The Info List - Khwarazmian Dynasty

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The Khwarazmian dynasty
Khwarazmian dynasty
(/kwəˈræzmiən/;[4] also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from (Persian: خوارزمشاهیان‎, translit. Khwārazmshāhiyān "Kings of Khwarezmia") was a Persianate[5][6][7] Sunni Muslim
Sunni Muslim
dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin.[8][9] The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran
during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs[10] and Qara-Khitan,[11] and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia
in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah
of Khwarezm.[12]

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v t e


1 History 2 Mongol
invasion and collapse 3 Mercenaries 4 Rulers of Khwarezm

4.1 Mamunid Governors of Khwarezm 4.2 Altun-Tashid Governors of Khwarezm 4.3 Non-dynastic Governor 4.4 Governor Anushtigin 4.5 Non-dynastic Governor 4.6 Anushtiginid Shahs

5 Family tree of Anushtiginid Dynasty 6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 Further reading

History See also: Timeline of the Turks (500–1300) The date of the founding of the Khwarazmian dynasty
Khwarazmian dynasty
remains debatable. During a revolt in 1017, Khwarezmian rebels murdered Abu'l-Abbas Ma'mun and his wife, Hurra-ji, sister of the Ghaznavid sultan Mahmud.[16] In response, Mahmud invaded and occupied the region of Khwarezm, which included Nasa and the ribat of Farawa.[17] As a result, Khwarezm
became a province of the Ghaznavid Empire
from 1017 to 1034. In 1077 the governorship of the province, which since 1042/1043 belonged to the Seljuqs, fell into the hands of Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkic slave of the Seljuq sultan. In 1141, the Seljuq Sultan Ahmed Sanjar
Ahmed Sanjar
was defeated by the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
at the battle of Qatwan, and Anush Tigin's grandson Ala ad-Din Atsiz became a vassal to Yelü Dashi
Yelü Dashi
of the Qara Khitan.[18] Sultan Ahmed Sanjar
Ahmed Sanjar
died in 1156. As the Seljuk state fell into chaos, the Khwarezm-Shahs expanded their territories southward. In 1194, the last Sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire, Toghrul III, was defeated and killed by the Khwarezm
ruler Ala ad-Din Tekish, who conquered parts of Khorasan and western Iran. In 1200, Tekish died and was succeeded by his son, Ala ad-Din Muhammad, who initiated a conflict with the Ghurids
and was defeated by them at Amu Darya (1204).[19] Following the sack of Khwarizm, Muhammad appealed for aid from his suzerain, the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
who sent him an army.[20] With this reinforcement, Muhammad won a victory over the Ghorids at Hezarasp (1204) and forced them out of Khwarizm. Ala ad-Din Muhammad's alliance with his suzerain was short-lived. He again initiated a conflict, this time with the aid of the Kara-Khanids, and defeated a Qara-Khitai army at Talas (1210),[21] but allowed Samarkand
(1210) to be occupied by the Qara-Khitai.[22] He overthrew the Karakhanids
(1212)[23] and Ghurids
(1215). In 1212, he shifted his capital from Gurganj to Samarkand. Thus incorporating nearly the whole of Transoxania[citation needed] and present-day Afghanistan
into his empire, which after further conquests in western Persia
(by 1217) stretched from the Syr Darya
Syr Darya
to the Zagros Mountains, and from the northern parts of the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
to the Caspian Sea. By 1218, the empire had a population of 5 million people.[24] Mongol
invasion and collapse Main article: Mongol
invasion of Khwarezmia
and Eastern Iran In 1218, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
sent a trade mission to the state, but at the town of Otrar
the governor, suspecting the Khan's ambassadors to be spies, confiscated their goods and executed them. Genghis Khan demanded reparations, which the Shah
refused to pay. Genghis retaliated with a force of 200,000 men, launching a multi-pronged invasion. In February 1220 the Mongolian army crossed the Syr Darya. The Mongols stormed Bukhara, Gurganj and the Khwarezmid capital Samarkand. The Shah
fled and died some weeks later on an island in the Caspian Sea. The son of Ala ad-Din Muhammad, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu
Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu
became the new Sultan (he rejected the title Shah). He attempted to flee to India, but the Mongols caught up with him before he got there, and he was defeated at the Battle of Indus. He escaped and sought asylum in the Sultanate of Delhi. Iltumish
however denied this to him in deference to the relationship with the Abbasid caliphs. Returning to Persia, he gathered an army and re-established a kingdom. He never consolidated his power, however, spending the rest of his days struggling against the Mongols, the Seljuks of Rum, and pretenders to his own throne. He lost his power over Persia
in a battle against the Mongols in the Alborz
Mountains. Escaping to the Caucasus, he captured Azerbaijan
in 1225, setting up his capital at Tabriz. In 1226 he attacked Georgia and sacked Tbilisi. Following on through the Armenian highlands he clashed with the Ayyubids, capturing the town Ahlat
along the western shores of the Lake Van, who sought the aid of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. Sultan Kayqubad I
Kayqubad I
defeated him at Arzinjan on the Upper Euphrates
at the Battle of Yassıçemen in 1230. He escaped to Diyarbakir, while the Mongols conquered Azerbaijan
in the ensuing confusion. He was murdered in 1231 by Kurdish highwaymen.[25] Mercenaries

c. 1200, on the eve of the Mongol

Though the Mongols had destroyed the Khwarezmian Empire
in 1220, many Khwarezmians survived by working as mercenaries in northern Iraq. Sultan Jalal ad-Din's followers remained loyal to him even after his death in 1231, and raided the Seljuk lands of Jazira and Syria
for the next several years, calling themselves the Khwarezmiyya. Ayyubid Sultan as-Salih Ayyub, in Egypt, later hired their services against his uncle as-Salih Ismail. The Khwarezmiyya, heading south from Iraq towards Egypt, invaded Crusader Christian-held Jerusalem
along the way, on July 11, 1244. The city's citadel, the Tower of David, surrendered on August 23, the Crusader Christian population of the city was expelled. This triggered a call from Europe for the Seventh Crusade, but the Crusaders would never again be successful in retaking Jerusalem. After being conquered by the Khwarezmian forces, the city stayed under Muslim control until 1917, when it was taken from the Ottomans by the British. After taking Jerusalem, the Khwarezmian forces continued south, and on October 17 fought on the side of the Ayyubids
at the Battle of Harbiyah, northeast of Gaza, killing the remains of the Crusader Christian army there, some 1,200 knights. It was the largest battle involving the crusaders since the Battle of the Horns of Hattin in 1187.[26] The remains of the Muslim Khwarezmians served in Egypt as Mamluk mercenaries until they were finally beaten by al-Mansur Ibrahim some years later. Khwarizmi war captives assimilated into the Mongols, forming the modern Mongolian clan Sartuul. Rulers of Khwarezm Mamunid Governors of Khwarezm

Titular Name Personal Name Reign

Amir امیر‬ Abu'l-Ali Ma'mun ibn Muhammad ابو علی المأمون ابن محمد‬ 995–997 C.E.

Amir امیر‬ Abu'l-Hasan Ali ibn Ma'mun ابو الحسن علی ابن المأمون‬ 997–1008/9 C.E.

Amir امیر‬ Abu'l-Abbas Ma'mun ibn Ma'mun ابو العباس مأمون ابن المأمون‬ 1008/9–1017 C.E.

Amir امیر‬ Abu'l-Harith Muhammad ibn Ali ابو الحارث محمد ابن علی‬ 1017 C.E.

Absorbed into the Ghaznavid Empire
by Mahmud ibn Sebuktigin;he made Altun Tash its governor.

Blue Row Signifies vassalage of Samanid Empire.

Green Rows Signify vassalage of Ghaznavid Empire.

Altun-Tashid Governors of Khwarezm

Titular Name Personal Name Reign

Amir امیر‬ Abu Sa'id Altun-Tash ابو سعید التون طاش‬ 1017–1032 C.E.

Amir امیر‬ Harun ibn Altun-Tash ہارون ابن التون طاش‬ 1032–1034 C.E.

Amir امیر‬ Ismail Khandan ibn Altun-Tash اسماعیل خاندان ابن التون طاش‬ 1034–1041 C.E.

Re-conquest by Ghaznavid Empire
under Mas'ud ibn Mahmud ibn Sebuktigin who sent his general Shah
Malik, the Oghuz Turk

Green Rows Signify Ghaznavid Empire

Non-dynastic Governor

Titular Name Personal Name Reign

Amir امیر‬ Abul-Fawaris أبو الفوارس‬ Shah-Malik ibn Ali شاہ ملک ابن علی‬ 1041–1042 C.E.

Conquest of Khwarezm
by Tughril
Beg and Chaghri
Beg of the Seljuq Empire.

Green Row Signifies rule of Ghaznavid Empire.

Governor Anushtigin

Title Personal Name Reign

Shihna ؟‬ Anush Tigin Gharchai أنوش طگین غارچائی‬ 1077–1097 C.E.

Purple Row Signifies rule of Seljuq Empire.

Non-dynastic Governor

Title Personal Name Reign

Shihna ؟‬ Ekinchi ibn Qochqar ایکینچی بن قوچار‬ 1097 C.E.

Purple Row Signifies rule of Seljuq Empire.

Anushtiginid Shahs

Titular Name Personal Name Reign

Shah شاہ‬ Qutb ad-Din Abul-Fath قطب الدین ابو الفتح‬ Arslan Tigin Muhammad ibn Anush Tigin ارسلان طگین محمد ابن أنوش طگین ‬ 1097–1127/28 C.E.

Shah شاہ‬ Ala al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Muzaffar علاء الدنیا و الدین، ابو المظفر‬ Qizil Arslan Atsiz ibn Muhammad قزل ارسلان أتسز بن محمد‬ 1127 - 1156 C.E.

Shah شاہ‬ Taj al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Fath تاج الدنیا و الدین، ابو الفتح‬ Il-Arslan
ibn Qizil Arslan Atsiz ایل ارسلان بن قزل ارسلان أتسز ‬

1156–1172 C.E.

Shah شاہ‬ Ala al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Muzaffar علاء الدنیا و الدین، ابو المظفر‬ Tekish ibn Il-Arslan تکش بن ایل ارسلان ‬

1172–1200 C.E.

Shah شاہ‬ Jalal al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Qasim جلال الدنیا و الدین، ابو القاسم‬ Mahmud Sultan Shah
ibn Il-Arslan محمود سلطان شاہ ابن ایل ارسلان‬ Initially under regency of Turkan Khatun, his mother. He was a younger half-brother and rival of Tekish in Upper Khurasan 1172–1193 C.E.

Shah شاہ‬ Ala al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Fath علاء الدنیا و الدین، ابو الفتح‬ Muhammad ibn Tekish محمد بن تکش‬ 1200–1220 C.E.

Genghis Khan چنگیز خان‬ Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
invades Khwarezmia
forcing Muhammad ibn Tekish to flee along with his son to an island in the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
where he would die of pleurisy.

Jalal al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Muzaffar جلال الدنیا و الدین، ابو المظفر‬ Mingburnu ibn Muhammad مِنکُبِرنی ابن محمد‬ 1220–1231 C.E.

Establishment of Mongol

Purple Row Signifies Seljuq Empire
Seljuq Empire

Pink Row Signifies suzerainty shifting between Qara-Khitai & Seljuq Empire

Orange Rows Signify suzerainty of Qara-Khitai

Family tree of Anushtiginid Dynasty

v t e

Anushtiginid Dynasty family tree

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

















Anushtigin Gharchai (r. 1077-1097) Shihna of Khwarezm

























































Muhammad I (r. 1097-1127) Shah
of Khwarezm




































































Inaltigin Prince


Atsiz (r. 1127-1156) Shah
of Khwarezm


Yusuf Prince









































































Atliq Prince


Il-Arslan (r. 1156-1172) Shah
of Khwarezm


Hitan-Khan Prince


Suleiman-Shah Prince





























































Tekish (r. 1172-1200) Shah
of Khwarezm


Sultan-Shah (r. 1172-1193) Shah
of Khwarezm




































































Yunus-Khan Prince


Ali-Shah (b. ? -d. 1215) Prince


Shah-Khatun Princess


Muhammad II (r. 1200-1220) Shah
of Khwarezm


Toghan-Toghdi Prince


Malik-Shah (b. ? -d. 1197) Prince





























































Erboz-Khan Prince


Hindu-Khan Prince


Arslan-Khan Prince















































































Ak-Shah (b. ? -k. 1221) Prince


Uzlaq-Shah (b. ? -k. 1221) Crown prince


Khan-Sultan Princess


Qursanjdi (b. ? -k. 1222) Sultan of Persian Iraq


Manguberdi (r. 1220-1231) Sultan of Khwarezm


Pir-Shah (b. ? -k. 1229) Sultan of Kirman


Kumakhti-Shah Prince


Yahya Hur-Shah (b. ? -k. 1221) Prince


Aysi Khatun Princess







































Qutuz (r. 1259-1260) Sultan of Egypt






Manqatuy-Shah Prince


Qaymaqar-Shah Prince


Ziya Bunyadov. In Russian, Государство Хорезмшахов-Ануштегинидов. 1097-1231. (State of the Khwarezmshahs-Anushtiginids. 1097-1231). Page 142. PDF

See also

Full list of Persian Kingdoms Khwarezmia List of Sunni Muslim
Sunni Muslim

Notes and references

^ Kathryn Babayan, Mystics, monarchs, and messiahs: cultural landscapes of early modern Iran, (Harvard Center for Middle Eastern Studies, 2003), 14. ^ Bobodzhan Gafurovich Gafurov, Central Asia:Pre-Historic to Pre-Modern Times, Vol.2, (Shipra Publications, 1989), 359. ^ Rein Taagepera
Rein Taagepera
(September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 497. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. Retrieved 16 September 2016.  ^ "Khwarazmian: definition". Merriam Webster. n.d. Retrieved 21 October 2010.  ^ C. E. Bosworth: KHWARAZMSHAHS i. Descendants of the line of Anuštigin. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian." ^ Homa Katouzian, "Iranian history and politics", Published by Routledge, 2003. pg 128: "Indeed, since the formation of the Ghaznavids
state in the tenth century until the fall of Qajars at the beginning of the twentieth century, most parts of the Iranian cultural regions were ruled by Turkic-speaking dynasties most of the time. At the same time, the official language was Persian, the court literature was in Persian, and most of the chancellors, ministers, and mandarins were Persian speakers of the highest learning and ability" ^ "Persian Prose Literature." World Eras. 2002. HighBeam Research. (September 3, 2012);"Princes, although they were often tutored in Arabic and religious subjects, frequently did not feel as comfortable with the Arabic language and preferred literature in Persian, which was either their mother tongue—as in the case of dynasties such as the Saffarids (861–1003), Samanids (873–1005), and Buyids (945–1055)—or was a preferred lingua franca for them—as with the later Turkish dynasties such as the Ghaznawids (977–1187) and Saljuks (1037–1194)". [1] ^ Bosworth in Camb. Hist. of Iran, Vol. V, pp. 66 & 93; B.G. Gafurov & D. Kaushik, "Central Asia: Pre-Historic to Pre-Modern Times"; Delhi, 2005; ISBN 81-7541-246-1 ^ C. E. Bosworth, "CHORASMIA ii. In Islamic times" in: Encyclopaedia Iranica (reference to Turkish scholar Kafesoğlu), v, p. 140, Online Edition: "The governors were often Turkish slave commanders of the Saljuqs; one of them was Anūštigin Ḡaṛčaʾī, whose son Qoṭb-al-Dīn Moḥammad began in 490/1097 what became in effect a hereditary and largely independent line of ḵǰᵛārazmšāhs." (LINK) ^ Rene Grousset, The Empire
of the Steppes:A History of Central Asia, Transl. Naomi Walford, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 159. ^ Biran, Michel, The Empire
of the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
in Eurasian history, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 44. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty", (LINK) ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364.  ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280.  ^ Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162.  ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids:994-1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 237. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids:994-1040, 237. ^ Biran, Michel, The Empire
of the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
in Eurasian History, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 44. ^ Rene, Grousset, The Empire
of the Steppes:A History of Central Asia, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 168. ^ Rene, Grousset, 168. ^ Rene, Grousset, 169. ^ Rene, Grousset, 234. ^ Rene, Grousset, 237. ^ John Man, "Genghis Khan: Life, Death, and Resurrection", Feb. 6 2007. Page 180. ^ http://persian.packhum.org/persian/pf?file=90001012&ct=107&rqs=68&rqs=491&rqs=893 ^ Riley-Smith The Crusades, p. 191

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Further reading

M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India
and Early Ottoman Turkey, with a foreword by Professor Clifford Edmund Bosworth, member of the British Academy, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN&#