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Khowar (کهووار), also known as Chitrali, is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic subbranch.[4] "Kho" means the people of Chitral, "War" means language. It is spoken by the Kho people
Kho people
in the Chitral
Chitral
District, Ghizer
Ghizer
district of Gilgit-Baltistan
Gilgit-Baltistan
(including the Yasin Valley, Golaghmuli Valley, Phandar Ishkoman
Ishkoman
and Gupis) and in parts of Upper Swat, Pakistan, as well as in Jammu and Kashmir, India.[1] Speakers of Khowar have also migrated heavily to Pakistan's major urban centres with Peshawar, Islamabad, Lahore
Lahore
and Karachi, having significant populations. It is spoken as a second language in the rest of Gilgit and Hunza. There are believed to be small numbers of Khowar speakers in Afghanistan, China
China
and Tajikistan.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Names 2 History 3 Phonology

3.1 Vowels 3.2 Consonants 3.3 Tone

4 Writing system 5 Dialects 6 Khowar media

6.1 Television channels 6.2 Radio 6.3 Newspapers

7 See also 8 References

8.1 Additional references

9 External links

Names[edit] The native name of the language is Khō-wār,[5] meaning "language" (wār) of the Kho people. During the British Raj
British Raj
it was known to the English as Chitrālī (a derived adjective from the name of the Chitral
Chitral
region) or Qāshqārī.[5] Among the Pathans
Pathans
and Badakshis
Badakshis
it is known as Kashkār.[6] Another name, used by Leitner in 1880, is Arnyiá[7] or Arniya, derived from the Shina language
Shina language
name for the part of the Yasin where Khowar is spoken.[5] History[edit] Morgenstierne noted that "Khowar, in many respects [is] the most archaic of all modern Indian languages, retaining a great part of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
case inflexion, and retaining many words in a nearly Sanskritic form.”[8]:3 Phonology[edit] Khowar has a variety of dialects, which may vary phonemically.[9] The following tables lay out the basic phonology of Khowar.[10][11] Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back

Close i

u

Mid e

o

Open

a

Khowar may also have nasalized vowels and a series of long vowels /aː/, /eː/, /iː/, /oː/, and /uː/. Sources are inconsistent on whether length is phonemic, with one author stating "vowel-length is observed mainly as a substitute one. The vowel-length of phonological value is noted far more rarely."[9] Unlike the neighboring and related Kalasha language, Khowar does not have retroflex vowels.[10] Consonants[edit]

Labial Coronal Retroflex Palatal Velar Post- velar Glottal

Nasal m n

Stop voiceless p t ʈ

k (q)

voiced b d ɖ

g

aspirated pʰ tʰ ʈʰ

Affricate voiceless

ts ʈʂ tʃ

voiced

dz ɖʐ dʒ

aspirated

tsʰ (?) ʈʂʰ tʃʰ

Fricative voiceless f s ʂ ʃ x

h

voiced

z ʐ ʒ ɣ

Approximant

l(ʲ) ɫ

j w

Rhotic

ɾ

The phonemic status of /tsʰ/ is unclear in the sources Tone[edit] Khowar, like many Dardic languages, has either phonemic tone or stress distinctions.[12] Writing system[edit] Since the early twentieth century Khowar has been written in the Khowar alphabet, which is based on the Urdu alphabet
Urdu alphabet
and uses the Nasta'liq script. Prior to that, the language was carried on through oral tradition. Today Urdu
Urdu
and English are the official languages and the only major literary usage of Khowar is in both poetry and prose composition. Khowar has also been occasionally written in a version of the Roman script called Roman Khowar
Roman Khowar
since the 1960s. Dialects[edit]

Standard Khowar Swati Khowar (Swat Kohistan) Lotkuhiwar (Lotkuh Valley) Gherzikwar ( Ghizer
Ghizer
Valley) Gilgiti Khowar (Gilgit-Baltistan), spoken by a few families in Gilgit city.

Khowar media[edit] Television channels[edit] See also: Television in Pakistan

TV Channel Genre Founded Official Website

Khyber News TV (خیبر نیوز ٹیلی ویژن‬) News and current affairs   http://www.khybernews.tv/

AVT Khyber TV (اے وی ٹی خیبر‬) Entertainment   http://www.avtkhyber.tv/

K2 TV (کے ٹو‬) Entertainment, news and current affairs   http://www.kay2.tv/

Radio[edit] These are not dedicated Khowar channels but play most programmes in Khowar. See also: Pakistan
Pakistan
Broadcasting Corporation

Radio Channel Genre Founded Official Website

Radio Pakistan
Pakistan
Chitral Entertainment

http://www.radio.gov.pk/

Radio Pakistan
Pakistan
Peshawar Entertainment

http://www.radio.gov.pk/

Radio Pakistan
Pakistan
Gilgit Entertainment

http://www.radio.gov.pk/

Newspapers[edit] See also: List of newspapers in Pakistan
Pakistan
§ Khowar

Newspaper City(ies) Founded Official Website

Chitral
Chitral
Vision (چترال وژن‬) Karachi, Chitral, Pakistan    

Chitral
Chitral
Today     http://chitraltoday.net

See also[edit]

Kho people

References[edit]

^ a b c Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D. (2017). Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twentieth Edition. Dallas: SIL International.  ^ Khowar at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(19th ed., 2016) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Khowar". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ electricpulp.com. "DARDESTĀN – Encyclopaedia Iranica".  ^ a b c Grierson, George A. (1919). Linguistic Survey of India. Volume VIII , Part 2, Indo-Aryan family. North-western group. Specimens of the Dardic or Piśācha languages (including Kāshmiri). Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India. p. 133.  ^ O'Brien, Donatus James Thomond (1895). Grammar and vocabulary of the K̲h̲owâr dialect (Chitrâli). Lahore: Civil and military gazette press. p. i.  ^ Leitner, Gottlieb William (1880). Kafiristan. Section 1: the Bashgeli Kafirs and their language. Lahore: Dilbagroy. p. 43. Retrieved 2016-06-06.  ^ Morgenstierne, Georg (1974). "Languages of Nuristan and surrounding regions". In Jettmar, Karl; Edelberg, Lennart. Cultures of the Hindukush: selected papers from the Hindu-Kush Cultural Conference held at Moesgård 1970. Beiträge zur Südasienforschung, Südasien-Institut Universität Heidelberg. Bd. 1. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner. pp. 1–10. ISBN 978-3-515-01217-1.  ^ a b Edelman, D. I. (1983). The Dardic and Nuristani Languages. Moscow: Institut vostokovedenii︠a︡ (Akademii︠a︡ nauk SSSR). p. 210.  ^ a b Bashir, Elena L. (1988), "Topics in Kalasha Syntax: An areal and typological perspective" (PDF), Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan: 37–40  ^ Bashir, Elena L., Maula Nigah and Rahmat Karim Baig, A Digital Khowar-English Dictionary with Audio  ^ Baart, Joan L. G. (2003), Tonal features in languages of northern Pakistan
Pakistan
(PDF), National Institute of Pakistan
Pakistan
Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics, pp. 3, 6 

Additional references[edit]

Bashir, Elena (2001) "Spatial Representation in Khowar". Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. Decker, D. Kendall (1992). Languages of Chitral. ISBN 969-8023-15-1.  L'Homme, Erik (1999) Parlons Khowar. Langue et culture de l'ancien royaume de Chitral
Chitral
au Pakistan. Paris: L'Harmattan Morgenstierne, Georg (1936) "Iranian Elements in Khowar". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. VIII, London. Badshah Munir Bukhari (2001) Khowar language. University publisher. Pakistan Morgenstierne, Georg (1947) "Some Features of Khowar Morphology". Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap, Vol. XIV, Oslo. Morgenstierne, Georg (1957) Sanskritic Words in Khowar. Felicitation Volume Presented to S. K. Belvalkar. Benares. 84–98 [Reprinted in Morgenstierne (1973): Irano-Dardica, 267–72] Mohammad Ismail Sloan (1981) Khowar-English Dictionary. Peshawar. ISBN 0-923891-15-3. Decker, Kendall D. (1992). Languages of Chitral
Chitral
(Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 5). National Institute of Pakistani Studies, 257 pp. ISBN 969-8023-15-1.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Khowar language.

Khowar language
Khowar language
test of at Wikimedia Incubator

"Georg Morgenstierne". National Library of Norway. 2001. Retrieved 11 January 2009.  Strand, Richard F. (2011). "Khow`ar Lexicon". Retrieved 16 January 2012.  Strand, Richard F. (2012). "The Sound System of Khow`ar". Retrieved 16 January 2012. 

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Gilgit-Baltistan‎

Balti Purgi Burushaski Domaaki Khowar Munji Shina Wakhi

‎Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Burushaski Badeshi Bateri Chilisso Dameli Gawar-Bati Gowro Hindko Kalami Kalasha Kalkoti Kamviri Khowar Indus Kohistani Mankiyali Palula Torwali Ushoji Yidgha

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