taking many pieces of religious artwork - including the
Theotokos of Vladimir
Theotokos of Vladimir icon - from nearby Vyshhorod. In 1203 Prince
Rurik Rostislavich and his Kipchak allies captured and burned Kiev. In
the 1230s the city was besieged and ravaged by different Rus' princes
several times. In 1240 the Mongol invasion of Rus', led by Batu Khan,
completely destroyed Kiev, an event that had a profound effect on
the future of the city and on the East Slavic civilization. At the
time of the Mongol destruction,
Kiev had a reputation as one of the
largest cities in the world, with a population exceeding 100,000 in
the beginning of the 12th century.
Bolesław I of Poland
Bolesław I of Poland and Sviatopolk the Accursed at Kiev, in a
legendary moment of hitting the Golden Gate with the
Painting by Jan Matejko.
Bohdan Khmelnytsky Entering
Kiev by Mykola Ivasiuk
German-language sketch of Kiovia, 1686
In the early 1320s a Lithuanian army led by Grand Duke Gediminas
defeated a Slavic army led by
Stanislav of Kiev
Stanislav of Kiev at the Battle on the
Irpen' River and conquered the city. The Tatars, who also claimed
Kiev, retaliated in 1324–1325, so while
Kiev was ruled by a
Lithuanian prince, it had to pay tribute to the Golden Horde. Finally,
as a result of the
Battle of Blue Waters
Battle of Blue Waters in 1362, Algirdas, Grand Duke
of Lithuania, incorporated
Kiev and surrounding areas into the Grand
Duchy of Lithuania. In 1482 Crimean
Tatars sacked and burned much
of Kiev. With the 1569 (Union of Lublin), when the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was established, the
Lithuanian-controlled lands of the
Kiev region (Podolia, Volhynia, and
Podlachia) were transferred from the
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania to the
Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and
Kiev became the capital of Kiev
Voivodeship. The 1658
Treaty of Hadiach
Treaty of Hadiach envisaged
the capital of the
Duchy of Rus' within the
Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth, but this provision
of the treaty never went into operation. Occupied by the Russian
troops since the 1654 (Treaty of Pereyaslav),
Kiev became a part of
Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia from 1667 on (Truce of Andrusovo) and enjoyed a
degree of autonomy. None of the Polish-Russian treaties concerning
Kiev have ever been ratified. In the
Kiev was a
primary Christian centre, attracting pilgrims, and the cradle of many
of the empire's most important religious figures, but until the 19th
century the city's commercial importance remained marginal.
In 1834 the Russian government established Saint Vladimir University,
now called the
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev after the
Taras Shevchenko (1814–1861). (Shevchenko worked as a
field researcher and editor for the geography department.) The medical
faculty of the Saint Vladimir University, separated into an
independent institution in 1919–1921 during the Soviet period,
Bogomolets National Medical University in 1995.
During the 18th and 19th centuries the Russian military and
ecclesiastical authorities dominated city life; the
Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church had involvement in a significant part of
Kiev's infrastructure and commercial activity. In the late 1840s the
historian, Mykola Kostomarov (Russian: Nikolay Kostomarov), founded a
secret political society, the Brotherhood of Saint Cyril and
Methodius, whose members put forward the idea of a federation of free
Slavic peoples with
Ukrainians as a distinct and separate group rather
than a subordinate part of the Russian nation; the Russian authorities
quickly suppressed the society.
Following the gradual loss of Ukraine's autonomy,
Kiev experienced growing Russification in the 19th century by means of
Russian migration, administrative actions and social modernization. At
the beginning of the 20th century the Russian-speaking part of the
population dominated the city centre, while the lower
classes living on the outskirts retained Ukrainian folk culture to a
significant extent. However, enthusiasts among ethnic
Ukrainian nobles, military and merchants made recurrent attempts to
preserve native culture in
Kiev (by clandestine book-printing, amateur
theatre, folk studies etc.)
Kiev in the late 19th century
During the Russian industrial revolution in the late 19th century,
Kiev became an important trade and transportation centre of the
Russian Empire, specialising in sugar and grain export by railway and
Dnieper river. By 1900 the city had also become a significant
industrial centre, having a population of 250,000. Landmarks of that
period include the railway infrastructure, the foundation of numerous
educational and cultural facilities as well as notable architectural
monuments (mostly merchant-oriented). In 1892 the first electric tram
line of the Russian Empire started running in Kiev
(arguably, the first in the world).
Kiev prospered during the late 19th century
Industrial Revolution in
the Russian Empire, when it became the third most important city of
the Empire and the major centre of commerce of its southwest. In the
turbulent period following the 1917 Russian Revolution,
the capital of several successive Ukrainian states and was caught in
the middle of several conflicts: World War I, during which German
soldiers occupied it from 2 March 1918 to November 1918, the Russian
Civil War of 1917 to 1922, and the
Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921.
During the last three months of 1919,
Kiev was intermittently
controlled by the White Army.
Kiev changed hands sixteen times from
the end of 1918 to August 1920.
Kiev's council chambers in 1930
From 1921 to 1991 the city formed part of the Ukrainian Soviet
Socialist Republic, which became a founding republic of the Soviet
Union in 1922. The major events that took place in Soviet Ukraine
during the interwar period all affected Kiev: the 1920s Ukrainization
as well as the migration of the rural Ukrainophone population made the
Russophone city Ukrainian-speaking and bolstered the development of
Ukrainian cultural life in the city; the Soviet Industrialization that
started in the late 1920s turned the city, a former centre of commerce
and religion, into a major industrial, technological and scientific
centre; the 1932–1933 Great Famine devastated the part of the
migrant population not registered for ration cards; and Joseph
Great Purge of 1937–1938 almost eliminated the city's
Kiev became the capital of Soviet Ukraine. The city boomed
again during the years of Soviet industrialization as its population
grew rapidly and many industrial giants were established, some of
which exist to this day.
Kiev during World War II
In World War II, the city again suffered significant damage, and Nazi
Germany occupied it from 19 September 1941 to 6 November 1943. Axis
forces killed or captured more than 600,000 Soviet soldiers in the
great encirclement Battle of
Kiev in 1941. Most of those captured
never returned alive. Shortly after the
Wehrmacht occupied the
city, a team of
NKVD officers who had remained hidden dynamited most
of the buildings on the Khreshchatyk, the main street of the city,
where German military and civil authorities had occupied most of the
buildings; the buildings burned for days and 25,000 people were left
Allegedly in response to the actions of the NKVD, the Germans rounded
up all the local Jews they could find, nearly 34,000, and
massacred them at
Babi Yar in
Kiev over the course of 29 to 30
September 1941. In the months that followed, thousands more
were taken to
Babi Yar where they were shot. It is estimated[by whom?]
that the Germans murdered more than 100,000 people of various ethnic
groups, mostly civilians, at
Babi Yar during World War II.
The Ukrainian national flag was raised outside Kiev's City Hall for
the first time on 24 July 1990
Kiev recovered economically in the post-war years, becoming once again
the third-most important city of the Soviet Union. The catastrophic
accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986 occurred only
100 km (62 mi) north of the city. However, the prevailing
northward winds blew most of the radioactive debris away from Kiev.
In the course of the collapse of the
Soviet Union the Ukrainian
parliament proclaimed the Declaration of Independence of
the city on 24 August 1991. In 2004–2005, the city played host to
the largest post-Soviet public demonstrations up to that time, in
support of the Orange Revolution. From November 2013 until February
Kiev became the primary location of Euromaidan.
Landsat 7 image of
Kiev and the Dnieper.
Kiev is located on a border of the
ecological zone (a part of the European mixed woods) and forest steppe
biome. However, the city's unique landscape distinguishes it from the
Kiev is completely surrounded by
Originated on the right bank, today
Kiev is located on both sides of
the Dnieper, which flows southward through the city towards the Black
Sea. The older and higher right-bank (western) part of the city is
represented by numerous woody hills (
Kiev Hills), ravines and small
rivers. The Kiev's relief contributed to the city's toponyms such as
Podil (means lower), Pechersk (caves), uzviz (a steep street,
Kiev is a part of the larger
Dnieper Upland adjoining the
western bank of the
Dnieper in its mid-flow.
contributes to the city's elevation change. The north outskirts of the
city border the Polesian Lowland.
Kiev expanded to the Dnieper's
lowland on left bank (to the east) only in the 20th century. The whole
Kiev on the left bank of
Dnieper is generally referred as
Left bank (Ukrainian: Лівий берег, Livyi bereh). Significant
areas of the left-bank
Dnieper valley were artificially
sand-deposited, and are protected by dams.
Within the city the
Dnieper River forms a branching system of
tributaries, isles, and harbors within the city limits. The city is
adjoined by the mouth of the
Desna River and the
Kiev Reservoir in the
north, and the
Kaniv Reservoir in the south. Both the
Desna rivers are navigable at Kiev, although regulated by the
reservoir shipping locks and limited by winter freeze-over.
In total, there are 448 bodies of open water within the boundaries of
Kiev, which include
Dnieper itself, its reservoirs, and several small
rivers, dozens of lakes and artificially created ponds. They occupy
7949 hectares of territory. Additionally, the city boasts of 16
developed beaches (totalling 140 hectares) and 35 near-water
recreational areas (covering more than 1000 hectares). Many are used
for pleasure and recreation, although some of the bodies of water are
not suitable for swimming.
According to the UN 2011 evaluation, there were no risks of natural
Kiev and its metropolitan area
Kiev has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb). The warmest
months are June, July, and August, with mean temperatures of 13.8 to
24.8 °C (56.8 to 76.6 °F). The coldest are December,
January, and February, with mean temperatures of −4.6 to
−1.1 °C (23.7 to 30.0 °F). The highest ever temperature
recorded in the city was 39.4 °C (102.9 °F) on 30 July
1936. The coldest temperature ever recorded in the city was
−32.9 °C (−27.2 °F) on 11 January 1951. Snow
cover usually lies from mid-November to the end of March, with the
frost-free period lasting 180 days on average, but surpassing 200 days
in recent years.
Climate data for
Kiev (1981–2010, extremes 1881–present)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average rainy days
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net, Central Observatory for Geophysics
Danish Meteorological Institute (sun, 1931–1960)
Legal status, local government and politics
Legal status and local government
Main article: Legal status and local government of Kiev
The municipality of the city of
Kiev has a special legal status within
Ukraine compared to the other administrative subdivisions of the
country. The most significant difference is that the city is
considered as a region of
Ukraine (see Regions of Ukraine). It is the
only city that has double jurisdiction. The Head of City State
Administration — the city's governor, is appointed by the President
of Ukraine, while the Head of the City Council — the Mayor of Kiev,
is elected by a local popular vote.
Mayor of Kiev
Mayor of Kiev is
Vitali Klitschko who was sworn in on 5
June 2014; after he had won the 25 May 2014
Kiev mayoral elections
with almost 57% of the votes. Since 25 June 2014 Klitschko is also
Kiev City Administration.
Most important buildings of the national government (Cabinet of
Ukraine, Verkhovna Rada, others) are located along vulytsia Mykhaila
Hrushevskoho (Mykhailo Hrushevsky Street) and vulytsia Instytutska
Hrushevskoho Street is named after the Ukrainian
academician, politician, historian, and statesman Mykhailo
Hrushevskyi, who wrote an academic book titled: "Bar Starostvo:
Historical Notes: XV-XVIII" about the history of Bar, Ukraine.
That portion of the city is also unofficially known as the government
quarter (Ukrainian: урядовий квартал). The city also
has a great number of buildings for various embassies, ministerial and
other important buildings.
The city state administration and council is located in the Kiev
City's council building on
Khreshchatyk Street. The oblast state
administration and council is located in the
Kiev Oblast council
building on ploshcha Lesi Ukrayinky (Lesya Ukrayinka Square). The
Sviatoshyn Raion state administration is located near Kiltseva
doroha (Ring Road) on prospekt Peremohy (Victory Parkway), while the
Raion local council is located on vulytsia Yantarna
Government buildings in Kiev
The seat of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine
The presidential administration's building
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The seat of
Kiev City State and City Council on Khreshchatyk
Kiev local election, 2015
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August
The growing political and economic role of the city, combined with its
international relations, as well as extensive internet and social
network penetration, have made
Kiev the most pro-Western and
pro-democracy region of Ukraine; (so called) National Democratic
parties advocating tighter integration with the
European Union receive
most votes during elections in Kiev. In a poll
conducted by the
Kiev International Institute of Sociology in the
first half of February 2014, 5.3% of those polled in
Russia must unite into a single state", nationwide this
percentage was 12.5.
View to left bank neighbourhoods of Kiev
See also: Category:Neighborhoods and raions of Kiev
Main article: Subdivisions of Kiev
Dnieper River naturally divides
Kiev into the Right Bank and the
Left Bank areas. Historically located on the western right bank of the
river, the city expanded into the left bank only in the 20th century.
Most of Kiev's attractions as well as the majority of business and
governmental institutions are located on the right bank. The eastern
'Left Bank' is predominantly residential. There are large industrial
and green areas in both the Right Bank and the Left Bank.
Kiev is further informally divided into historical or territorial
neighbourhoods, each housing from about 5,000 to 100,000 inhabitants.
A panoramic view of Right-Bank Kiev, where the city centre is located
The ten raions (districts) of Kiev
Г — Holosiiv Raion
О — Obolon Raion
Печ — Pechersk Raion
Ш — Shevchenko Raion
Сол — Solomianka Raion
Дес — Desna Raion
The first known formal subdivision of
Kiev dates to 1810 when the city
was subdivided into 4 parts: Pechersk, Starokyiv, and the first and
the second parts of Podil. In 1833–1834 according to Tsar Nicholas
Kiev was subdivided into 6 police raions (districts);
later being increased to 10. In 1917, there were 8
(Duma), which were reorganised by bolsheviks into 6 Party-Territory
During the Soviet era, as the city was expanding, the number of raions
also gradually increased. These newer districts of the city, along
with some older areas were then named in honour of prominent
communists and socialist-revolutionary figures; however, due to the
way in which many communist party members eventually, after a certain
period of time, fell out of favour and so were replaced with new,
fresher minds, so too did the names of Kiev's districts change
The last raion reform took place in 2001 when the number of raions has
been decreased from 14 to 10.
Oleksandr Omelchenko (mayor from 1999 to 2006), there were
further plans for the merger of some raions and revision of their
boundaries, and the total number of raions had been planned to be
decreased from 10 to 7. With the election of the new mayor-elect
(Leonid Chernovetsky) in 2006, these plans were shelved.
Each raion has its own locally elected government with jurisdiction
over a limited scope of affairs.
Kiev metropolitan area
According to the official registration statistics, there were
2,847,200 residents within the city limits of
Kiev in July 2013.
at 1 January of respective year.
According to the All-Ukrainian Census, the population of
Kiev in 2001
was 2,611,300. The historic changes in population are shown in the
side table. According to the census men accounted for 1,219,000
persons, or 46.7%, and women for 1,393,000 persons, or 53.3%.
Comparing the results with the previous census (1989) shows the trend
of population ageing which, while prevalent throughout the country, is
partly offset in
Kiev by the inflow of working age migrants. Some
1,069,700 people had higher or completed secondary education, a
significant increase of 21.7% since 1989.
The June 2007 unofficial population estimate based on amount of bakery
products sold in the city (thus including temporary visitors and
commuters) gave a number of at least 3.5 million people.
According to the 2001 census data, more than 130 nationalities and
ethnic groups reside within the territory of Kiev. Ukrainians
constitute the largest ethnic group in Kiev, and they account for
2,110,800 people, or 82.2% of the population.
337,300 (13.1%), Jews 17,900 (0.7%),
Belarusians 16,500 (0.6%), Poles
Armenians 4,900 (0.2%), Azerbaijanis 2,600 (0.1%),
Tatars 2,500 (0.1%),
Georgians 2,400 (0.1%),
Moldovans 1,900 (0.1%).
Both Ukrainian and Russian are commonly spoken in the city;
approximately 75% of Kiev's population responded "Ukrainian" to the
2001 census question on their native language, roughly 25% responded
"Russian". According to a 2006 survey, Ukrainian is used at home
by 23% of Kievans, 52% use Russian and 24% switch between both. In
the 2003 sociological survey, when the question 'What language do you
use in everyday life?' was asked, 52% said 'mostly Russian', 32% 'both
Russian and Ukrainian in equal measure', 14% 'mostly Ukrainian', and
4.3% 'exclusively Ukrainian'.
According to the census of 1897, of Kiev's approximately 240,000
people approximately 56% of the population spoke the Russian language,
23% spoke the Ukrainian language, 13% spoke Yiddish, 7% spoke Polish
and 1% spoke the Belarusian language.
Most of the city's population of Muslims comprises Tatars, Caucasians
and other people from the former Soviet Union. The Ar-Rahma Mosque was
built in 2000.
A 2015 study by the
International Republican Institute
International Republican Institute found that 94%
Kiev was ethnic Ukrainian, and 5% ethnic Russian. The languages
spoken at home were Ukrainian (27%), Russian (32%), and an equal
combination of Ukrainian and Russian (40%).
Main article: History of the Jews in Kiev
The Jews in
Kiev are first mentioned in a 10th century letter. They
experienced several pogroms, including the
Babi Yar massacre during
the Holocaust. Today there are approximately 20,000 Jews in Kiev, with
two major synagogues: the
Great Choral Synagogue
Great Choral Synagogue and the Brodsky
See also: Category:Buildings and structures in Kiev
A panoramic view of Podil, one of Kiev's central neighborhoods.
Kiev is a mix of the old (
Kiev preserved about 70 percent of
more than 1,000 buildings built during 1907–1914) and the new,
seen in everything from the architecture to the stores and to the
people themselves. When the capital of the
Ukrainian SSR was moved
Kiev many new buildings were commissioned to give the
city "the gloss and polish of a capital". In the discussions
centered on how to create a showcase city center the current city
Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square)
were not the obvious choices. Some of the early, ultimately not
materialised, ideas included a part of Pechersk, Lypky, European
Square and Mykhailivska Square. The plans of building massive
Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin) were also abandoned;
due to lack of money (in the 1930s–1950s) and because of Kiev's
hilly landscape. Experiencing rapid population growth between the
1970s and the mid-1990s, the city has continued its consistent growth
after the turn of the millennium. As a result, Kiev's central
districts provide a dotted contrast of new, modern buildings among the
pale yellows, blues and greys of older apartments. Urban sprawl has
gradually reduced, while population densities of suburbs has
increased. The most expensive properties are located in the Pechersk,
Khreshchatyk areas. It is also prestigious to own a property in
newly constructed buildings in the Kharkivskyi
Raion or Obolon along
A public concert held on
Maidan Nezalezhnosti during Kiev's 2005
Eurovision Song Contest
Ukrainian independence at the turn of the millennium has heralded
other changes. Western-style residential complexes, modern nightclubs,
classy restaurants and prestigious hotels opened in the centre. And
most importantly, with the easing of the visa rules in 2005,
Ukraine is positioning itself as a prime tourist attraction, with
Kiev, among the other large cities, looking to profit from new
opportunities. The centre of
Kiev has been cleaned up and buildings
have been restored and redecorated, especially
Khreshchatyk and Maidan
Nezalezhnosti. Many historic areas of Kiev, such as Andriyivskyy
Descent, have become popular street vendor locations, where one can
find traditional Ukrainian art, religious items, books, game sets
(most commonly chess) as well as jewellery for sale.
At the United Nations
Climate Change Conference 2009
Kiev was the only
Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States city to have been inscribed into
the TOP30 European Green City Index (placed 30th).
Kiev's most famous historical architecture complexes are the St.
Sophia Cathedral and the
Kiev Pechersk Lavra
Kiev Pechersk Lavra (Monastery of the Caves),
which are recognized by
UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Noteworthy
historical architectural landmarks also include the Mariyinsky Palace
(designed and constructed from 1745 to 1752, then reconstructed in
1870), several Orthodox churches such as St. Michael's Cathedral, St.
Andrew's, St. Vladimir's, the reconstructed Golden Gate and others.
One of Kiev's widely recognized modern landmarks is the highly visible
giant Mother Motherland statue made of titanium standing at the Museum
of The History of
Ukraine in World War II on the Right bank of the
Dnieper River. Other notable sites is the cylindrical Salut hotel,
located across from Glory Square and the eternal flame at the World
War Two memorial Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, and the House with
Among Kiev's best-known monuments are Mikhail Mikeshin's statue of
Bohdan Khmelnytsky astride his horse located near St. Sophia
Cathedral, the venerated Vladimir the Great (St. Vladimir), the
baptizer of Rus', overlooking the river above
Podil from Volodymyrska
Hill, the monument to
Kyi, Schek and Khoryv
Kyi, Schek and Khoryv and Lybid, the legendary
founders of the city located at the
Dnieper embankment. On
Independence Square in the city centre, two monuments elevate two of
the city protectors; the historic protector of
Kiev Michael Archangel
atop a reconstruction of one of the old city's gates and a modern
invention, the goddess-protector
Berehynia atop a tall column.
Architecturally important and historically significant sites and
monuments in Kiev
Holy Dormition Cathedral
St. Sophia Cathedral
St. Volodymyr's Cathedral
St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery
Saint Andrew's Church
St. Nicholas Roman Catholic Cathedral
National Bank of Ukraine
"House With Chimaeras"
Bohdan Khmelnytskyi statue
Monument of Independence
Saint Vladimir Monument
Monument to Mother, the Motherland
See also: Category:
Culture in Kiev
Kiev National Opera House
Kiev was the historic cultural centre of the East Slavic civilization
and a major cradle for the Christianization of Kievan Rus'. Kiev
retained through centuries its cultural importance and even at times
of relative decay, it remained the centre of primary importance of
Eastern Orthodox Christianity . Its sacred sites, which include the
Kiev Pechersk Lavra
Kiev Pechersk Lavra (the Monastery of the Caves) and the Saint Sophia
Cathedral are probably the most famous, attracted pilgrims for
centuries and now recognized as a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site remain
the primary religious centres as well as the major tourist attraction.
The above-mentioned sites are also part of the Seven Wonders of
Kiev's theatres include, the
Kiev Opera House, Ivan Franko National
Academic Drama Theater, Lesya Ukrainka National Academic Theater of
Russian Drama, the
Puppet Theater, October Palace and National
Ukraine and others. In 1946
Kiev had four theatres,
one opera house and one concert hall, but most tickets then were
allocated to "privileged groups".
Other significant cultural centres include the Dovzhenko Film Studios,
Kiev Circus. The most important of the city's many museums are
Kiev State Historical Museum, Museum of The History of
World War II, the National Art Museum, the Museum of Western and
Oriental Art, the Pinchuk Art Centre and the National Museum of
Kiev hosted the 50th annual
Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest and in
2017 the 62nd annual
Eurovision Song Contest
Numerous songs and paintings were dedicated to the city. Some songs
became part of Russian, Ukrainian, and Polish folklore, less known are
German and Jewish. The most popular songs are "How not to love you,
Kiev of mine?" and "
Kiev Valtz". Renowned Ukrainian composer Oleksandr
Bilash wrote an operetta called "Legend of Kiev".
It is said that one can walk from one end of
Kiev to the other in the
summertime without leaving the shade of its many trees. Most
characteristic are the horse-chestnuts (Ukrainian: каштани,
Kiev is known as a green city with two botanical gardens and numerous
large and small parks. The Museum of The History of
Ukraine in World
War II is located here, which offers both indoor and outdoor displays
of military history and equipment surrounded by verdant hills
The monument to St. Volodymyr, the Baptiser of Rus', overlooking from
Volodymyrska Hill the scenic panorama of the left bank of Dniepr is
one of the symbols of Kiev, often depicted in paintings and
photographic works of the city.
Among the numerous islands, Venetsianskyi (or Hydropark) is the most
developed. It is accessible by metro or by car, and includes an
amusement park, swimming beaches, boat rentals, and night clubs. The
Victory Park (Park Peremohy) located near
Darnytsia subway station is
a popular destination for strollers, joggers, and cyclists. Boating,
fishing, and water sports are popular pastimes in Kiev. The area lakes
and rivers freeze over in the winter and ice fishermen are a frequent
sight, as are children with their ice skates. However, the peak of
summer draws out a greater mass of people to the shores for swimming
or sunbathing, with daytime high temperatures sometimes reaching 30 to
34 °C (86 to 93 °F).
Lilacs in the National Botanical Garden, with the
Darnitskiy Rail Bridge and left-bank
Kiev visible in the background.
The centre of
Kiev (Independence Square and Khreschatyk Street)
becomes a large outdoor party place at night during summer months,
with thousands of people having a good time in nearby restaurants,
clubs and outdoor cafes. The central streets are closed for auto
traffic on weekends and holidays.
Andriyivskyy Descent is one of the
best known historic streets and a major tourist attraction in Kiev.
The hill is the site of the Castle of Richard the Lionheart; the
baroque-style St Andrew's Church; the home of
Kiev born writer,
Mikhail Bulgakov; the monument to Yaroslav the Wise, the Grand Prince
Kiev and of Novgorod; and numerous other monuments.
A wide variety of farm produce is available in many of Kiev's farmer
markets with the
Besarabsky Market located in the very centre of the
city being most famous. Each residential region has its own market, or
rynok. Here one will find table after table of individuals hawking
everything imaginable: vegetables, fresh and smoked meats, fish,
cheese, honey, dairy products such as milk and home-made smetana (sour
cream), caviar, cut flowers, housewares, tools and hardware, and
clothing. Each of the markets has its own unique mix of products with
some markets devoted solely to specific wares such as automobiles, car
parts, pets, clothing, flowers, and other things.
At the city's southern outskirts, near the historic
there is an outdoor museum, officially called the Museum of Folk
Architecture and Life of
Ukraine It has an area of 1.5 square
kilometres (1 sq mi). This territory houses several
"mini-villages" that represent by region the traditional rural
architecture of Ukraine.
Kiev also has numerous recreational attractions like bowling alleys,
go-cart tracks, paintball venues, billiard halls and even shooting
ranges. The 100-year-old
Kiev Zoo is located on 40 hectares and
according to CBC "the zoo has 2,600 animals from 328 species".
A panoramic view of Mykhailiv Square (central Kiev). From left to
right: the Diplomatic Academy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (behind the
monument to Princess Olga) and St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery.
Museums and galleries
See also: Museums in Kiev
The National Historical Museum of Ukraine
Kiev is home to some 40 different museums. In 2009 they recorded a
total of 4.3 million visits.
The Museum of The History of
Ukraine in World War II is a memorial
complex commemorating the Eastern Front of World War II located in the
hills on the right-bank of the
Dnieper River in Pechersk. Kiev
fortress is the 19th-century fortification buildings situated in
Ukrainian capital Kiev, that once belonged to western Russian
fortresses. These structures (once a united complex) were built in the
Pechersk and neighbourhoods by the Russian army. Now some of the
buildings are restored and turned into a museum called the Kiev
Fortress, while others are in use in various military and commercial
installations. The National Art Museum of
Ukraine is a museum
dedicated to Ukrainian art. The Golden Gate is a historic gateway in
the ancient city's walls. The name Zoloti Vorota is also used for a
nearby theatre and a station of the
Kiev Metro. The small Ukrainian
National Chernobyl Museum acts as both a memorial and historical
center devoted to the events surrounding the 1986 Chernobyl disaster
and its effect on the Ukrainian people, the environment, and
subsequent attitudes toward the safety of nuclear power as a whole.
See also: Category:Sport in Kiev
The annual 5.5-kilometre (3.4-mile) 'Run under the Chestnuts' is a
Kiev public sporting event, with hundreds taking part every
Kiev has many professional and amateur football clubs, including
Dynamo Kyiv, Arsenal Kyiv and
FC Obolon Kyiv which play in the
Ukrainian Premier League. Of these three, Dynamo Kyiv has had the most
success over the course of its history. For example, up until the
collapse of the
Soviet Union in 1991, the club won 13 USSR
USSR Cups, and 3
USSR Super Cups, thus making Dynamo
the most successful club in the history of the Soviet Top League.
Other prominent non-football sport clubs in the city include: the
Sokil Kiev ice hockey club and
BC Budivelnyk basketball club. Both of
these teams play in the highest Ukrainian leagues for their respective
sports. Budivelnyk was founded in 1945, Sokil was founded in 1963,
during the existence of the Soviet Union. Both these teams play their
home games at the
Kiev Palace of Sports.
1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics held in the Soviet Union,
the preliminary matches and the quarter-finals of the football
tournament at its Olympic Stadium, which was reconstructed specially
for the event. From 1 December 2008 stadium the stadium underwent a
full-scale reconstruction in order to satisfy standards put in place
UEFA for hosting the Euro 2012 football tournament; the opening
ceremony took place in the presence of president
Viktor Yanukovich on
8 October 2011, with the first major event being a
which was specially planned to coincide with the stadium's re-opening
during Euro 2012. Other notable sport stadiums/sport complexes in Kiev
include the Lobanovsky Dynamo Stadium, the Palace of Sports, among
Most Ukrainian national teams play their home international matches in
Ukraine national football team, for example, will play
matches at the re-constructed Olympic Stadium from 2011.
See also: Category:Tourist attractions in Kiev
Since introducing a visa-free regime for EU-member states and
Switzerland in 2005,
Ukraine has seen a steady increase in the number
of foreign tourists visiting the country. Prior to the 2008–2009
recession the average annual growth in the number of foreign visits in
Kiev was 23% over a three-year period. In 2009 a total of
1.6 million tourists stayed in
Kiev hotels of which almost
259,000 (ca. 16%) were foreigners.
See also: Category:Economy of Kiev, Economy of Ukraine
TsUM department store in Kiev
An-124, the largest aircraft ever mass-produced, designed by the
Antonov in Kiev
As with most capital cities,
Kiev is a major administrative, cultural
and scientific centre of the country. It is the largest city in
Ukraine in terms of both population and area and enjoys the highest
levels of business activity. On 1 January 2010 there were around
238,000 business entities registered in Kiev.
Official figures show that between 2004 and 2008 Kiev's economy
outstripped the rest of the country's, growing by an annual average of
11.5%. Following the global financial crisis that began in
2007, Kiev's economy suffered a severe setback in 2009 with gross
regional product contracting by 13.5% in real terms. Although a
record high, the decline in activity was 1.6 percentage points smaller
than that for the country as a whole. The economy in Kiev, as in
the rest of Ukraine, recovered somewhat in 2010 and 2011.
Kiev is a
middle-income city, with prices currently comparable to many mid-size
American cities (i.e., considerably lower than Western Europe).
Because the city boasts a large and diverse economic base and is not
dependent on any single industry and/or company, its unemployment rate
has historically been relatively low – only 3.75% over
2005–2008. Indeed, even as the rate of joblessness jumped to
7.1% in 2009, it remained far below the national average of
9.6%. The average monthly net salary in
Kiev reached €330 as
Kiev is the undisputed center of business and commerce of
home to the country's largest companies, such as Naftogaz Ukrainy,
Energorynok and Kyivstar. In 2010 the city accounted for 18% of
national retail sales and 24% of all construction
activity. Indeed, real estate is one of the major
forces in Kiev's economy. Average prices of apartments are the highest
in the country and among the highest in eastern Europe.
ranks high in terms of commercial real estate for it is here where the
country's tallest office buildings (such as Gulliver and Parus) and
some of Ukraine's biggest shopping malls (such as Dream Town and Ocean
Plaza) are located.
Kiev is home to many of Ukraine's largest businesses.
In May 2011
Kiev authorities presented a 15-year development strategy
which calls for attracting as much as EUR82 billion of foreign
investment by 2025 to modernize the city’s transport and utilities
infrastructure and make it more attractive for tourists.
Historical economic data
Nominal GRP (UAH bn)
Nominal GRP (USD bn)**
Nominal GRP per capita (USD)**
Monthly wage (USD)**
Unemployment rate (%)***
Retail sales (UAH bn)
Retail sales (USD bn)
Foreign direct investment
Foreign direct investment (USD bn)
* – data not available; ** – calculated at annual average official
exchange rate; *** – ILO methodology (% of workforce).
Primary industries in
Kiev include utilities – i.e., electricity,
gas and water supply (26% of total industrial output), manufacture of
food, beverages and tobacco products (22%), chemical (17%), mechanical
engineering (13%) and manufacture of paper and paper products,
including publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media
Institute of Oil Transportation
Institute of Oil Transportation is headquartered here.
Kuznya na Rybalskomu, naval production
Antonov Serial Production Plant (former Aviant), airplanes
Aeros, small aircraft production
Kiev Roshen Factory, confectionery
Kiev Arsenal (former arms manufacturer), specializes in production of
Kiev Aircraft Repair Plant 410, repair factory located at Zhulyany
Education and science
See also: Category:Education in Kiev
The Ukrainian Academy of Sciences is based in Kiev.
Taras Shevchenko University
Scientific research is conducted in many institutes of higher
education and, additionally, in many research institutes affiliated
with the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
Kiev is home to Ukraine's
ministry of education and science, and is also noted for its
contributions to medical and computer science research.
Kiev hosts many universities, the major ones being
Kiev National Taras
Shevchenko University, the National Technical University "Kiev
Polytechnic Institute",, Kyiv-Mohyla Academy and the Kyiv
National University of Trade and Economics. Of these, the Mohyla
Academy is the oldest outright, having been founded as a theological
school in 1632, however the Shevchenko University, which was founded
in 1834, is the oldest in continuous operation. The total number of
institutions of higher education in
Kiev currently approaches
200, allowing young people to pursue almost any line of study.
While education traditionally remains largely in the hands of the
state there are several accredited private institutions in the city.
There are about 530 general secondary schools and ca. 680 nursery
schools and kindergartens in Kiev. Additionally, there are
evening schools for adults, and specialist technical schools.
There are many libraries in the city with the Vernadsky National
Library, which is Ukraine's main academic library and scientific
information centre, as well as one of the world's largest national
libraries, being the largest and most important one. The National
Library is affiliated with the Academy of Sciences in so far as it is
a deposit library and thus serves as the academy's archives' store.
Interestingly the national library is the world’s foremost
repository of Jewish folk music recorded on Edison wax cylinders.
Their Collection of Jewish Musical Folklore (1912–1947) was
inscribed on UNESCO's
Memory of the World Register
Memory of the World Register in 2005.
Main article: Transport in Kiev
Local public transport
Kiev Metro train at
Local public transportation in
Kiev includes the Metro (underground),
buses and minibuses, trolleybuses, trams, taxi and funicular. There is
also an intra-city ring railway service.
The publicly owned and operated
Kiev Metro is the fastest, the most
convenient and affordable network that covers most, but not all, of
the city. The Metro is continuously expanding towards the city limits
to meet growing demand, currently having three lines with a total
length of 66.1 kilometres (41.1 miles) and 51 stations (some of which
are renowned architectural landmarks). The Metro carries around 1.422
million passengers daily accounting for 38% of the Kiev's public
transport load. In 2011, the total number of trips exceeded 519
Kiev tram system was the first electric tramway in the
Russian Empire and the third one in Europe after the Berlin
Straßenbahn and the
Budapest tramway. The tram system currently
consists of 139.9 km (86.9 mi) of track, including
14 km (8.7 mi) two Rapid
Tram lines, served by 21 routes
with the use of 523 tram cars. Once a well maintained and widely used
method of transport, the system is now gradually being phased out in
favor of buses and trolleybuses.
Trolleybus ElektroLAZ-301 at
Sofia Square, passing by the statue of
Kiev funicular was constructed during 1902–1905. It connects the
historic Uppertown, and the lower commercial neighborhood of Podil
through the steep
Volodymyrska Hill overseeing the
Dnieper River. The
line consists of only two stations.
All public road transport (except for some minibuses) is operated by
Kyivpastrans municipal company. It is heavily subsidized by
Kiev public transport system, except for taxi, uses a simple flat
rate tariff system regardless of distance traveled: tickets or tokens
must be purchased each time a vehicle is boarded. Digital ticket
system is already established in
Kiev Metro, with plans for other
transport modes. Discount passes are available for grade school and
higher education students. Pensioners use public transportation free.
There are monthly passes in all combinations of public transportation.
Ticket prices are regulated by the city government, and the cost of
one ride is far lower than in Western Europe.
The taxi market in
Kiev is expansive but not regulated. In particular,
the taxi fare per kilometer is not regulated. There is a fierce
competition between private taxi companies.
Roads and bridges
The Novo-Darnytskyi Bridge over the
Kiev represents the focal point of Ukraine's "national roads" system,
thus linked by road to all cities of the country. European routes ,
and intersect in Kiev.
There are 8 over-
Dnieper bridges and dozens of grade-separated
intersections in the city. Several new intersections are under
construction. There are plans to build a full-size, fully
grade-separated ring road around Kiev.
Kiev roads are in poor technical condition and maintained
Traffic jams and lack of parking space are growing problems for all
road transport services in Kiev.
Kiev is served by two international passenger airports: the Boryspil
Airport located 30 kilometres (19 miles) away, and the smaller,
Zhulyany Airport on the southern outskirts of the
city. There are also the Gostomel cargo airport and additional three
operating airfields facilitating the
Antonov aircraft manufacturing
company and general aviation.
Railways are Kiev’s main mode of intracity and suburban
transportation. The city has a developed railroad infrastructure
including a long-distance passenger station, 6 cargo stations, depots,
and repairing facilities. However, this system still fails to meet the
demand for passenger service. Particularly, the
Kiev Passenger Railway
Station is the city's only long-distance passenger terminal (vokzal).
Construction is underway for turning the large
Station on the left-bank part of
Kiev into a long-distance passenger
hub, which may ease traffic at the central station. Bridges over
Dnieper River are another problem restricting the development of
city’s railway system. Presently, only one rail bridge out of two is
available for intense train traffic. A new combined rail-auto bridge
is under construction, as a part of
In 2011 the
Kiev city administration established a new 'Urban Train'
for Kiev. This service runs at standard 4- to 10-minute intervals
throughout the day and follows a circular route around the city
centre, which allows it to serve many of Kiev's inner suburbs.
Interchanges between the
Kiev Metro and Fast
Tram exist at many of the
urban train's station stops.
Suburban 'Elektrichka' trains are serviced by the publicly owned
Ukrainian Railways. The suburban train service is fast, and unbeatably
safe in terms of traffic accidents. But the trains are not reliable,
as they may fall significantly behind schedule, may not be safe in
terms of crime, and the elektrichka cars are poorly maintained and are
overcrowded in rush hours.
There are 5 elektrichka directions from Kiev:
More than a dozen of elektrichka stops are located within the city
allowing residents of different neighborhoods to use the suburban
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Ukraine
Twin towns and sister cities
Kiev is twinned with:
Turkey (since 1993)
China (since 1993)
Chicago, Illinois, United States
Moldova (since 1999)
Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (since 1989)
Greece (since 1998)
Poland (since 1993)
Germany (since 1961)
Latvia (since 1998)
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Tbilisi, Georgia (since 1999)
Poland (since 1994)
In February 2016 the
Kiev city council
Kiev city council terminated its twinned
relations with the Russian cities Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Volgograd,
Ulan-Ude, Makhachkala, and the
Komi Republic due to the Russian
military intervention in Ukraine.
Other cooperation agreements
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Notable people from Kiev
Vladimir Horowitz was born in Kiev.
Nikolai Amosov, Soviet and Ukrainian heart surgeon and inventor
Oleh Blokhin, Ukrainian football player
Leonid Bronevoy, Soviet and Russian actor
Nikolai Berdyaev, Russian Orthodox religious and political philosopher
Mikhail Bulgakov, Russian writer
Konstantin Buteyko, creator of the
Buteyko method for the treatment of
asthma and other breathing disorders
Ilya Ehrenburg, Soviet writer, journalist, translator, and cultural
Olga Fridman, Ukrainian/Israeli tennis player
André Grabar, historian of
Romanesque art and the art of the Eastern
Roman Empire and the Bulgarian Empire
Eugeniusz Horbaczewski, Polish fighter pilot
Milton Horn, Russian American sculptor
Vladimir Horowitz, classical pianist
Milla Jovovich, American actress
Ivanna Klympush-Tsintsadze, Ukrainian politician and journalist
Jan Koum, American computer programmer, CEO and co-founder of WhatsApp
Ana Layevska, Ukrainian-Mexican actress
Serge Lifar, French ballet dancer
Valeriy Lobanovskyi, Soviet and Ukrainian football coach
Kazimir Malevich, pioneer of geometric abstract art and the originator
of the avant-garde Suprematist movement
Golda Meir, Israeli politician, the fourth Prime Minister of Israel
Moses of Kiev, 12th century Talmudist
Alexander Ostrowski, mathematician
Nicholas Pritzker, scion of the Pritzker Family
Lev Shestov, Russian existentialist philosopher
Andriy Shevchenko, Ukrainian footballer
Igor Sikorsky, Russian-American aviation pioneer
Alexander Vertinsky, Russian and Soviet singer, composer, poet,
cabaret artist, and actor
Kiev Peninsula in Graham Land,
Antarctica is named after the city of
Постанова Кабінету Міністрів України
від 27 січня 2010 р. № 55 «Про
українського алфавіту латиницею»
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with fun, protest". Kyiv Post.
^ a b
Vitali Klitschko sworn in as mayor of Kiev, Interfax-
^ a b Poroshenko appoints Klitschko head of Kyiv city administration
– decree, Interfax-
Ukraine (25 June 2014)
Poroshenko orders Klitschko to bring title of best European capital
back to Kyiv, Interfax-
Ukraine (25 June 2014)
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gave the population of
Kiev as 2 611 300 (Ukrcensus.gov.ua – Kyiv
city Web address accessed on 4 August 2007). Estimates based on the
amount of bakery products sold in the city (thus including temporary
visitors and commuters) suggest a minimum of 3.5 million. "There
are up to 1.5 mln undercounted residents in Kiev", Korrespondent, 15
June 2005(in Russian)
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^ a b (in Ukrainian) Виборчі комісії фіксують
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Chronicles and others.
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// Единорогъ. Материалы по военной
истории Восточной Европы эпохи
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времени, вып.1, М., 2009: Под влиянием
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диктата Ватикана сейм в мае 1659 г.
принял Гадячский договор в более чем
урезанном виде. Идея Княжества
Руського вообще была уничтожена,
равно как и положение о сохранении
союза с Москвой. Отменялась и
ликвидация унии, равно как и целый ряд
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templated by Alexey Kovtanets; programming by Irina Batvina; Maxim
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^ See also: KPI official website Archived 16 July 2006 at the Wayback
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2013 at the Wayback Machine. "Archived copy". Archived from the
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1Meaning (Cossack) states on the territory of current Ukraine
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3 Transcontinental country
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5 Partially recognised country