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The Kielce
Kielce
Pogrom
Pogrom
was an outbreak of violence toward the Jewish community centre's gathering of refugees in the city of Kielce, Poland on 4 July 1946 by Polish soldiers, police officers, and civilians[1] during which 42 Jews
Jews
were killed and more than 40 were wounded.[1][2] Polish courts later sentenced nine of the attackers to death in connection with the crimes.[1] As the deadliest pogrom against Polish Jews
Jews
after the Second World War, the incident was a significant point in the post-war history of Jews
Jews
in Poland. It took place only a year after the end of the Second World War and the Holocaust, shocking Jews
Jews
in Poland, Poles, and the international community. It has been recognized as a catalyst for the flight from Poland
Poland
of most remaining Polish Jews
Jews
who had survived the Holocaust.[3]

Contents

1 Background 2 Outbreak of violence 3 Cessation of violence 4 The aftermath

4.1 Attempts to blame Polish nationalists 4.2 Trials 4.3 Effects on Jewish emigration from Poland 4.4 Reaction of the Catholic Church

5 Evidence of Soviet involvement 6 Recent events

6.1 Monument

7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 External links

Background[edit]

Ulica Planty 7, Kielce

During the German occupation of Poland, Kielce
Kielce
was completely ethnically cleansed by the Nazis of its pre-war Jewish community. By the summer of 1946, some 200 Jews, many of them former residents of Kielce, had returned from the Nazi concentration camps, the Soviet Union, and other places of refuge to live there. About 150-160 of them were quartered in a single building administered by the Jewish Committee of Kielce
Kielce
Voivodeship at Planty,[4] a small street in the centre of the town. On 1 July 1946, an eight-year-old Polish boy, Henryk Błaszczyk, was reported missing by his father Walenty Błaszczyk. According to the father, upon his return two days later the boy claimed he had been kidnapped by an unknown man, allegedly a Jew or a gypsy. Two days later, the boy, his father and the neighbour went to a local Civic Militia station (communist state-controlled police force). While passing the 'Jewish house' at 7 Planty Street, Henryk pointed at a man nearby who, he said, had allegedly imprisoned him in the house's cellar. At the police station, Henryk repeated his story that he had been kidnapped and specified the Jews
Jews
and their house as involved in his disappearance. A Civic Milita patrol of more than a dozen men was then dispatched on foot by the station commander Edmund Zagórski to search the house at 7 Planty Street for the place where Henryk had allegedly been kept.[5] Although the kidnapping claim was quickly withdrawn,[6] Henryk Błaszczyk remained publicly silent about the events until 1998, when, in an interview to Polish journalist he admitted he was never kidnapped but was living with "unknown family" in nearby village and treated well. He perceived his disappearance as happening with his father's awareness and concerted by the communist security service. After returning home he was categorically commanded by his father not to discuss anything that happened and reaffirm only the story of "Jewish abduction" if ever asked. He was threatened to keep quiet long after 1946, which he did out of fear until the end of communist rule in Poland.[7] Civic Militia publicised the rumours of the kidnapping and further announced that they were planning to search for the bodies of Polish children supposedly ritually murdered and kept in the house, resulting in the gathering of civilian spectators.[5] A confrontation ensued between the militia forces and officers of the Ministry of Public Security of Poland
Poland
(UBP), which had been called in on the suspicion that the incident was a Jewish "provocation" to stir up unrest.[citation needed] During the morning, the case came to the attention of other local state and military organs, including the Polish People's Army
Polish People's Army
(LWP - communist controlled regular army), the Internal Security Corps
Internal Security Corps
(KBW, interior ministry paramilitary), and the Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army (GZI WP, military intelligence and counterintelligence). About 100 soldiers and five officers were dispatched to the location at about 10 am. The soldiers were unfamiliar with the circumstances, but soon picked up rumors from the people in the street, who at this time commenced pelting the building with stones.[5] Outbreak of violence[edit] The Civic Militia and soldiers then forcibly broke into the building only to discover that it did not contain any abducted children as claimed. The inhabitants of the house, who had proper permits to bear arms for self defence, were ordered to surrender their weaponry and give up valuables. Someone (unclear who) started firing a weapon. Civic Militia and the KBW opened fire, killing and wounding a number of people in the building. In response, shots were fired from the Jewish side killing two or three Poles, including a Civic Militia officer. The head of the local Jewish Committee, Dr Seweryn Kahane, was fatally wounded by a GZI WP officer while telephoning the Kielce office of Public Security for help. A number of local Priests attempted to enter the building but were stopped by militia officers, who vowed to control the situation.[5] Following the initial murders inside the building, numerous Jews
Jews
were driven outdoor by soldiers and later attacked with stones and clubs by civilians who crowded surrounding streets. By noon, the arrival of a large group of estimated about 600 to 1,000 workers from Ludwików steel mill, led by activists of Poland’s ruling Polish Workers' Party (PPR, communist party), opened the next stage of the pogrom. Approximately 20 Jews
Jews
were viciously battered to death by the workers armed with iron rods and clubs. Some of the workers were members of the ORMO
ORMO
(volunteer reserve militia) and at least one possessed a handgun. Neither the military or security heads, including a Soviet army advisor, nor the local civic leaders, sought to prevent the aggression. A unit of Civic Militia cadets which also arrived at the scene did not intervene, but some of its members joined in the looting and violence which continued inside and outside the building.[8] Among the slain Jews, nine had been shot dead, two were killed with bayonets, and the rest beaten or stoned to death. The dead included women and children. The mob also killed a Jewish nurse (Estera Proszowska),whom the attackers had mistaken for a Polish female attempting to aid the Jews. Two Jewish people not residing at Planty Street dwelling were also murdered on this day in separate incidents. Regina Fisz, her 3-week old child, and a male companion were abducted at their home at 15 Leonarda Street by a group of 4 men led by Civic Militia corporal Stefan Mazur. They were robbed and driven out of the city, where Regina and her baby were shot while allegedly trying to escape, while her friend did manage to escape. Three non-Jewish Poles were among the dead. Two uniformed state servicemen were killed in gunfire exchange, most likely shot by Jews
Jews
defending themselves. The cause of death of the third man remains unexplained.[8] Cessation of violence[edit]

This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. (July 2016)

The pogrom ended at roughly 3:00 p.m. with the arrival of new security units from a nearby Public Security Academy, advanced by Colonel Stanisław Kupsza, and additional troops from Warsaw.[5] After warning shots discharge, on the order of Major Kazimierz Konieczny, the new troops swiftly restored order, posted guards, and removed all the survivors as well as corpses from the dwelling and its proximity. The violence, nevertheless, did not stop. Wounded Jews
Jews
being taken to the local hospital were beaten and robbed by soldiers[5] and injured were assaulted in the hospital by other patients. A civilian crowd approached one of the hospitals and demanded that the hurt Jews
Jews
be handed over, but the hospital staff refused. Trains passing through Kielce’s main railway station were scrutinized for Jews
Jews
by civilians and SOK railway guards, resulting in at least two passengers being murdered. As many as 30 more may have been killed in this manner, as the train murders reportedly continued for several months after the pogrom.[8] The large-scale disorder in Kielce
Kielce
ultimately ended some nine hours after it started. Polish born Julia Pirotte, a well-known French photojournalist with the French Resistance, photographed the pogrom’s immediate aftermath.[9] The aftermath[edit] Attempts to blame Polish nationalists[edit] One immediate reaction of the Communist government of Poland
Poland
was to attempt to blame the pogrom on Polish nationalists,[10] alleging that uniformed members of anticommunist formations backing the Polish government-in-exile were egging the mob on. At the funeral of the Jewish victims, the Minister of Public Security, Stanisław Radkiewicz, stated that the pogrom was "a deed committed by the emissaries of the Polish government in the West and General Anders, with the approval of Home Army
Home Army
soldiers." Other early official statements at the time followed this line.[11] As the militiaman and army are known to have been involved in the pogrom from its inception, this has given rise to the idea that the pogrom was deliberately incited by the Communists to discredit the government in exile (possibly to distract attention from the rigged referendum which had taken place at the end of June 1946). When it became clear following trials that the nationalists could not be blamed, this line of propaganda was swiftly dropped by the government.[citation needed] Additional investigation into the circumstances of the massacre was opposed by the communist regime until the era of Solidarity, when in December 1981 an article was published in the Solidarity newspaper Tygodnik Solidarność.[12] However, the return of repressive government meant that files could not be accessed for research until after the fall of Communism
Communism
in 1989, by which time many eyewitnesses had died. It was then discovered that many of the documents relating to the pogrom had been allegedly destroyed by fire or deliberately by military authorities.[13] For these reasons, debate about the origins of the pogrom has remained controversial. Some claim it was a deliberate provocation by the communists to discredit the opposition. Some claim that it was a spontaneous antisemitic incident that was later exploited by the government. Others[who?] have accused the Roman Catholic Church hierarchy in Poland
Poland
of passivity during the pogrom and its aftermath. The fact that a number of Jews
Jews
held important positions in the Polish Communist party
Communist party
and security services also affected popular sentiment. Insufficient documented evidence significantly limits historical research.[14] Trials[edit] Between 9 and 11 July 1946, twelve civilians (one of them apparently mentally challenged) were arrested by MBP officers as perpetrators of the pogrom. The accused were tried by the Supreme Military Court in a joint show trial. Nine were sentenced to death and executed the following day by firing squad on the orders of Polish Communist leader Bolesław Bierut. The remaining three received prison terms ranging from seven years to life.[citation needed] Aside from Kielce
Kielce
Voivodeship's Civic Militia commandant, Major Wiktor Kuźnicki, who was sentenced to one year for "failing to stop the crowd" (he died in 1947), only one militia officer was punished — for the theft of shoes from a dead body. Mazur's explanation regarding his killing of the Fisz family was accepted. Meanwhile, the regional UBP chief, Colonel Władysław Sobczyński, and his men were cleared of any wrongdoing. The official reaction to the pogrom was described by Anita J. Prazmowska in Cold War History, Vol. 2, No. 2:

Nine participants in the pogrom were sentenced to death; three others were given lengthy prison sentences. Militiaman, military men and functionaries of the UBP were tried separately and then unexpectedly all, with the exception of Wiktor Kuznicki, Commander of the MO, who was sentenced to one year in prison, were found not guilty of "having taken no action to stop the crowd from committing crimes." Clearly, during the period when the first investigations were launched and the trial, a most likely politically motivated decision had been made not to proceed with disciplinary action. This was in spite of very disturbing evidence that emerged during the pre-trial interviews. It is entirely feasible that instructions not to punish the MO and UBP commanders had been given because of the politically sensitive nature of the evidence. Evidence heard by the military prosecutor revealed major organisational and ideological weaknesses within these two security services.[15]

The neighbour of the Błaszczyk family who had originally suggested to Henryk that he had been kidnapped by Jews
Jews
was subsequently tried, but acquitted.[5] Of the 12 persons put on trial, nine were condemned to death. According to author Krzysztof Kąkolewski (Umarły cmentarz), the twelve had been picked up from the watching crowd by the secret police.[2] Effects on Jewish emigration from Poland[edit] The ruthlessness of the murders put an end to the expectation of many Jews
Jews
that they would be able to resettle in Poland
Poland
after the end of the Nazi German occupation and precipitated a mass exodus of Polish Jewry.[16] Bożena Szaynok, a historian at Wrocław University estimated that from July 1945 until June 1946 about fifty thousand Jews
Jews
crossed the Polish border illegally. In July 1946, almost twenty thousand decided to start a new life abroad.[5] Polish Minister Marian Spychalski, motivated by political and humanitarian reasons, signed a decree allowing Jews
Jews
to leave officially without visas or exit permits, and the Jewish emigration from Poland
Poland
increased dramatically.[17] In August 1946 the number of emigrants increased to thirty thousand. In September 1946, twelve thousand Jews
Jews
left Poland.[5] By the spring of 1947, wrote Bernhard and Szlajfer, the number of Jews in Poland
Poland
– in large part arriving from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
– declined from 240,000 to 90,000 due to mass migration.[18] Britain demanded that Poland
Poland
halt the Jewish exodus, but their pressure was largely unsuccessful.[19] The flight (berihah) of Jews
Jews
was motivated by the post- Holocaust
Holocaust
absence of Jewish life in Poland
Poland
as well as the raging civil war against the Communist takeover, in as much as the efforts of strong Polish-Jewish lobby at the Jewish Agency working towards the higher standard of living and special privileges for the immigrants from Poland. Yitzhak Raphael, director of the Immigration Department – who lobbied on behalf of Polish refugees – insisted on their preferential treatment in Israel, wrote Devorah Hakohen.[20]

Jewish Holocaust
Holocaust
survivors awaiting transport to the British Mandate of Palestine

Reaction of the Catholic Church[edit]

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Six months before the Kielce
Kielce
pogrom, during the celebration of Hanukkah, a hand grenade had been thrown into the headquarters of the local Jewish community. The Jewish Community Council had approached the Bishop
Bishop
of Kielce, Czesław Kaczmarek, requesting that he admonish the Polish people to refrain from attacking the Jews. The bishop refused, replying that "as long as the Jews
Jews
concentrated upon their private business Poland
Poland
was interested in them, but at the point when Jews
Jews
began to interfere in Polish politics and public life they insulted the Poles' national sensibilities".[21] Similar remarks were delivered by the Bishop
Bishop
of Lublin, Stefan Wyszyński, when he was approached by a Jewish delegation. Wyszyński stated that the widespread hostility to Jews
Jews
was provoked by Jewish backing of Communism
Communism
(there was a widespread perception that Jews
Jews
were supportive of Soviet-installed Communist administration in Poland; see Żydokomuna), which had also been the reason why "the Germans murdered the Jewish nation". Wyszyński also gave some credence to blood libel stories, commenting that the issue of the use of Christian blood was never fully clarified.[22] The controversial stance of the Polish Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
towards anti-Jewish violence was criticised by the American, British and Italian ambassadors to Poland. Reports of the Kielce
Kielce
pogrom caused a major sensation in the United States, leading the American ambassador to Poland
Poland
to insist that the Cardinal August Hlond
August Hlond
hold a press conference and explain the position of the church. In the conference held on 11 July 1946, Hlond condemned the violence, but attributed it not to racial causes but to rumours concerning the killing of Polish children by Jews. Hlond put the blame for the deterioration in Polish-Jewish relations on collaboration with the Soviet-backed communist occupiers, Jews
Jews
"occupying leading positions in Poland
Poland
in state life". This position was echoed by Polish rural clergy and Cardinal Sapieha, who reportedly stated that the Jews
Jews
had brought it upon themselves.[23] Evidence of Soviet involvement[edit] Some sources claim the massacre was instigated by the Soviet-backed Communist security corps, for propaganda purposes, attempting to discredit Poland's anti-Communist stance and to maintain totalitarian control over the country. As the top-secret case files were destroyed, the academic inquiry is ongoing with regard to possible secret coordination with the NKVD
NKVD
by the Moscow-Communist-controlled 'Polish' authorities.[2][24] There has been considerable controversy over possible outside incitement. The idea that the event was secretly provoked or inspired by Soviet intelligence services has been put forward, and a number of similar scenarios were offered. None has yet been proven by the post-communist investigation, due to the paper trail (see below) having been destroyedby Communist-controlled intelligence agents, even though an NKVD
NKVD
officer was present at the riots.[25] In 2001–04 the Institute of National Remembrance
Institute of National Remembrance
(IPN) conducted an investigation into the pogrom and closed the case stating (without entering into details) that the events of 4 July 1946 were a result of a mishap. Another communiqué published by the IPN two years later confirmed only that four decades after the fact the remaining paper trail was still being destroyed by the Soviet controlled Polish security police under Gen. Czesław Kiszczak.[26] Aleksander Wat,[27] Tadeusz Piotrowski,[28] logician Abel Kainer (Stanisław Krajewski),[29] and Jan Śledzianowski,[30] allege that the events were part of a much wider action organised by Soviet intelligence in countries controlled by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(a very similar pogrom took place in Hungary), and that Soviet-dominated agencies like the UBP were used in the preparation of the Kielce pogrom. Polish Communist and Soviet commanders were in the locality. The most notable was the Jewish expert Nathan Spychaj (a.k.a. Natan Shpilevoi or Szpilevoy), brother of a senior official in Stalin's puppet Polish regime,[27] as well as Mikhail Diomin, a high-ranking GRU
GRU
officer for special operations. It was also uncommon that numerous troops from security formations were present at the place and did not prevent the "mob" from gathering, at a time when even a gathering of five people was considered suspicious and immediately controlled.[31] Michael Checinski, a former Polish Military Counter-Intelligence officer, emigrated to United States
United States
after the 1968 Polish political crisis, where he published his book in which he asserts that the events of Kielce
Kielce
pogrom were a well planned action of the Soviet intelligence in Poland, with the main role in planning and controlling the events being played by Diomin, and with the murders carried out by some Poles, including Polish policemen and military officers.[32][33] On 19 July 1946, former Chief Military Prosecutor Henryk Holder wrote in the letter to the deputy chief of LWP General Marian Spychalski that "we know that the pogrom wasn't only a fault of Police and Army guarding the people in and around the city of Kielce
Kielce
but also members of the official government who took a role in it."[34] One line of argument that implies external inspiration goes as follows:[35] The 1946 referendum showed that the communists had little support and only vote rigging won them a majority in the carefully controlled poll - hence, it has been alleged that the UBP organised the pogrom to distract the Western world
Western world
media's attention from the fabricated referendum. Another argument for the incident's use as distraction was the upcoming ruling on the Katyn massacre
Katyn massacre
in the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials, which the communists tried to turn international attention away from, placing the Poles in an unfavourable spotlight (the pogrom happened on 4 July, the same day the Katyn case started in Nuremberg, after the Soviet prosecutors falsely accused the Nazis of the massacre which was actually committed by the Soviets themselves in 1940).[citation needed] Jan T. Gross
Jan T. Gross
attributes the massacre to what he describes as Polish hostility towards the Jews.[36] Gross's book, Fear: Anti-Semitism in Poland
Poland
after Auschwitz, offers a somewhat different and more nuanced interpretation. Gross, while agreeing that the crime was initiated not by a mob, but by the communist police, and that it involved people from every walk of life except the highest level of government officials in the city,[37] claimed the indifference of the majority of Poles to the Jewish Holocaust
Holocaust
combined with demands for the return of Jewish property confiscated during the Second World War
Second World War
created a climate of violence against Jews. Recent events[edit] Monument[edit] A monument by New York City-based artist Jack Sal entitled White/Wash II commemorating the victims was dedicated on 4 July 2006, in Kielce, on the 60th anniversary of the pogrom. At the dedication ceremony, a statement from the President of the Republic of Poland
Poland
Lech Kaczyński condemned the events as a "crime and a great shame for the Poles and tragedy for the Polish Jews". The presidential statement asserted that in today's democratic Poland
Poland
there is "no room for antisemitism" and brushed off any generalizations of the antisemitic image of the Polish nation as a stereotype.[38] See also[edit]

Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944-1946 Białystok pogrom History of the Jews
Jews
in Poland Jedwabne pogrom Kielce
Kielce
pogrom (1918) Kraków pogrom Miskolc pogrom Szczuczyn pogrom Tykocin pogrom Wąsosz pogrom

References[edit]

^ a b c THE KIELCE POGROM: A BLOOD LIBEL MASSACRE OF HOLOCAUST SURVIVORS Archived 2016-11-24 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c Interview with Krzysztof Kąkolewski, Archive copy at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
Also available with purchase at "To Moskwa zaplanowała ten mord" (The murder was planned in Moscow), Tygodnik Angora – "Przegląd prasy krajowej i światowej", Łódź, 29/2006 (839); section Kultura, p. 56. Copy available at Forum historycy.org, 3 July 2006, and at [http://forum.gazeta.pl/forum/w,44,45313190,45324658,Kakolewski_w_Kielcach_nie_bylo_Pogromu.html Gazeta.pl Forum (incomplete) Archived 7 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine., 7 June 2016. (in Polish) ^ Engel, David (1998). "Patterns of Anti-Jewish Violence In Poland, 1944-1946" (PDF). Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Studies Vol. XXVI (PDF)format= requires url= (help). Jerusalem: Yad Vashem. pp. 7, 28. Retrieved 15 June 2010.  ^ Williams, Anna, The Kielce
Kielce
Pogrom
Pogrom
Archived 2012-01-21 at WebCite, ucsb.edu; accessed 5 July 2016. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bożena Szaynok. "The Jewish Pogrom
Pogrom
in Kielce, July 1946 - New Evidence". Intermarium. 1 (3). Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.  ^ Lawrence, W.H. (July 6, 1946). "Poles Declare Two Hoaxes Caused High Toll in Pogrom". New York Times. Page 1.  ^ Stempniak, Anna (2016). "Porwanie, którego nigdy nie było. Prawda o pogromie kieleckim". polskieradio.pl. Polskie Radio. Archived from the original on 2017-02-15.  ^ a b c (in Polish) Pogrom
Pogrom
na Plantach Archived 2008-08-03 at the Wayback Machine., Rzeczpospolita, 1 July 2006. ^ Julia Pirotte's photographs from the aftermath of the massacre are available online at Yad Vashem. Search for "Pirotte" in the Photo Archive Archived 2009-08-01 at the Wayback Machine., yadvashem.org; accessed 5 July 2016. ^ Kamiński (2006), 26-78, passim ^ Kamiński (2006), 29-33 ^ Kamiński (2006), 123 ^ Kamiński (2006), 123-124 ^ Kamiński (2006), 118-120 ^ Anita Prażmowska (2002). "Case Study: The Pogrom
Pogrom
in Kielce". Poland's Century: War, Communism
Communism
and Anti-Semitism. London, UK: London School of Economics and Political Science. Archived from the original on 2009-03-07.  ^ Abraham Duker. Twentieth century blood libels in the United States. In: Alan Dundes. The Blood Libel Legend: A Casebook in Anti-Semitic Folklore. University of Wisconsin Press, 1991. ^ Marrus, Michael Robert; Aristide R. Zolberg (2002). The Unwanted: European Refugees from the First World War Through the Cold War. Temple University Press. p. 336. ISBN 1-56639-955-6. Archived from the original on 2018-02-14. This gigantic effort, known by the Hebrew code word Brichah(flight), accelerated powerfully after the Kielce
Kielce
pogrom in July 1946  ^ Michael Bernhard, Henryk Szlajfer, From the Polish Underground, page 375 Archived 2018-02-14 at the Wayback Machine. Published by Penn State Press, 2004, ISBN 0-271-02565-4, ISBN 978-0-271-02565-0. 500 pages ^ Kochavi, Arieh J. (2001). Post- Holocaust
Holocaust
Politics: Britain, the United States
United States
& Jewish Refugees, 1945–1948. The University of North Carolina Press. pp. xi. ISBN 0-8078-2620-0. Archived from the original on 2018-02-14.  ^ Devorah Hakohen, Immigrants in turmoil: mass immigration to Israel and its repercussions... Archived 2017-01-11 at the Wayback Machine., Syracuse University Press, 2003, p. 70; ISBN 0-8156-2969-9 ^ Aleksiun, Natalia (2010). "The Polish Catholic Church and the Jewish Question in Poland, 1944–1948" (PDF). Yad Vashem. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 March 2005. Retrieved 15 February 2018.  ^ Eli Lederhendler (2005). Jews, Catholics, and the Burden of History. Oxford University Press. p. 37. ISBN 0-19-530491-8.  ^ Peter C. Kent (2002). The Lonely Cold War of Pope Pius XII: The Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
and the Division of Europe. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 128.  ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's Holocaust. Archived 2018-02-14 at the Wayback Machine. McFarland, p. 136; ISBN 0-7864-0371-3. ^ Applebaum, Anne (2012). Iron curtain: the crushing of Eastern Europe, 1944-1956 (1st United States
United States
ed.). New York: Doubleday. p. 139. ISBN 9780385515696. Archived from the original on 2018-02-14.  ^ IPN (3 July 2006), PRZEGLĄD MEDIÓW: 4 lipca 1946 roku w Kielcach. Dowody pogromu kieleckiego niszczono jeszcze w latach 80 – pisze we „Wprost” Bożena Szaynok. (The evidence was still being destroyed in the 1980s) „Plama Kiszczaka” Wprost nr 27/2006 r. Archived 2015-02-16 at the Wayback Machine., Institute of National Remembrance, Poland. ^ a b Aleksander Wat
Aleksander Wat
(1977). My Century. NYRB. p. xxviii. ISBN 1-59017-065-2.  ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski (1997). "Postwar years". Poland's Holocaust. McFarland & Company. p. 136. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3. Archived from the original on 2018-02-14.  ^ Stanisław Krajewski (2004). " Jews
Jews
and Communism". In Michael Bernhard, Henryk Szlajfer. From The Polish Underground. State College, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University
Pennsylvania State University
Press. p. 380. ISBN 0-271-02565-4. Archived from the original on 2018-02-14.  ^ (in Polish) Jan Śledzianowski in Pytania nad pogromem kieleckim, p. 213 ^ Krzysztof Kąkolewski; Joanna Kąkolewska (2006). Umarły cmentarz (in Polish). Warsaw: Wydawn. von Borowiecky. ISBN 83-87689-73-4. Archived from the original on 14 February 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2016.  ^ Michael Checinski. Running the Gauntlet of Anti-Semitism. Archived 2018-02-14 at the Wayback Machine. Devora Publishing, 2004. ^ Michael Checinski. Poland, Communism, Nationalism, Anti-semitism Archived 2018-02-14 at the Wayback Machine., google.com; accessed 5 July 2016. ^ Wokół pogromu, cyt. za: J. Śledzianowski, s. 80 ^ (in Polish) Postanowienie o umorzeniu śledztwa w sprawie pogromu kieleckiego, prowadzonego przez OKŚZpNP w Krakowie, 21 October 2004, Kraków ^ Jan T. Gross, Postwar Anti-Semitism" in Revolution from Abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland's Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia Archived 2012-11-06 at the Wayback Machine., pp. 274-86 ^ Fear, pp. 83-166 ^ Matthew Day, 60 years on, Europe's last pogrom still casts dark shadow, The Scotsman, 5 July 2006.

Sources[edit]

Marek Jan Chodakiewicz (2003). After the Holocaust. East European Monographs. ISBN 0-88033-511-4.  Jan Śledzianowski (1998). Pytania nad pogromem kieleckim. Kielce: Jedność. ISBN 83-7224-057-4.  Łukasz Kamiński and Jan Żaryn (editors), Reflections on the Kielce Pogrom
Pogrom
(articles by Bożena Szaynok, Ryszard Śmietanka-Kruszelnicki, Jan Żaryn and Jacek Żurek), Warsaw, 2006; ISBN 83-60464-23-5 Bozena Szaynok, The Kielce
Kielce
Pogrom, in Intermarium, vol 1 no 3 (1997) East Central European Research Center, Columbia University, (available here) Fear: Anti-Semitism in Poland
Poland
After Auschwitz, powells.com; accessed 31 October 2015.

External links[edit]

The Jewish Pogrom
Pogrom
in Kielce, July 1946, Jewish Virtual Library Case Study: The Pogrom
Pogrom
in Kielce, The London School of Economics and Political Science by Anita J. Prazmowska The Truth about Kielce
Kielce
by Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski
Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski
(arguing that the Soviets were responsible for the pogrom) Postwar Pogrom, The New York Times, July 23, 2006

v t e

Massacres
Massacres
or pogroms against Jews

1st – 11th century

Alexandrian pogrom (38) The Great Revolt (66–73) Bar Kokhba revolt (132–136) Jewish revolt against Constantius Gallus (351–352) Jewish revolt against Heraclius (614–617) Córdoba massacre (1013) Fez massacre (1033) Granada massacre (1066) Gzerot Tatenu (Rhineland massacres) (1096)

Worms massacre Speyer massacre Mainz massacre

12th – 19th century

Ham massacre (1143) Rintfleisch massacres (1298) Black Death Jewish persecutions
Black Death Jewish persecutions
(1348–1350)

Erfurt massacre Basel massacre Speyer massacre Strasbourg massacre

Brussels massacre
Brussels massacre
(1370) Massacre of the Assumption (1474) Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
(1478) Arles pogrom (1484) Lisbon massacre
Lisbon massacre
(1506) Hebron pogrom (1517) Safed pogrom (1517) Portuguese Inquisition
Portuguese Inquisition
(1536) Chmielnicki massacres
Chmielnicki massacres
(1648–1657) Safed massacre (1660) Mawza Exile
Mawza Exile
(1679) Massacre of Uman (1768) Hep-Hep riots
Hep-Hep riots
(1819) First Odessa pogrom (1821) Tzfat pogrom
Tzfat pogrom
(1834) Hebron pogrom (1834) Safed massacre (1838) Allahdad (1839) Damascus affair
Damascus affair
(1840) Second Odessa pogrom (1859) Third Odessa pogrom (1871) Storms in the Negev (1881–1884)

Kiev pogrom Warsaw
Warsaw
pogrom Fourth Odessa pogrom

20th century

1900–1936

Częstochowa pogrom (1902) Kishinev pogrom
Kishinev pogrom
(1903) Zablotov pogrom (1903) Kiev pogrom (1905) Fifth Odessa pogrom (1905) Kishinev pogrom
Kishinev pogrom
(1905) Białystok pogrom
Białystok pogrom
(1906) Siedlce pogrom
Siedlce pogrom
(1906) The Tritl
The Tritl
(1912) Skver pogrom (1917) Lwów pogrom (1918) Lida pogrom (1919) Radomishel pogrom (1919) Justingrad pogrom (1919) Skver pogroms (1919) Zvil pogrom (1919) Pinsk massacre
Pinsk massacre
(1919) Proskurov pogrom
Proskurov pogrom
(1919) The Kiev pogroms (1919) Zavirtcha pogrom (1921) Safed massacre (1929) Hebron massacre (1929) Constantine pogrom (1934) Thrace pogroms (1934) The Bloody Day in Jaffa (1936) Przytyk pogrom
Przytyk pogrom
(1936)

1938–1945

Tiberias massacre (1938) Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
(1938) Częstochowa massacre
Częstochowa massacre
(1939) Dynów massacre (1939) Silc massacre (1939) Dorohoi pogrom
Dorohoi pogrom
(1940) Bucharest pogrom
Bucharest pogrom
(1941) Gabès pogrom (1941) Iași pogrom
Iași pogrom
(1941) Jedwabne pogrom
Jedwabne pogrom
(1941) Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre
Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre
(1941) Lviv pogroms
Lviv pogroms
(1941) Ponary massacre
Ponary massacre
(1941) Rumbula massacre
Rumbula massacre
(1941) The Farhud
The Farhud
(1941) Odessa massacre (1941) The Holocaust
Holocaust
(1941–1945) Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising (1943) Topoľčany pogrom
Topoľčany pogrom
(1945) Kraków pogrom
Kraków pogrom
(1945) Kolbasov pogrom (1945) Tripolitania pogrom (1945) Cairo pogrom (1945)

1946–1999

Kielce
Kielce
pogrom (1946) Kunmadaras pogrom (1946) Miskolc pogrom (1946) Haifa Oil Refinery massacre
Haifa Oil Refinery massacre
(1947) Aden pogrom (1947) Aleppo pogrom (1947) Manama pogrom (1947) Tripoli pogrom (1948) The Djerada
The Djerada
(1948) Ben Yehuda Street bombing (1948) Cairo bombings (1948) Kfar Etzion massacre
Kfar Etzion massacre
(1948) Menarsha synagogue attack (1949) Night of the Murdered Poets (1952) Scorpion Pass massacre
Scorpion Pass massacre
(1954) Shafrir synagogue shooting (1956) Purge of Polish Jews
Jews
(1968) Avivim school bus massacre
Avivim school bus massacre
(1970) Munich massacre
Munich massacre
(1972) Lod Airport massacre
Lod Airport massacre
(1972) Ma'alot massacre
Ma'alot massacre
(1974) Kiryat Shmona massacre
Kiryat Shmona massacre
(1974) Ben Yehuda Street bombing (1975) Coastal Road massacre
Coastal Road massacre
(1978) Nahariya massacre (1979) Paris synagogue bombing (1980) Antwerp summer camp attack (1980) Antwerp bombing (1981) Vienna synagogue attack (1981) Goldenberg restaurant massacre (1982) Ras Burqa massacre
Ras Burqa massacre
(1985) Purim stabbing (1989) Cairo bus attack (1990) Crown Heights riots
Crown Heights riots
(1991) AMIA bombing
AMIA bombing
(1994) Dizengoff Street bus bombing
Dizengoff Street bus bombing
(1994) Beit Lid massacre
Beit Lid massacre
(1995) Purim massacre (1996) Island of Peace massacre
Island of Peace massacre
(1997) Mahane Yehuda Market massacre (1997) Los Angeles Jewish Community Center shooting (1999)

21st century

Dolphinarium discotheque massacre
Dolphinarium discotheque massacre
(2001) Sbarro massacre
Sbarro massacre
(2001) Ghriba synagogue bombing
Ghriba synagogue bombing
(2002) Bat Mitzvah massacre
Bat Mitzvah massacre
(2002) Yeshivat Beit Yisrael massacre
Yeshivat Beit Yisrael massacre
(2002) Passover massacre
Passover massacre
(2002) Matza restaurant bombing (2002) Hebrew University massacre
Hebrew University massacre
(2002) Rishon LeZion bombing (2002) Matzuva attack
Matzuva attack
(2002) Istanbul bombings (2003) Tel Aviv Central Bus Station massacre
Tel Aviv Central Bus Station massacre
(2003) Davidka Square bus bombing
Davidka Square bus bombing
(2003) Café Hillel bombing
Café Hillel bombing
(2003) Maxim restaurant massacre (2003) Shmuel HaNavi massacre (2003) Haifa bus massacre (2003) Beersheba bus bombings
Beersheba bus bombings
(2004) Ashdod Port bombings (2004) Seattle Jewish Federation shooting
Seattle Jewish Federation shooting
(2006) Tel Aviv shawarma bombing (2006) Mercaz HaRav massacre
Mercaz HaRav massacre
(2008) Burgas bus bombing (2012) Toulouse and Montauban shootings
Toulouse and Montauban shootings
(2012) Jerusalem synagogue massacre (2014) Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting
Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting
(2015) Kosher market siege (2015) Tel Aviv synagogue stabbing (2015) Tel Aviv shooting (2016) Halamish massacre
Halamish massacre
(2017)

Authority control

SUDOC: 13071318X BNF: cb160501427 (data)

Coordinates: 50°52′23″N 20°37′36″E / 50.87306°N 20.62667°E /

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