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Dur-Sharrukin
Dur-Sharrukin
("Fortress of Sargon"; Arabic: دور شروكين‎), present day Khorsabad, was the Assyrian capital in the time of Sargon II of Assyria. Khorsabad is a village in northern Iraq, 15 km northeast of Mosul. The great city was entirely built in the decade preceding 706 BC. After the unexpected death of Sargon in battle, the capital was shifted 20 km south to Nineveh.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Destruction by ISIL

2 Features 3 Archaeology 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

History[edit]

Lamassu
Lamassu
found during Botta's excavation, now in the Louvre
Louvre
Museum.

Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the Neo-Assyrian period (place names in French)

Sargon II ruled from 722 to 705 BC. The demands for timber and other materials and craftsmen, who came from as far as coastal Phoenicia, are documented in contemporary Assyrian letters. The debts of construction workers were nullified in order to attract a sufficient labour force. The land in the environs of the town was taken under cultivation, and olive groves were planted to increase Assyria's deficient oil-production. The great city was entirely built in the decade preceding 706 BC, when the court moved to Dur-Sharrukin, although it was not completely finished yet. Sargon was killed during a battle in 705. After his unexpected death his son and successor Sennacherib
Sennacherib
abandoned the project, and relocated the capital with its administration to the city of Nineveh, 20 km south. The city was never completed and it was finally abandoned a century later when the Assyrian empire fell. [1] Destruction by ISIL[edit] On 8 March 2015 the Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant reportedly started the plunder and demolition of Dur-Sharrukin, according to the Kurdish official from Mosul
Mosul
Saeed Mamuzini.[2] The Iraqi Tourism and Antiquities Ministry launched the related investigation on the same day.[2] Features[edit]

Plan of Dur-Sharrukin, 1867

Plan of Palace of Sargon Khorsabad Reconstruction 1905

Reconstructed Model of Palace of Sargon at Khorsabad 1905

Khorsabad brick, Assyria. Babylonian; Louvre
Louvre
Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection

The town was of rectangular layout and measured 1758.6 by 1635 metres. The enclosed area comprised 3 square kilometres, or 288 hectares. The length of the walls was 16280 Assyrian units, which according to Sargon himself corresponded to the numerical value of his name.[3] The city walls were massive and 157 towers protected its sides. Seven gates entered the city from all directions. A walled terrace contained temples and the royal palace. The main temples were dedicated to the gods Nabu, Shamash
Shamash
and Sin, while Adad, Ningal
Ningal
and Ninurta
Ninurta
had smaller shrines. A temple tower, ziqqurat, was also constructed. The palace was adorned with sculptures and wall reliefs, and the gates were flanked with winged-bull shedu statues weighing up to 40 tons. Sargon supposedly lost at least one of these winged bulls in the river. In addition to the great city, there was a royal hunting park and a garden that included "all the aromatic plants of Hatti[4] and the fruit-trees of every mountain", a "record of power and conquest", as Robin Lane Fox
Robin Lane Fox
has observed.[5] Surviving correspondence mentions the moving of thousands of young fruit trees, quinces, almonds, apples and medlars.[6]

"On the central canal of Sargon's garden stood a pillared pleasure-pavilion which looked up to a great topographic creation: a man-made Garden Mound. This Mound was planted with cedars and cypresses and was modelled after a foreign landscape, the Amanus mountains in north Syria, which had so amazed the Assyrian kings. In their flat palace-gardens they built a replica of what they had encountered."[7]

Archaeology[edit]

Dur-Sharrukin
Dur-Sharrukin
foundation cylinder

Palace of Dur-Sharrukin

Sargon II (left) faces a high-ranking official, possibly Sennacherib his son and crown prince. 710-705 BCE. From Khorsabad, Iraq. The British Museum, London

Dur-Sharrukin
Dur-Sharrukin
is roughly a square with a border marked by a city wall 24 meters thick with a stone foundation pierced by seven massive gates. A mound in the northeast section marks the location of the palace of Sargon II. At the time of its construction, the village on the site was named Maganuba. [8] The site was first noticed by the French Consul General at Mosul, Paul-Émile Botta
Paul-Émile Botta
in 1842. Botta believed, however, that Khorsabad was the site of biblical Nineveh. The site was excavated by Botta in 1842-44, joined in the later stages by artist Eugène Flandin.[9][10] Victor Place resumed the excavations from 1852 to 1855.[11][12] A significant number of the items recovered by the French at Dur-Sharrukin
Dur-Sharrukin
were lost in two river shipping incidents. In 1853, Place attempted to move two 30-ton statues and other material to Paris from Khorsabad on a large boat and four rafts. All of the vessels except two of the rafts were scuttled by pirates. In 1855, Place and Jules Oppert attempted to transport the remaining finds from Dur-Sharrukin, as well as material from other sites being worked by the French, mainly Nimrud. Almost all of the collection, over 200 crates, was lost in the river.[13] Surviving artifacts from this excavation were taken to the Louvre
Louvre
in Paris. The site of Khorsabad was excavated 1928–1935 by American archaeologists from the Oriental Institute in Chicago. Work in the first season was led by Edward Chiera
Edward Chiera
and concentrated on the palace area. A colossal bull estimated to weigh 40 tons was uncovered outside the throne room. It was found split into three large fragments. The torso alone weighed about 20 tons. This was shipped to Chicago. The preparation and shipment of the bull back to the Oriental Institute was incredibly arduous. The remaining seasons were led by Gordon Loud and Hamilton Darby. Their work examined one of the city gates, continued work at the palace, and excavated extensively at the palace's temple complex.[14] Since Dur-Sharrukin was a single-period site that was evacuated in an orderly manner after the death of Sargon II, few individual objects were found. The primary discoveries from Khorsabad shed light on Assyrian art
Assyrian art
and architecture. In 1957, archaeologists from the Iraqi Department Antiquities, led by Fuad Safar excavated at the site, uncovering the temple of Sibitti.[15] See also[edit]

Cities of the ancient Near East Destruction of cultural heritage by ISIL Short chronology timeline List of megalithic sites

Notes[edit]

^ Marc Van De Mieroop, A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000 - 323 BC, (Wiley-Blackwell) 2006, ISBN 1-4051-4911-6 ^ a b "Ancient site Khorsabad attacked by Islamic State: reports". Toronto Star. 8 March 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2015.  ^ Fuchs, Die Inschriften Sargons II. aus Khorsabad, 42:65; 294f. See the discussion by Eckart Frahm, "Observations on the Name and Age of Sargon II and on Some Patterns of Assyrian Royal Onomastics," NABU 2005-2.44 ^ Hatti: in this context, all the areas to the west of the Euphrates controlled by Neo-Hittite
Neo-Hittite
kingdoms. ^ D.D. Luckenbill, Ancient Records of Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia, vol II:242, quoted in Robin Lane Fox, Travelling Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer 2008, pp26f. ^ Lane Fox 2008:27; texts are in Luckenbill 1927:II. ^ Lane Fox 2008:27, noting D. Stronach, "The Garden as a political statement: some case-studies from the Near East in the first millennium BC", Bulletin of the Asia Institute 4 (1990:171-80). The garden mount first documented at Dur-Sharrukin
Dur-Sharrukin
was to have a long career in the history of gardening. ^ Cultraro M., Gabellone F., Scardozzi G, Integrated Methodologies and Technologies for the Reconstructive Study of Dur-Sharrukin
Dur-Sharrukin
(Iraq), XXI International CIPA Symposium, 2007 ^ Paul Emile Botta and Eugene Flandin, Monument de Ninive, in 5 volumes, Imprimerie nationale, 1946-50 ^ E. Guralnick, New drawings of Khorsabad sculptures by Paul Émile Botta, Revue d'assyriologie et d'archéologie orientale, vol. 95, pp. 23-56, 2002 ^ Victor Place, Nineve et l'Assyie, in 3 volumes, Imprimerie impériale, 1867–1879 ^ Joseph Bonomi, Ninevah and Its Palaces: The Discoveries of Botta and Layard, Applied to the Elucidation of Holy Writ, Bohn, 1957 (2003 Reprint, Gorgias Press LLC, ISBN 1-59333-067-7) ^ Robert William Rogers, A history of Babylonia and Assyria: Volume 1, Abingdon Press, 1915 ^ [1] OIC 16. Tell Asmar, Khafaje and Khorsabad: Second Preliminary Report of the Iraq
Iraq
Expedition, Henri Frankfort, 1933; [2] OIC 17. Iraq Excavations of the Oriental Institute 1932/33: Third Preliminary Report of the Iraq
Iraq
Expedition, Henri Frankfort, 1934; [3] Gordon Loud, Khorsabad, Part 1: Excavations in the Palace and at a City Gate, Oriental Institute Publications 38, University of Chicago
Chicago
Press, 1936; [4] Gordon Loud and Charles B. Altman, Khorsabad, Part 2: The Citadel and the Town, Oriental Institute Publications 40, University of Chicago
Chicago
Press, 1938 ^ F. Safar, "The Temple of Sibitti at Khorsabad", Sumer 13 (1957:219-21).

References[edit]

A. Fuchs, Die Inschriften Sargons II. aus Khorsabad, Cuvillier, 1994, ISBN 3-930340-42-9 A. Caubet, Khorsabad: le palais de Sargon II, roi d'Assyrie: Actes du colloque organisé au musée du Louvre
Louvre
par le Services culturel les 21 et 22 janvier 1994, La Documentation française, 1996, ISBN 2-11-003416-5 Arno Poebel, The Assyrian King-List from Khorsabad, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 247–306, 1942 Arno Poebel, The Assyrian King List from Khorsabad (Continued), Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 460–492, 1942 Pauline Albenda, The palace of Sargon, King of Assyria: Monumental wall reliefs at Dur-Sharrukin, from original drawings made at the time of their discovery in 1843–1844 by Botta and Flandin, Editions Recherche sur les civilisations, 1986, ISBN 2-86538-152-8

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dur-Sharrukin.

Khorsabad Relief Project - Oriental Institute Shelby White - Leon Levy grant to publish 3rd volume of OI excavation reports New York Public Library

v t e

Nineveh
Nineveh
plains in Nineveh
Nineveh
Governorate, northern Iraq

Main settlements

Al-Hamdaniya District

Bakhdida Bartella Karemlesh Bashiqa Bahzani

Tel Keppe
Tel Keppe
District

Tel Keppe Alqosh Batnaya Tesqopa Baqofa Sharafiya Bozan Khatarah

Shekhan District

Ain Sifni Dashqotan Qasrok Ba'adra

Religious sites

Chaldean Catholic Church

Rabban Hormizd Monastery
Rabban Hormizd Monastery
(640) Mar Oraha Monastery
Mar Oraha Monastery
(6th century) Tomb of Prophet Nahum

Syriac Catholic Church

Mar Behnam Monastery
Mar Behnam Monastery
(4th century)

Syriac Orthodox Church

Mar Mattai monastery
Mar Mattai monastery
(363) Monastery of Saint John of Dailam
Monastery of Saint John of Dailam
(7th century)

Yazidis

Lalish
Lalish
(1414)

Archaeological sites

Balawat Shibaniba Nimrud Dur-Sharrukin Tell Arpachiya

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