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Kiel
Kiel
(German: [ˈkiːl] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016). Kiel
Kiel
lies approximately 90 kilometres (56 mi) north of Hamburg. Due to its geographic location in the north of Germany, the southeast of the Jutland
Jutland
peninsula and the southwestern shore of the Baltic Sea, Kiel
Kiel
has become one of the major maritime centres of Germany. For instance, the city is known for a variety of international sailing events, including the annual Kiel
Kiel
Week, which is the biggest sailing event in the world. The Olympic sailing competitions of the 1936 and the 1972 Summer Olympics were held in Bay of Kiel.[4] Kiel
Kiel
has also been one of the traditional homes of the German Navy's Baltic fleet, and continues to be a major high-tech shipbuilding centre. Located in Kiel
Kiel
is the GEOMAR - Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel
Kiel
at the University of Kiel. Kiel
Kiel
is an important sea transport hub, thanks to its location on the Kiel Fjord
Kiel Fjord
(Kieler Förde) and the busiest artificial waterway in the world, Kiel
Kiel
Canal (Nord-Ostsee-Kanal). A number of passenger ferries to Sweden, Norway, Russia
Russia
and other countries operate from here. Moreover, today Kiel Harbour is an important port of call for cruise ships touring the Baltic Sea. Kiel's recorded history began in the 13th century. Until 1864 it was administered by Denmark
Denmark
in personal union. In 1866 the city was annexed by Prussia and in 1871 it became part of Germany. Kiel
Kiel
was one of the founding cities of original European Green Capital Award in 2006.[5] In 2005 Kiel's GDP
GDP
per capita was €35,618, which is well above Germany's national average, and 159% of the European Union's average.[6] Within Germany
Germany
and parts of Europe, the city is known for its leading handball team, THW Kiel. The city is home to the University of Kiel (established in 1665).

Contents

1 History

1.1 Middle Ages 1.2 Modern times

2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Districts 2.3 Main sights

3 Culture

3.1 Sports

4 Education and scientific research 5 Economy and infrastructure

5.1 Statistics 5.2 Notable companies 5.3 Transport

6 Notable people

6.1 Up to 1800 6.2 1800 to 1850 6.3 1850 to 1900 6.4 1900 to 1910 6.5 1910 to 1920 6.6 1920 to 1950 6.7 since 1950 6.8 Sport

7 International relations

7.1 Twin towns – sister cities

8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] Middle Ages[edit] Kiel Fjord
Kiel Fjord
was probably first settled by Normans
Normans
or Vikings
Vikings
who wanted to colonise the land which they had raided, and for many years they settled in German villages. This is evidenced by the geography and architecture of the fjord. The city of Kiel
Kiel
was founded in 1233 as Holstenstadt tom Kyle by Count Adolf IV of Holstein, and granted Lübeck
Lübeck
city rights in 1242 by Adolf's eldest son, John I of Schauenburg. Being a part of Holstein, Kiel
Kiel
belonged to the Holy Roman Empire and was situated only a few kilometres south of the Danish border.[7]

Kiel
Kiel
in the 16th century

Kiel, the capital of the county (later duchy) of Holstein, was a member of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
from 1284 until it was expelled in 1518 for harbouring pirates. In 1431, the Kieler Umschlag (trade fair) was first held, which became the central market for goods and money in Schleswig-Holstein, until it began to lose significance from 1850 on, being held for the last time in 1900, until recently, when it has been restarted. Modern times[edit] The University of Kiel
University of Kiel
was founded on 29 September 1665 by Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. A number of important scholars, including Theodor Mommsen, Felix Jacoby, Hans Geiger
Hans Geiger
and Max Planck, studied or taught there.

Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
with Kiel Fjord
Kiel Fjord
at the Baltic Coast.

Port and Kiel
Kiel
Fjord.

Kiel
Kiel
Opera House and the tower (107 m) of Kiel
Kiel
Town Hall.

From 1773 to 1864, the town belonged to the king of Denmark. However, because the king ruled Holstein
Holstein
as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire only through a personal union, the town was not incorporated as part of Denmark
Denmark
proper. Thus Kiel
Kiel
belonged to Germany, but it was ruled by the Danish king. Even though the empire was abolished in 1806, the Danish king continued to rule Kiel
Kiel
only through his position as Duke of Holstein, which became a member of the German Confederation
German Confederation
in 1815. When Schleswig
Schleswig
and Holstein
Holstein
rebelled against Denmark
Denmark
in 1848 (the First Schleswig
Schleswig
War), Kiel
Kiel
became the capital of Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
until the Danish victory in 1850. During the Second Schleswig
Schleswig
War in 1864, Kiel
Kiel
and the rest of the duchies of Schleswig
Schleswig
and Holstein
Holstein
were conquered by a German Confederation alliance of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and the Kingdom of Prussia. After the war, Kiel
Kiel
was briefly administered by both the Austrians and the Prussians, but the Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
in 1866 led to the formation of the Province of Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
and the annexation of Kiel
Kiel
by Prussia in 1867. On 24 March 1865 King William I based Prussia's Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
fleet in Kiel
Kiel
instead of Danzig (Gdańsk). The Imperial shipyard Kiel
Kiel
was established in 1867 in the town. When William I of Prussia became Emperor William I of the German Empire in 1871, he designated Kiel
Kiel
and Wilhelmshaven
Wilhelmshaven
as Reichskriegshäfen ("Imperial War Harbours"). The prestigious Kiel Yacht Club was established in 1887 with Prince Henry of Prussia as its patron. Emperor Wilhelm II became its commodore in 1891. Because of its new role as Germany's main naval base, Kiel
Kiel
very quickly increased in size in the following years, from 18,770 in 1864 to about 200,000 in 1910. Much of the old town centre and other surroundings were levelled and redeveloped to provide for the growing city. The Kiel
Kiel
tramway network, opened in 1881, had been enlarged to 10 lines, with a total route length of 40 km (25 mi), before the end of the First World War. Kiel
Kiel
was the site of the sailors' mutiny which sparked the German Revolution in late 1918. Just before the end of the First World War, the German fleet stationed at Kiel
Kiel
was ordered to be sent out on a last great battle with the Royal Navy. The sailors, who thought of this as a suicide mission which would have no effect on the outcome of the war, decided they had nothing to lose and refused to leave the safety of the port. The sailors' actions and the lack of response of the government to them, fuelled by an increasingly critical view of the Kaiser, sparked a revolution which caused the abolition of the monarchy and the creation of the Weimar Republic.

1902, double-postcard panorama of Kiel
Kiel
from across the Kiel
Kiel
Fiord.

During the Second World War, Kiel
Kiel
remained one of the major naval bases and shipbuilding centres of the German Reich. There was also a slave labour camp for the local industry.[8] Because of its status as a naval port and as production site for submarines, Kiel
Kiel
was heavily bombed by the Allies during the Second World War. The bombing destroyed more than 80% of the remaining old town, 72% of the central residential areas, and 83% of the industrial areas.[9] During the RAF bombing of 23/24 July 1944, Luftwaffe fighters tried to intercept the spoof (i.e. decoy) force instead of the main force attacking Kiel,[10] and there was no water for three days; trains and buses did not run for eight days and there was no gas available for cooking for three weeks.[11] There were several bombing raids of the port area during the period 20 February – 20 April 1945 which successfully eliminated many U-Boats, and the few large warships (cruisers Hipper, Scheer, and Koln) still afloat at that time. Although the town was beyond the stop-line set for the western Allies in the German surrender at Lüneburg
Lüneburg
Heath, it and its port, its scientists, and the canal were seized by a British T-Force
T-Force
led by Major Tony Hibbert on 5 May 1945.[12][13] This forestalled capture of the town by the Soviets, whom the Allies expected to advance from Germany
Germany
to Denmark
Denmark
in violation of the Yalta agreement.[14] Just like other heavily bombed German cities, the city was rebuilt after the war. In 1946, Kiel
Kiel
was named the seat of government for Schleswig-Holstein, and it officially became the state's capital in 1952. Today, Kiel
Kiel
is once again an important maritime centre of Germany, with high-tech shipbuilding, submarine construction and one of the three leading institutions in the field of marine sciences in Europe, the IFM-GEOMAR. Regular ferries to Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and Lithuania, as well as the largest sailing event in the world called the Kiel Week
Kiel Week
(Kieler Woche) in German and The Kiel
Kiel
Regatta in English. The Kieler Umschlag is another festival, which has been taking place again since 1975. Kiel
Kiel
is also home to a large service sector and a number of research institutions including the University of Kiel, which is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious university in the state. Geography[edit] Climate[edit] Kiel
Kiel
has an oceanic climate (Cfb in the Koeppen climate classification).

Climate data for Kiel

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 13.4 (56.1) 16.0 (60.8) 21.4 (70.5) 29.3 (84.7) 33.5 (92.3) 34.4 (93.9) 34.2 (93.6) 35.0 (95) 30.1 (86.2) 25.2 (77.4) 19.5 (67.1) 14.8 (58.6) 35 (95)

Average high °C (°F) 2 (36) 3 (37) 6 (43) 11 (52) 16 (61) 20 (68) 21 (70) 21 (70) 18 (64) 13 (55) 8 (46) 4 (39) 11.9 (53.4)

Daily mean °C (°F) 0.7 (33.3) 1.0 (33.8) 3.3 (37.9) 6.7 (44.1) 11.5 (52.7) 15.1 (59.2) 16.3 (61.3) 16.3 (61.3) 13.3 (55.9) 9.7 (49.5) 5.3 (41.5) 2.1 (35.8) 8.44 (47.19)

Average low °C (°F) −2 (28) −2 (28) 0 (32) 3 (37) 7 (45) 11 (52) 12 (54) 12 (54) 10 (50) 7 (45) 3 (37) 0 (32) 5.1 (41.2)

Record low °C (°F) −20.8 (−5.4) −24.8 (−12.6) −14.5 (5.9) −6.9 (19.6) −3.0 (26.6) 1.6 (34.9) 4.3 (39.7) 4.7 (40.5) 0.6 (33.1) −6.2 (20.8) −12.0 (10.4) −15.1 (4.8) −24.8 (−12.6)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 65 (2.56) 40 (1.57) 54 (2.13) 52 (2.05) 57 (2.24) 69 (2.72) 79 (3.11) 69 (2.72) 66 (2.6) 67 (2.64) 86 (3.39) 74 (2.91) 778 (30.64)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 18 15 13 14 12 14 15 16 15 17 18 18 185

Average relative humidity (%) 87 84 81 77 74 74 76 78 81 85 86 87 80.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 38.5 64.4 106.4 171.1 230.2 237.1 218.7 220.4 150.5 102.3 52.0 34.9 1,626.5

Source: DWD; wetterkontor.de; [1]; [2]

Districts[edit]

Image showing the population density of Kiel
Kiel
by district. Data from 2010.

The city districts of Düsternbrook, Schreventeich, Ravensberg and Blücherplatz are popular places to live with many 19th century buildings, villas and tree-lined streets. The government offices, ministries and parliament of the state of Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
are also mainly based in these neighbourhoods, particularly Düsternbrook. In contrast to the heavy bomb damage inflicted on the central parts of the city during the Second World War, most of the residential areas were not severely damaged. Hence, Kiel's more modern-style inner city and Kiel's more historic/elaborate residential areas stand in architectural contrast to one another. There are plans for large-scale improvement and building efforts for the inner city, providing better pavements, better access to and view of the waterfront, and a generally more attractive feel to the place. These plans, most notably the "Kleiner Kiel
Kiel
Kanal", a restoration of a historic canal that was filled in to make place for road infrastructure, are to be implemented in the next few years.[15] Main sights[edit]

Geistkämpfer in front of the Nikolaikirche, by Ernst Barlach

Kiel
Kiel
Opera House and the Town Hall (Kieler Rathaus)

The oldest building in the city is the 13th century Nikolaikirche (Kiel) (de) (St Nicholas' Church), which has a sculpture by Ernst Barlach in front of it called Geistkämpfer. Kiel
Kiel
is Schleswig-Holstein's largest city, and therefore Kiel's shopping district is a major attraction, and will see further improvement and renovation efforts in the upcoming years. Kiel's Holstenstraße (Holsten Street) is one of the longest shopping streets in Germany. The Rathaus (town hall), which was built in 1911, has an operating paternoster and the design of its tower was based on one in Venice. The square in front of it is bordered by a lake and the Opera House. There are also a number of lakes and parks in the city centre, e.g. Schrevenpark (Schreven Park). There are two botanical gardens, the Old Botanical Garden and New Botanical Garden. As Kiel
Kiel
is situated near the sea, the beaches to the north of Kiel such as Strande, Kiel-Schilksee, Möltenort
Möltenort
and Laboe
Laboe
are also popular places to visit in spring and summer. Kiel
Kiel
Week, more properly known in English as Kiel
Kiel
Regatta, is the largest sailing event in the world and takes place every year in the last full week in June. Many thousands of boats and ships of all kinds and eras take part in the parade. Kiel Week
Kiel Week
is also a festival, Volksfest
Volksfest
and fair as well as a maritime event. There are a number of yachting and sailing clubs in picturesque settings. Kiel
Kiel
also features a number of museums, including zoological, geological, historical, fine art, industrial and military museums. Notable is the Stadt- und Schifffahrtsmuseum Warleberger Hof (City and Maritime Museum), which belongs to the association museen am meer. In addition to preserving architecture from the 16th century and historic rooms with painted stucco ceilings, it displays urban and cultural exhibits of the 19th and 20th centuries.[16] Particularly intriguing is the history of the carnival in Kiel.[16] Laboe
Laboe
is home to the Laboe Naval Memorial, as well as the Second World War
Second World War
submarine U-995, which are popular tourist sites.

Holstenstraße Kiel
Kiel
1917 (Willy Lucas (de))

Special
Special
issue stamp Kiel Week
Kiel Week
1982

Historic ships at Kiel
Kiel
Week

Old Botanical Garden, Kiel

U995 Laboe

Warleberger Hof

Culture[edit] Sports[edit] There are a number of sports venues in Kiel, most notably the Sparkassen-Arena
Sparkassen-Arena
(formerly known as Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
Hall or Ostseehalle), which is the home ground of one of the most successful team handball clubs in the world and multiple German champion, THW Kiel. There is currently no Bundesliga
Bundesliga
football club in Kiel, but 2. Bundesliga
Bundesliga
side Holstein
Holstein
Kiel
Kiel
plays at Holstein-Stadion. Education and scientific research[edit] The University of Kiel
University of Kiel
(German: Christian-Albrechts-Universität), which was founded by Duke Christian Albrecht in 1665, is with round about 25.000 students the only full university of Schleswig-Holstein. Independent, but partly linked to the University Kiel
Kiel
are other research facilities such as the German National Library of Economics – Leibniz Informationcenter for Economy, the Kiel
Kiel
Institute for the World Economy, the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel
and the research institute of the Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
for water sound and geophysics. Besides these there are other educational institutions such as the Fachhochschule Kiel
Fachhochschule Kiel
(founded in 1969) and the Muthesius School of Arts (founded in 1907). The projects Murmann School of Global Management and Economics and Multimedia Campus Kiel
Kiel
weren’t successful at last. The Wirtschaftsakademie Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
offers besides advanced training at the Berfusakademie dual study courses for economists, business information specialists and industrial engineers. Noteworthy as departmental research institute is the federal institute for dairy research which was merged into the Max-Rubner-Institut together with other institutions in 2004. The state capital Kiel
Kiel
is a corporative sponsoring member of the Max Planck
Max Planck
Society[17]. The ARGE-SH as eldest building research institution of the republic of Germany
Germany
has its headquarters in Kiel. There are twelve Gymnasiums in Kiel, of which the Kieler Gelehrtenschule, founded in 1320 as a humanistic gymnasium, is the oldest. Other secondary schools are amongst others the Gymnasium Elmschenhagen and the Max-Planck-Schule with a focus on natural sciences and the Ricarda-Huch-Schule with a focus on languages. Furthermore there are many comprehensive schools – partially with secondary schools – all over the city area and private schools, too. Economy and infrastructure[edit]

The Holstenstraße is one of the longest shopping streets in Germany — Kiel
Kiel
is the largest city in the state of Schleswig-Holstein.

Kiel's economy is dominated by the service sector, transport and maritime industries. Kiel
Kiel
is also one of the major ports of the German Navy, and a leading centre of German high-tech military and civil shipbuilding. Kiel
Kiel
is the home of Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft, a shipyard founded in 1838 famed for its construction of submarines. HDW built the first German submarine Brandtaucher
Brandtaucher
in 1850, and is today a subsidiary of ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems, the leading German group of shipyards. Statistics[edit] In 2005, the GDP
GDP
per person was €35,618, which is well above the national average of Germany
Germany
and 159% of the European Union
European Union
average.[6]

2005 EUROSTAT[18] Nominal GDP
GDP
per capita

Kiel €35,618

 Schleswig-Holstein €24,250

 Germany €27,219

 EU28 €22,400

Notable companies[edit] Some of the most notable companies having branches or their headquarters in Kiel
Kiel
are: Ferry operators

DFDS Seaways Stena Line Color Line

Military contractors

Raytheon Rheinmetall ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems
ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems
(through their subsidiary Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft)

Engineering and industrial machinery

Heidelberger Druckmaschinen Voith Vossloh Caterpillar Inc.
Caterpillar Inc.
(through their subsidiary MaK)

Others

LaserSoft Imaging Schenker AG HSH Nordbank

Kiel
Kiel
is also home to several insurances and banks, most notably the HSH Nordbank, Provinzial NordWest, Förde Sparkasse, Kieler Volksbank eG and Evangelischen Bank eG. There is also an active startup scene in Kiel
Kiel
with startup accelerator StarterKitchen and startups like SciEngines GmbH, Real-Eyes, myBoo, SealMedia, Cliplister, Druckpreis.DE, promotionbasis.de, Yoosello, GetAnEdge, Flowy Apps, fraguru, lokalportal, PianoMotion and ubique art.[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] Kiel
Kiel
is home to several media companies, including a branch of the Norddeutscher Rundfunk
Norddeutscher Rundfunk
producing one radio channel and several local programmes in Kiel, a station of the British Forces Broadcasting Service, the daily newspaper Kieler Nachrichten
Kieler Nachrichten
and several smaller local radio channels and magazines. Transport[edit]

traffic map

Kiel
Kiel
is situated near an important pan-European motorway, the A7, which connects northern Europe with central and southern Europe. Kiel
Kiel
has a central railway station with hourly trains to Hamburg, Lübeck, Flensburg, and to Husum. Moreover, the Intercity Express (ICE) connects Kiel
Kiel
with Berlin, Frankfurt, Cologne
Cologne
and Munich. Kiel
Kiel
has public transport through the local company KVG, providing bus service within the city, Autokraft and Verkehrsbetriebe Kreis Plön providing regional bus service, and the Schlepp- und Fährgesellschaft Kiel, providing public transport on the fjord with ferries. Kiel
Kiel
also has 8 regional railway stations within the city proper,[28][29] which are connected with each other, the main railway station Kiel
Kiel
Hbf and other stations by regional trains, which can be used within the boundaries of the city with a normal bus ticket.[30] Kiel
Kiel
is a significant port for passenger and cargo shipping from Germany
Germany
to Scandinavia, the Baltic States
Baltic States
and Russia. Passenger ferries operate to and from Gothenburg
Gothenburg
in Sweden
Sweden
(Stena Line, 13½ hours, daily), Oslo
Oslo
in Norway
Norway
(Color Line, 19½ hours, daily), and Klaipėda
Klaipėda
in Lithuania
Lithuania
(DFDS Lisco, 21 hours, 6 times per week). Cargo ferries operate from and to Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
in Russia
Russia
(DFDS Lisco, twice a week), and Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
in Russia
Russia
(NSA, once a week). The nearest international airport is Hamburg
Hamburg
Airport, which is situated approximately 90 kilometres (56 mi) to the south of Kiel. There is a shuttle bus service (KIELIUS) operating between Hamburg
Hamburg
Airport and Kiel
Kiel
central railway station. There is also an airport at Lübeck. Notable people[edit]

Peter III of Russia
Russia
(1728–1762)

Henri Lehmann

Max Planck
Max Planck
(1858–1947), physicist

Ernst Busch

Helmut Lemke

Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker
Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker
(1912–2007)

Judith Malina

Eric Braeden

Cora E

Heike Henkel, high jumper

Up to 1800[edit]

Peter III of Russia
Russia
(1728–1762) emperor of Russia
Russia
[31] for six months in 1762 Johannes Nikolaus Tetens
Johannes Nikolaus Tetens
(1736–1807), German-Danish philosopher and statistician Karl Leonhard Reinhold
Karl Leonhard Reinhold
(1757–1823), an Austrian philosopher [32] Johan Ludwig Gebhard Lund (1777–1867), Danish painter, adherent of romanticism, known for his history paintings Carl Loewe
Carl Loewe
(1796–1869), German composer, [33] tenor singer and conductor Gustav Adolf Michaelis
Gustav Adolf Michaelis
(1798–1848), obstetrician and physician

1800 to 1850[edit]

August Howaldt
August Howaldt
(1809–1889), founder of Howaldtswerke Friedrich Wilhelm Hermann Delffs
Friedrich Wilhelm Hermann Delffs
(1812–1894), chemist Henri Lehmann
Henri Lehmann
(1814–1882), German-born French historical painter and portraitist Adolf Michaelis
Adolf Michaelis
(1835–1910) German classical scholar, a professor of art history Robert Michaelis von Olshausen
Robert Michaelis von Olshausen
(1835–1915) German obstetrician [34] and gynecologist August Mau
August Mau
(1840–1909) German art historian and archaeologist August Leskien
August Leskien
(1840–1916), German linguist, [35] active in comparative linguistics Detlev von Liliencron
Detlev von Liliencron
(1844–1909), German lyric poet [36] and novelist Hermann Graedener
Hermann Graedener
(1844–1929) German composer, conductor and teacher

1850 to 1900[edit]

Ferdinand Tönnies
Ferdinand Tönnies
(1855–1936), sociologist, philosopher Kuno Francke
Kuno Francke
(1855–1930), was a US educator and historian at Harvard University Friedrich Ferdinand of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (1855–1934) was the fourth Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and became Duke of Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
in 1931 Eduard Schwartz (1858–1940) German classical philologist, wrote about the second Catilinarian conspiracy Max Planck
Max Planck
(1858–1947), German theoretical physicist whose work on quantum mechanics won him the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1918 Johannes Weiss
Johannes Weiss
(1863–1914) German Protestant theologian and Biblical exegete Ernst Steinitz
Ernst Steinitz
(1871–1928), mathematician, wrote on projective configuration Hans Geiger
Hans Geiger
(1882–1945), physicist, co-invented the Geiger–Müller Counter in 1928 Hans Anton Aschenborn (1888–1931) animal painter of African wildlife Paul Werner Wenneker (1890–1979) German admiral and diplomat Carl Zuckmayer
Carl Zuckmayer
(1896–1977), writer and playwright Bruno Diekmann (1897–1982), German politician (SPD), Minister-President
Minister-President
of Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
1949–1950 Karl Ristenpart
Karl Ristenpart
(1900–1967) German conductor Ernst Busch (1900–1980), actor, writer & collector of songs

1900 to 1910[edit]

Rudolf Hell (1901–2002), inventor, invented the Hellschreiber Kurt Otto Friedrichs
Kurt Otto Friedrichs
(1901–1982) German American mathematician, worked on partial differential equations Ernst von Salomon (1902–1972), national-revolutionary German writer and right-wing Freikorps
Freikorps
member Eduard Wald (1905–1978) a Communist politician, trade unionist and member of the German Resistance
German Resistance
against Nazism Walther Müller (1905–1979), physicist, co-invented the Geiger–Müller Counter
Geiger–Müller Counter
1928 Heinrich Heesch (1906–1995), mathematician, worked on Group theory Helmut Lemke
Helmut Lemke
(1907–1990), Minister-President
Minister-President
of Schleswig-Holstein 1963-1971 Harro Schulze-Boysen
Harro Schulze-Boysen
(1909–1942), Resistance fighter Herbert Schultze
Herbert Schultze
(1909–1987), German U-boat
U-boat
(submarine) commander Klaus Wittkugel
Klaus Wittkugel
(1910–1985) commercial and poster artist in the GDR Lauritz Lauritzen
Lauritz Lauritzen
(1910–1980) German SPD politician

1910 to 1920[edit]

Erna Flegel (1911–2006), nurse in the Führerbunker Elisabeth von Janota-Bzowski (1912–2012) German graphic artist known for her postage stamps designs Karl Hass (1912–2004) German Lieutenant-Colonel in the SS Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker
Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker
(1912–2007), physicist, philosopher Hermann Michel
Hermann Michel
(1912–1984?), SS officer Otto Kretschmer
Otto Kretschmer
(1912–1998), U-boat
U-boat
commander Joachim Hamann (1913–1945), Baltic-German Nazi SS officer Heinrich Wöhlk (1913–1991), German optometrist, invented the plastic contact lens Sigrid Hunke (1913–1999), author, made claims of Muslim influence over Western values Heinrich Springer
Heinrich Springer
(1914–2007), Waffen-SS knights cross winner Eberhard Blum (1919–2003), fourth head of the German Federal Intelligence Bureau

1920 to 1950[edit]

Shimon Wincelberg (1924–2004) American television writer and Broadway playwright Judith Malina
Judith Malina
(1926–2015), German-born American actress Elyakim Haetzni
Elyakim Haetzni
(born 1926), Israeli lawyer and former member of the Knesset Ulric Gustav Neisser (1928–2012) German-born American psychologist and member of the US National Academy of Sciences Oswalt Kolle (1928–2010), German sex educator Gerhard Stoltenberg
Gerhard Stoltenberg
(1928–2001), politician (CDU), minister and minister-president Heiner Zieschang (1936–2004), mathematician, was a topologist Heiko Braak (born 1937) German anatomist, contributed to the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer's disease
and Parkinson's disease Ilse Gramatzki (born 1939) German operatic mezzo-soprano and contralto Eric Braeden
Eric Braeden
(born 1941), German-American film and television actor Dieter Laser
Dieter Laser
(born 1942), actor Marina Lewycka
Marina Lewycka
(born 1946), British novelist of Ukrainian origin

since 1950[edit]

Manfred Stahnke (born 1951), German composer, writes chamber music, orchestral and stage music, uses microtonality Duchess Donata of Mecklenburg (born 1956) is the senior remaining member of the House of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Anke Ehlers (born 1957) German psychologist, expert in post traumatic stress disorder Andreas Brandstätter (1959–2006) German diplomat Ilme Schlichting (born 1960) biophysicist studied biomolecules using protein crystallography Thilo Martinho (Thilo Herrmann) (born 1960), German musician, singer, guitarist and songwriter Michael F. Feldkamp
Michael F. Feldkamp
(born 1962), German historian and journalist Feridun Zaimoglu
Feridun Zaimoglu
(born 1964), author and playwright Detlev Bork (born 1967), classical and flamenco guitarist Tomma Abts (born 1967), painter and Turner Prize
Turner Prize
winner Cora E.
Cora E.
(Sylvia Macco) (born 1968), a former nurse turned hip-hop artist Gesche Joost
Gesche Joost
(born 1974) German design researcher, e.g. on human-computer interaction Kim Dotcom
Kim Dotcom
(born 1974), German-Finnish Internet entrepreneur, businessman, musician in Auckland, New Zealand Ulrich Schnauss
Ulrich Schnauss
(born 1977), German electronic musician and producer Lasse Rempe-Gillen
Lasse Rempe-Gillen
(born 1978) German mathematician, interests include function theory, continuum theory and computational complexity theory

Sport[edit]

George Eyser
George Eyser
(1870–1919) German-American gymnast who competed in the 1904 Summer Olympics Alfred Brinckmann (1891–1967), chess International Master
International Master
and author Heinrich Dahlinger (1922–2008), field handball player Manfred Rulffs (1935–2007) German rower who competed in the 1960 Summer Olympics Eckart Johannes Wagner (1938–2002) German sailor, competed in the 1960, 1964, and the 1968 Summer Olympics Egon Müller (born 1948), motorcycle speedway rider Andreas Köpke
Andreas Köpke
(born 1962), footballer, mainly for 1. FC Nurnberg Heike Henkel
Heike Henkel
(born 1964), won the high jump gold medal at the 1992 Summer Olympics Francisco Copado (born 1974), footballer, mainly for SpVgg Unterhaching Britta Carlson
Britta Carlson
(born 1978), footballer, capped 31 times for the Germany
Germany
women's national football team Sidney Sam
Sidney Sam
(born 1988), footballer, mainly for Bayer 04 Leverkusen Angelique Kerber
Angelique Kerber
(born 1988), former world No. 1 in women's singles tennis by the Women's Tennis Association (WTA)

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Kiel
Kiel
is twinned with:[37]

Brest, France
France
(1964) Coventry, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(1947)[38][39] Gdynia, Poland
Poland
(1985)[40] Kaliningrad, Russia
Russia
(1992)

San Francisco, USA (2017) Sovetsk, Russia
Russia
(1992) Stralsund, Germany
Germany
(1987) Tallinn, Estonia
Estonia
(1986)

Vaasa, Finland
Finland
(1967) Samsun, Turkey
Turkey
(2010) Antakya, Turkey
Turkey
(2012) Moshi Rural, Tanzania
Tanzania
(2009)

See also[edit]

Kiel, Wisconsin Steenbek-Projensdorf

References[edit]

^ Landeshauptstadt Kiel. "Kiels Oberbürgermeister". Archived from the original on 2015-02-20.  ^ "Growth - KielRegion - Association for Business Development Kiel
Kiel
/ Germany".  ^ "Statistikamt Nord – Bevölkerung der Gemeinden in Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
4. Quartal 2016] (XLS-file)". Statistisches Amt für Hamburg
Hamburg
und Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
(in German).  ^ "General Information". Kieler Woche. Archived from the original on 2005-12-30. Retrieved 2006-03-13.  ^ "European Grean Capitals". European Commission. Retrieved 16 May 2015.  ^ a b GDP
GDP
per person 2005 in Euro
Euro
Archived 2008-12-27 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "A brief history of Kiel". Kiel
Kiel
- a portrait of the city. City of Kiel. Retrieved 2007-07-01.  ^ Victor, Edward. "Alphabetical List of Camps, Subcamps and Other Camps". Archived from the original on 2012-02-22. Retrieved 2008-07-25.  ^ "The Navy changed the face of Kiel". Kiel
Kiel
— a portrait of the city. City of Kiel. Retrieved 2008-07-25.  ^ Jones, R. V. (1978). Most Secret War: British Scientific Intelligence 1939-1945. London: Hamish Hamilton. p. 466. ISBN 0-241-89746-7.  ^ Campaign Diary: July 44 Archived 2007-07-06 at the UK Government Web Archive, Royal Air Force Bomber Command 60th Anniversary site Archived 2007-07-06 at the UK Government Web Archive. Accessed 4 May 2007 ^ Jones, Gwilym Thomas (2001). Living history chronicles. General Store Publishing House. pp. 102–104. ISBN 1-894263-50-2. Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2009.  ^ A diary of ‘T’ Force operations in KIEL Archived 2014-10-23 at the Wayback Machine. ARCRE—Archive research & document copying ^ "Operation Eclipse". History Learning Site.  ^ "Kleiner Kiel
Kiel
Kanal". kleiner-kiel-kanal.de. Retrieved 2015-08-27.  ^ a b "Kieler Stadtmuseum Warleberger Hof", City of Kiel
Kiel
webpage, in German ^ "Liste der korporativ fördernden Mitglieder der MPG, PDF" (PDF). 2011-01-14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-01-14. Retrieved 2017-09-23.  ^ "Regional GDP
GDP
per inhabitant in the EU 27" (PDF). Eurostat. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-16. Retrieved 2008-08-19.  ^ "Imprint". real-eyes.eu. REALEYES GmbH. Retrieved 2015-05-17.  ^ "Imprint - my Boo". bamboo bike, bikes – Kiel, Germany. Retrieved 2015-05-17.  ^ "EDGE Edge Impressum". light-instruments.de. Archived from the original on 2015-05-18. Retrieved 2015-05-17.  ^ "Flowy Apps – Imprint". flowyapps.com. Retrieved 2015-05-17.  ^ "fraguru - the art of questioning our lives". fraguru.org. Archived from the original on 2015-08-01. Retrieved 2015-05-17.  ^ "Mein Ort. Meine Nachbarn. Mein Lokalportal". Lokalportal. Retrieved 2015-05-17.  ^ "Impressum". pianomotion.com. Retrieved 2015-05-17.  ^ "Home ubique art - Die Austellung ist überall". ubique-art.starterkitchen.de. Retrieved 2015-05-17.  ^ "Firmensitze von Deutschen Startups Gründerszene" [Headquarter Locations of German Startups Gründerszene]. gruenderszene.de. Retrieved 2015-05-17.  ^ Suchsdorf, Kronshagen, Kiel-Hassee CITTI-Park, Kiel-Russee, Melsdorf, Kiel-Schulen am Langsee, Kiel-Elmschenhagen, Raisdorf ^ "Liniennetzplan Kiel
Kiel
(Public Transport Plan Kiel)" (PDF). KVG Kiel. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 16 May 2015.  ^ "VRK Tarifzonenplan (Tariff Zone Plan Kiel)" (PDF). Verkehrsregion Kiel. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 16 May 2015.  ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 21, Peter III. retrieved 23 March 2018 ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 23, Reinhold, Karl Leonhard retrieved 23 March 2018 ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 17, Löwe, Johann Karl Gottfried retrieved 23 March 2018 ^ The New International Encyclopædia, Olshausen, Robert retrieved 23 March 2018 ^ The New International Encyclopædia, Leskien, August retrieved 23 March 2018 ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 16, Liliencron, Detlev von retrieved 23 March 2018 ^ "Twin cities of Kiel" (in German).  ^ Griffin, Mary (2011-08-02). "Coventry's twin towns". Coventry Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2013-08-06. Retrieved 2013-08-06.  ^ " Coventry
Coventry
- Twin towns and cities". Coventry
Coventry
City Council. Archived from the original on 2013-04-12. Retrieved 2013-08-06.  ^ P.C., Net. " Gdynia
Gdynia
- International Gdynia
Gdynia
- International co-operation of Gdynia". www.gdynia.pl. Archived from the original on 2016-10-19. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kiel.

Official website Kiel Official tourism site

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Kiel.

Official website of the association museen am meer

Places adjacent to Kiel

Eckernförde, Flensburg Baltic Sea, Århus Baltic Sea, Schönberg, Laboe, Copenhagen

Rendsburg

Kiel

Fehmarn
Fehmarn
island, Oldenburg in Holstein

Bordesholm, Itzehoe Neumünster, Bad Segeberg, Hamburg Lübeck

v t e

Capitals of states of the Federal Republic of Germany

Capitals of area states

Dresden
Dresden
(Saxony) Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
(North Rhine-Westphalia) Erfurt
Erfurt
(Thuringia) Hanover
Hanover
(Lower Saxony) Kiel
Kiel
(Schleswig-Holstein) Magdeburg
Magdeburg
(Saxony-Anhalt) Mainz
Mainz
(Rhineland-Palatinate) Munich
Munich
(Bavaria) Potsdam
Potsdam
(Brandenburg) Saarbrücken
Saarbrücken
(Saarland) Schwerin
Schwerin
(Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Stuttgart
Stuttgart
(Baden-Württemberg) Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
(Hesse)

City-states1

Berlin City of Bremen
Bremen
(State of Bremen) Hamburg

Capitals of former states

Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg im Breisgau
(South Baden, 1949–1952) Stuttgart
Stuttgart
(Württemberg-Baden, 1949–1952) Tübingen
Tübingen
(Württemberg-Hohenzollern, 1949–1952)

1 Unlike the mono-city states Berlin
Berlin
and Hamburg, the State of Bremen consists of two cities, thus state and capital are not identical.

v t e

Cities in Germany
Germany
by population

1,000,000+

Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich

500,000+

Bremen Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Essen Frankfurt Hanover Leipzig Nuremberg Stuttgart

200,000+

Aachen Augsburg Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Braunschweig Chemnitz Duisburg Erfurt Freiburg im Breisgau Gelsenkirchen Halle (Saale) Karlsruhe Kiel Krefeld Lübeck Magdeburg Mainz Mannheim Münster Mönchengladbach Oberhausen Rostock Wiesbaden Wuppertal

100,000+

Bergisch Gladbach Bottrop Bremerhaven Cottbus Darmstadt Erlangen Fürth Göttingen Hagen Hamm Heidelberg Heilbronn Herne Hildesheim Ingolstadt Jena Kassel Koblenz Leverkusen Ludwigshafen Moers Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr Neuss Offenbach am Main Oldenburg Osnabrück Paderborn Pforzheim Potsdam Recklinghausen Regensburg Remscheid Reutlingen Saarbrücken Salzgitter Siegen Solingen Trier Ulm Wolfsburg Würzburg

complete list municipalities metropolitan regions cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants

v t e

Members of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
by Quarter

Chief cities shown in smallcaps. Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
shown in italics.

Wendish

Lübeck

Anklam Demmin Greifswald Hamburg Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) Lüneburg Rostock Rügenwalde (Darłowo) Stettin (Szczecin) Stolp (Słupsk) Stockholm Stralsund Visby Wismar

Saxon

Brunswick Magdeburg

Berlin Bremen Erfurt Frankfurt
Frankfurt
an der Oder Goslar Mühlhausen Nordhausen

Baltic

Danzig (Gdańsk)

Breslau (Wrocław) Dorpat (Tartu) Elbing (Elbląg) Königsberg
Königsberg
(Kaliningrad) Cracow (Kraków) Reval (Tallinn) Riga
Riga
(Rīga) Thorn (Toruń)

Westphalian

Cologne
Cologne
1 Dortmund
Dortmund
1

Deventer Groningen Kampen Münster Osnabrück Soest

Kontore

Principal

Bryggen
Bryggen
(Bergen) Hanzekantoor

Bruges Antwerp2 

Steelyard
Steelyard
(London) Peterhof (Novgorod)

Subsidiary

Bishop's Lynn Falsterbo Ipswich Kaunas Malmö Polotsk Pskov

Other cities

Bristol Boston Damme Leith Herford Hull Newcastle Stargard Yarmouth York Zutphen Zwolle

1 Cologne
Cologne
and Dortmund
Dortmund
were both capital of the Westphalian Quarter at different times. 2 Antwerp
Antwerp
gained importance once Bruges
Bruges
became inaccessible due to the silting of the Zwin
Zwin
channel.

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the state of Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
in Germany
Germany

Urban districts

Flensburg Kiel Lübeck Neumünster

Rural districts

Dithmarschen Herzogtum Lauenburg Nordfriesland Ostholstein Pinneberg Plön Rendsburg-Eckernförde Schleswig-Flensburg Segeberg Steinburg Stormarn

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 312794080 LCCN: n79054

.