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The Khmer Krom
Khmer Krom
(Khmer: ខ្មែរក្រោម, Vietnamese: Khơ Me Crộm) are ethnically Khmer people
Khmer people
living in the south western part of Vietnam, where they are recognized as one of Vietnam's fifty-three ethnic minorities. In the Khmer language, Krom means "lower" or "below", as it refers to an area of 89,000 square kilometres (34,363 sq mi) around modern day Saigon and the Mekong
Mekong
Delta, which used to be the southeasternmost territory of the Khmer Empire
Khmer Empire
until its incorporation into Vietnam
Vietnam
under the Nguyễn lords
Nguyễn lords
in the early 18th century. This marks the final stage of the Vietnamese "March to the South" (nam tiến).[2][3] The Vietnamese term is Khơ-me Crộm or Khơ-me dưới, which literally means "Khmers from below".[4] According to Vietnamese government figures (2009 census), there are 1,260,640 Khmer Krom
Khmer Krom
in Vietnam. Other estimates vary considerably, with up to 7 million reported to Taylor (2014) in his The Khmer lands of Vietnam.[5] According to the US-based Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
(HRW) "the Khmer Krom face serious restrictions of freedom of expression, assembly, association, information, and movement".[6]

Contents

1 Origins 2 History

2.1 Absorption of the Mekong Delta
Mekong Delta
by Vietnam 2.2 Separatist movements

3 Human rights 4 Famous Khmer Krom 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Origins[edit]

Prow of the tuk ngo, Khmer Krom
Khmer Krom
styled boat used in celebratory races

The Khmer Krom
Khmer Krom
identify ethnically with the Khmer people
Khmer people
who constitute a distinct people at least since the late eighth century and the foundation of the Khmer Empire
Khmer Empire
by Jayavarman II in 802 C.E.[7] They retain deep linguistic, religious, customary and cultural links to Cambodia
Cambodia
proper.[8] The Mekong Delta
Mekong Delta
region constituted for more than 800 years an integral part of the empire and the subsequent kingdom.[9] The region's economic center was the city Prey Nokor, now Ho Chi Minh City. History[edit] Main article: History of Cambodia Absorption of the Mekong Delta
Mekong Delta
by Vietnam[edit] In the 17th century a weakened Khmer state left the Mekong
Mekong
Delta poorly administered after repeated warfare with Siam. Concurrently Vietnamese refugees fleeing the Trịnh–Nguyễn War
Trịnh–Nguyễn War
in Vietnam migrated into the area. In 1623 Cambodian king Chey Chettha II (1618–1628) officially sanctioned the Vietnamese immigrants to operate a custom house at Prey Nokor, then a small fishing village. The settlement steadily grew soon becoming a major regional port, attracting even more settlers. In 1698 the Nguyễn Lords
Nguyễn Lords
of Huế
Huế
commissioned Nguyễn Hữu Cảnh, a Vietnamese noble to organize the territory along Vietnamese administrative lines, thus by de facto detaching it from the Kingdom of Cambodia
Cambodia
and incorporating it into Vietnam.[10] With the loss of the port of Prey Nokor, then renamed Sài Gòn, Cambodia's control of the area grew increasingly tenuous while increasing waves of Vietnamese settlers to the Delta isolated the Khmer of the Mekong Delta
Mekong Delta
from the Cambodian kingdom. By 1757 the Vietnamese had absorbed the provinces of Psar Dèk (renamed Sa Đéc in Vietnamese) on the Mekong
Mekong
itself, and Moat Chrouk (Vietnamized to Châu Đốc) on the Bassac River.[2] Minh Mạng
Minh Mạng
enacted assimilation policies upon the Khmer such as forcing them to adopt Sino-Vietnamese surnames, culture, and clothing. Minh Mang sinicized ethnic minorities including the Cambodians, in line with Confucianism as he diffused Vietnamese culture with China's Han civilization using the term Han people 漢人 for the Vietnamese.[11] Minh Mang declared that "We must hope that their barbarian habits will be subconsciously dissipated, and that they will daily become more infected by Han [Sino-Vietnamese] customs."[12][13] These policies were directed at the Khmer and hill tribes.[14] On June 4, 1949 the French President Vincent Auriol
Vincent Auriol
signed the accord reincorporating Cochinchina
Cochinchina
to Vietnam. This was done without consulting the indigenous Khmer-Krom. The legal transfer of control cut Cambodia
Cambodia
off from the sea via the Mekong
Mekong
River as the Delta administered by an independent Vietnam. Left within the borders of Vietnam
Vietnam
were the communities of Khmer people, nowadays Khmer Krom. Separatist movements[edit] Khmer nationalist Son Ngoc Thanh (1908–77) was a Khmer krom, born in Trà Vinh, Vietnam. Thanh was active in the independence movement for Cambodia. With Japanese support he became the prime minister of Cambodia
Cambodia
in March 1945 but was then quickly ousted with the return of the French later that year. Widely supported by the Khmer Krom
Khmer Krom
during the First Indochina War, Thanh's role faded in Vietnam
Vietnam
after 1954 as he became more embroiled with politics in Cambodia
Cambodia
proper, forming an opposition movement against Prince Sihanouk. During the Vietnam
Vietnam
War and direct American involvement between 1964 and 1974, the Khmer Krom
Khmer Krom
were recruited by the United States Armed Forces to serve in MIKE Force.[15] The force fought on the side of South Vietnam
Vietnam
against the Viet Cong
Viet Cong
but in time the militia regrouped as the "Front for the Struggle of Kampuchea Krom" (French: Front de Lutte du Kampuchea Krom). Headed by a Khmer Krom
Khmer Krom
Buddhist monk, Samouk Sen, the group was nicknamed the "White Scarves" (Khmer: Kangsaing Sar; Vietnamese: Can Sen So) and allied itself with FULRO
FULRO
against South Vietnam.[16] FULRO
FULRO
was an alliance of Khmer Krom, Montagnard, and Cham groups. The anti-Communist prime minister of the Khmer Republic
Khmer Republic
(1970 - 1975) Lon Nol
Lon Nol
planned to recapture the Mekong Delta
Mekong Delta
from South Vietnam.[citation needed] After the Fall of Saigon
Fall of Saigon
in 1975 and the Communist take-over of all of Vietnam, the Kampuchea Krom militia found itself embattled with People's Army of Vietnam. Many of the fighters fled to Khmer Rouge-controlled Democratic Kampuchea
Democratic Kampuchea
hoping to find a safe haven to launch their operations inside Vietnam. The "White Scarves" arrived in Kiri Vong District
Kiri Vong District
in 1976, making overture to the Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
and appealing to the leader Khieu Samphan
Khieu Samphan
directly for assistance. The force was disarmed and welcomed initially. Subsequent orders from the Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
leadership however had Samouk Sen arrested, taken to Phnom Penh, tortured, and killed. His force of 67 Khmer Krom
Khmer Krom
fighters were all massacred. During the following months, some 2,000 "White Scarves" fighters crossing into Kampuchea were systematically killed by the Khmer Rouge.[17] In the late 1970s, the Kampuchean Revolutionary Army
Kampuchean Revolutionary Army
attacked Vietnam in an attempt to reconquer the areas which were formerly part of the Khmer Empire, but this military adventure was a total disaster and precipitated the invasion of Democratic Kampuchea
Democratic Kampuchea
by the People's Army of Vietnam
Vietnam
and subsequent downfall of the Khmer Rouge, with Vietnam occupying Kampuchea. Human rights[edit]

Flag of Khmers Kampuchea-Krom Federation
Khmers Kampuchea-Krom Federation
(KKF)

Many independent NGOs report that the human rights of the Khmer Krom are being violated by the Vietnamese government. Khmer Krom
Khmer Krom
are reportedly forced to adopt Vietnamese family names and speak the Vietnamese language.[18][19] As well, the Vietnamese government has cracked down on non violent demonstrations by the Khmer Krom.[20] Unlike some other minority people groups in Vietnam, the Khmer Krom are largely unknown by the Western world, despite efforts by associations of exiled Khmer Krom
Khmer Krom
such as the Khmers Kampuchea-Krom Federation to publicize their plight with the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation. No Western government has yet raised the matter of the Khmer Krom's human rights with the Vietnamese government.[18] The "Human Rights Council Universal Periodic Review Working Group" was visited by the Khmer Kampuchea Krom Federation.[21] Famous Khmer Krom[edit]

Son Sen
Son Sen
- Minister of National Defence of Democratic Kampuchea
Democratic Kampuchea
(Pol Pot's Cambodia).

See also[edit]

Cochinchina

References[edit]

^ "The 2009 Vietnam
Vietnam
Population and Housing Census: Completed Results". General Statistics Office of Vietnam: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee. June 2010. p. 134. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.  ^ a b "Reconceptualizing Southern Vietnamese History from the 15th to 18th Centuries Competition along the Coasts from Guangdong to Cambodia by Brian A. Zottoli". University of Michigan. Retrieved 26 June 2015.  ^ "Mak Phœun : Histoire du Cambodge de la fin du XVIe au début du XVIIIe siècle - According to Cambodian oral tradition, the marriage was because a weak Cambodian king fell in love..." (PDF). Michael Vickery’s Publications. Retrieved 30 June 2015.  ^ "Khmer Krom". UNREPRESENTED NATIONS AND PEOPLES ORGANIZATION. July 17, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2016.  ^ Taylor P. (2014)The Khmer lands of Vietnam: environment, cosmology and sovereignty. National University of Singapore Press. ^ " Khmer Krom
Khmer Krom
in Cambodia
Cambodia
Mark Loss of Their Homeland". Radio Free Asia. June 4, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2016.  ^ Stuart-Fox, William, The Murderous Revolution: Life & Death in Pol Pot's Kampuchea, Alternative Publishing Co-Operative Limited, 1985, pp. 6. ^ "RECONSTITUTING THE "UN-PERSON": THE KHMER KROM & THE KHMER ROUGE TRIBUNAL". Singapore Year Book of International Law and Contributorsb. Retrieved September 16, 2016.  ^ "MEMORANDUM BY CAMBODIA ON HER TERRITORIES IN SOUTH VIET-NAM..." (PDF). caraweb. Retrieved September 16, 2016.  ^ "MA Short History of South-East Asia edited by Peter Church". Google Books. Retrieved 12 June 2015.  ^ Norman G. Owen (2005). The Emergence Of Modern Southeast Asia: A New History. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 115–. ISBN 978-0-8248-2890-5.  ^ A. Dirk Moses (1 January 2008). Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History. Berghahn Books. pp. 209–. ISBN 978-1-84545-452-4. Archived from the original on 2008.  ^ TA, VAN TAI. "The Vietnamese Tradition of Human Rights" (PDF). INDOCHINA RESEARCH MONOGRAPH. INSTITUTE OF EAST ASIAN STUDIES ^§V) UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA • BERKELEY: 134.  ^ Randall Peerenboom; Carole J. Petersen; Albert H.Y. Chen (27 September 2006). Human Rights in Asia: A Comparative Legal Study of Twelve Asian Jurisdictions, France and the USA. Routledge. pp. 474–. ISBN 978-1-134-23881-1.  ^ Vietnam
Vietnam
Studies, U.S. Army Special
Special
Forces 1961-1971, CMH Publication 90-23, Department of the Army, Washington, D.C. 1989 (First Printed, 1973) ^ Radu, M. The New Insurgencies, Transaction Publishers, 1990, p.202 ^ Ben Kiernan, The Pol Pot
Pol Pot
Regime: Race, Power, and Genocide in Cambodia
Cambodia
under the Khmer Rouge, 1975–79. New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-14434-5, 1996 ^ a b Human Rights Watch: "On the Margins: Rights and Abuses of Ethnic Khmer in Vietnam's Mekong
Mekong
Delta" 2009 ^ "Rearhoo (The Dark Age) - KKF". 6 August 2009. Archived from the original on 6 August 2009. Retrieved 21 September 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "On the Margins". 21 January 2009. Retrieved 21 September 2016.  ^ "UNPO: Khmer Krom
Khmer Krom
Attend UPR Session on Vietnam". 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Khmer Krom.

Khmers Kampuchea-Krom Federation
Khmers Kampuchea-Krom Federation
(KKF) Khmer Krom
Khmer Krom
news and information network Khmer Krom
Khmer Krom
news and information in Khmer language Khmer Krom: A Royal Solution for a Nationalist Vietnam
Vietnam
reported by Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation Video clips of Rebecca Sommer's film "Eliminated without Bleeding" documenting human rights violation claims of the Khmer Krom
Khmer Krom
in Vietnam March 2007- Article on religious oppression by Vietnam

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