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The Khattak
Khattak
(Pashto: خټک‎ [xaˈʈak]), is a Pashtun tribe numbering over 3 million, which speaks a variant of the softer Kandahari Pashto. It is one of the oldest Pashtun tribes. The Khattaks are settled along the western bank of the Indus River
Indus River
from as north upwards as Lund Khwar, Katlang, Sawaldher, Sher Garh and near Malakand, Nowshera District, Kohat District, Mianwali District, Attock District & Karak District
Karak District
in Pakistan. Across the Durand line, a smaller number of Khattaks are scattered in Kandahar, Ghazni, Logar and Khost
Khost
in Afghanistan. The historic capitals of the Khattaks were Teri, a town at District Karak, and Akora Khattak, a town at District Nowshera.[citation needed] A number of Khattak
Khattak
are also found in Sawat valley near Ramet village (Hawai) and Madyan verified by residents lived there and by presence of their tribe names “Khattak” in the land records of Tehsil Bahrain Swat. The warrior poet Khushal Khan Khattak (1613–1690) belonged to this tribe, and his contributions to Pashto literature are considered as classic texts. They have been translated into numerous languages. The Khattaks have high literacy rates in comparison to other Pashtun tribes having achieved positions of influence throughout history.[citation needed]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Migration from today's Afghanistan 1.2 Khushal Khan Khattak 1.3 Older references 1.4 Sattagudai 1.5 Khattaks and Shetaks 1.6 In Pashtun history

2 Theory of Israelite descent 3 Theory of descent from the Greeks 4 Afridi
Afridi
and Khattak
Khattak
history

4.1 Molding and amalgamation

5 Khattak
Khattak
tribes

5.1 Saghri Khel 5.2 Barak Khattak
Khattak
of Karak 5.3 Sinni Khattak

6 Demographics 7 Lund Khwar 8 Notables 9 See also 10 References

History[edit]

Karlani
Karlani
Afghan Tribes Genealogy & Family Tree.

Migration from today's Afghanistan[edit] Early records show migration of the Khattak
Khattak
from Ghazni, Ghor and Logar of modern-day Afghanistan. Later on, the Khattak
Khattak
settled in the Shawal region of present-day Waziristan, Pakistan. Subsequently, they migrated further eastwards and settled in Bannu District, where the Pashtun tribes
Pashtun tribes
of Mangal and Honai were already settled. In the 14th century, the Shitaks, a tribe allied to the Khattaks which also previously held Shawal, migrated to Bannu. The Shitaks first defeated and drove away the Mangals and the Honais, and later gradually captured Bannu and pushed the Khattaks northwards to the southern portions of Kohat, where the Khattaks settled in Bahadur Khel and Teri. Then the Khattak
Khattak
allied with the Bangash, defeated the other Pashtun tribes, and occupied northeastern Kohat, Gumbat, Pattiala and Zira Tippas. Eventually, the Khattak
Khattak
settled in Karak and Nowshera (Pabbi, Jalozai, Kotle, Shahkot, Salehana, Dak Asmail Khel, Khesare, Lakare, Spin Kanre, Spinkhak, Urmar) and finally a small number migrated to Nizampur, Mardan
Mardan
and Malakand.[1] Khattak
Khattak
also migrated from Akora Khattak
Akora Khattak
more than 100 years ago, and settled down in city of Mansehra
Mansehra
in the current day province of Khyber Pashtunkhwa. They are settled in the city of Mansehra, and in the villages of Lambi Dheri, Kotkay, Jhagir, and Labarkot. In addition, they are settled in some areas of Abbottabad. Khushal Khan Khattak[edit] A warrior poet by the name of Khushal Khan Khattak (1613–1690) was once the chief of this tribe, and his contributions to Pashto literature are considered as classic texts .[2] His life and times are one of the most chronicled and discussed subjects in Pashtun history, as he was active on the political, social and intellectual fora of his times. He was a most voluminous writer, and composed no less than three hundred and sixty literary works, both in the Pashto and Persian languages .[3] His poetry revolves around concepts of Honour, Justice, Bravery and Nationalism and his works have been translated into numerous languages, English and Urdu
Urdu
being the primary ones.[4] Older references[edit] According to Nimatullah's 1620 work History of The Afghans, the Khattaks are amongst the oldest of the Afghan tribes.[5] Their history has been closely knit with that of the khattak have given the place to yusafzai Tribe from their first settlement around the mountains of Ghor and Ghazni[5] to present day East-Central and North-Eastern Pukhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. The Sattagudai (Ancient Greek: Σατταγύδαι) were a people mentioned by Herodotus in connection to people under the influence of the Achaemenid Empire.[6] Herodotus, Book 3, 91.[7] (In this and the two succeeding passages the historian is giving a list of the Achaemenian satrapies and their peoples.)

The Sattagudai and the Gandarioi and the Dadikai and the Aparutai, who were all reckoned together paid 170 talents.

Herodotus, without assigning a name to the satrapy, tells us that Darius' yth Satrapy was inhabited by four tribes, the Sattagudai, the Gandarioi, the Dadikai, and the Aparutai.[8][9] The addition of the Aparutai/Aparidai correspondence helps to buttress the case for finding in Herodotus traces of names which carry through to the present day. Bellew has gone further and identified the Sattagudai with the famous Khatak tribe. "The Pathans 55O B.C.-A.D. 1957" printed St Martin's Press 1958 by MacMillan and Company Limited"[9] Sattagudai[edit] Numerous historians identify the Khattak
Khattak
with the Sattagudai.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16] Sir Olaf Caroe, The Pathans 550BC 1957AD:[9]

"Let us now refer to the third passage cited, in which Herodotus, without assigning a name to the satrapy, tells us that Darius' yth

Satrapy was inhabited by four tribes, the Sattagudai, the Gandarioi, the Dadikai, and the Aparutai. Bellew has gone further and identified the Sattagudai with the famous Khatak tribe, and the Dadikai with an obscure branch of Kakars whom he calls Dadi." Khattaks and Shetaks[edit] Sir Olaf Caroe, The Pathans 550BC 1957AD:[9]

"Neither Khataks nor Shitaks appear by name until the period of publication of genealogies under the Mughals, and the time of Akbar's dealings with the Khataks for the protection of the highway to Peshawar. Babur
Babur
indeed in his memoirs mentions the Karranis (Karlanis) whom he encountered in 1505 around Bannu along with the Niazis and Isakhel. It is probable that this reference of his is to Khataks or Shitaks, or both, for both are Karlani
Karlani
tribes, and the other Karlanis who live in that area, Wazirs and Bangash, Babur
Babur
mentions by name when he comes to them."

It is thus clear that Babur
Babur
& other Mughals in their descriptions identify Khattaks & Shetaks together without any differentiation. In Pashtun history[edit] Sir Olaf Caroe, The Pathans 550BC 1957AD:[9]

"Taken together, the Khataks and the Shitaks, who now have a common boundary close to Bannu, cover a stretch of territory as large as that held by any Afghan or Pathan tribe, whether Ghilzai, Yusufzai or Durrani. From the Khatak settlements around Lundkhwar, close to the Malakand Pass, to the Shitak villages in Upper Daur in the Tochi, the distance is over 200 miles. The wide extent of their present territory, their large population, and the association of both groups of tribes at one time or another with the rich oases of Bannu and the Tochi, suggest sufficiently their importance in this family of peoples."

Theory of Israelite descent[edit] Main article: Theory of Pashtun descent from Israelites Khattak
Khattak
tribe has oral traditions and legendary history of descent from the Israelites.[17] Khushal Khan Khattak, chosen malak[clarification needed] in 1641, believed that malak was a continuation of the Israelite title malak given to the legendary progenitors King Saul
King Saul
and Malak Afghana.[18] Khushal expresses that the Khattak
Khattak
reputation for fierceness and valor stems from the fact that Khattaks and Afghans have been nursed by the Lioness’s (King Saul’s wife) milk.[19][20] One of the first progenitors of the modern tribe is Manal. Manal is considered to be a modification of Manas from the word Manasseh.[citation needed] In his book The Armies of India, A.C. Lovett declares the Khattaks to be a widely enlisted tribe, who also lay claim to the Pashtun Jewish
Jewish
descent.[21] Theory of descent from the Greeks[edit] After the creation of Pakistan, some Pakistani scholars, suggested a Greek descent for the Khattaks. However from the Histories of Herodotus, Herodotus, Book 3, 91.,[7] it is clear that a tribe by the name of SattaGydae (or Sattagudai) were already settled in the area around current day Ghor in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and paid as tribute coinage and materials to the Greeks when they subjugated these areas: "The Sattagudai and the Gandarioi and the Dadikai and the Aparutai, who were all reckoned together paid 170 talents." Later Bellew, Caroe and other historians both Pashtun and Western through their works identified the Sattagudai with the famous Khatak & Shitak tribes. "The Pathans 55O B.C.-A.D. 1957" printed St Martin's Press 1958 by MacMillan and Company Limited"[9] Though all Afghan DNA[22] including Khattak
Khattak
DNA has minor contributions from haplogroups more common to the Greeks,[23] these are minor enough to rule out a direct lineage. Together with works from Herodotus and more recent historians, the theory of Khattak descent from the Greeks is unfounded. Afridi
Afridi
and Khattak
Khattak
history[edit] Sir Olaf Caroe, The Pathans 550BC 1957AD:[9]

"The Afridis and Khataks lumped together as Karlanis, can be held to reflect a knowledge that they represented a more aboriginal stock, which only later absorbed the characteristics of the invaders. In other words, it is not surprising that in looking for a prototype in the oldest recorded history bearing on this region we hit on the ancestor of the Pakhtun."

Molding and amalgamation[edit] Sir Olaf Caroe, The Pathans 550BC 1957AD:[9]

"This is not to assert that the ethnic or linguistic stock can be traced through to tribes of similar names today. The case would be rather that these were sub-stratum agglomerations of people who, through contact with later-comers, modified their language and were assimilated to later cultures, but retained in the more inaccessible places sufficient of their older inspirations to boast their original names. The theory does at least give a starting-point to Pathan history & the stock belief in the Bani Israel."

The Khattak
Khattak
super Tribe and sub tribes. Khattak
Khattak
Family Tree.

Khattak
Khattak
tribes[edit] Saghri Khel[edit] The Saghri Khattaks occupy the Shakardara tract of Kohat district and Makhad town of Atock district. The Saghri are further divided into Narri Saghri and Toppi Saghri A section of Saghri known as Bangi Khel live in the Bannu district who are independent of the Saghris and consider themselves a separate subtribe (Bangi was the eldest son of Malak Saghir khan, the proginator of Saghri Khels) the chief of Saghris used to Live in Makhad. Barak Khattak
Khattak
of Karak[edit] Areas: Karak District
Karak District
The Barak Khattaks live what was priviously known as the Barak Tappa before partition Baraks are divided into 4 subtribes ( Ozhd, Landd, Manzai, Mandarn ) The ozhd occupy the center and and western portion of Karak Tehsill. In Banda Daud Shah Tehsil the Ozhds are only in the Bahadur Khel
Bahadur Khel
region. Rest of the Tehsil of Banda Daud Shah is inhabited by the Tarki Khel section of the Khattaks who are further divided into clans and sub-clans. The Landd occupy the Landd Kammar tract in Tehsil Takht-e-Nasrati. The Mandarn and Manzai occupy rest of the Southern portion of Lawaghar hills. A section of the Manzai Baraks who are known as Guddi Khel inhibit the shnawa area of Karak district tehsil Takht-e-Nasrati, this is the southern most village of Karak district. Some noteable people of the Barak section of the Khattaks are as follows. Sajjad Barak Naib Nazim of karak District Nawaz Khan karak district Advocate Ghulam Muhyuddin ex MNA Kohat Naimatullah khan Qazi Shafiuddin of Kohat Fitrat Shah a notable poet Gul Sahib Khan MNA Karak district Sinni Khattak[edit] Sinni Khattak
Khattak
(Seni Khattak) live around the Kohat valley.Their major towns are Lachi and Gumbat on Kohat Bannu road. Their population starts from Lachi and going till the Muslimabad (Gadda Khel) then towards the east are the big villages of Shadikhel, Kamalkhel and Dhodah. On Kohat Rawalpindi road their population starts from Gumbat till Khushalgarh. A road leads from Gumbat to Nizampur where the Sinni Khattaks and the Akorra Khattaks touch the areas of each other.[citation needed]

The distribution of the Khattak
Khattak
Tribe in modern-day Pakistan. Also shows major Khattak
Khattak
centers, cities, Tribal capitals and Districts where the Khattak
Khattak
Tribe is populated. All percentages shown are related to census demographics of population surveys of Pakistan.

Demographics[edit] The Khattak
Khattak
sub tribes include the Seni Khattak
Khattak
(Kohat), Barak Khattak (Karak), Akora Khel Khattak
Khattak
(From Lundkhur to Nizampur), Mungi Khel Khattak
Khattak
(Shakar Dara), Mattu Khel Khattak
Khattak
(Shakar Darra), and the Saghri Khattak
Khattak
(Narra Kanjoor, chhab, nakka afghan, INJRA AFGHAN, injra, Jand - Attock).[citation needed] They also live in Sndh, Balochistan and Punjab provinces of Pakistan. In past there was democratic process to make a new leader of the tribe by vote of leaders of clans. each tribe leader was given extra land as Jagir (padgai or pagrrai) to cover the expenses of his Public Kitchen (Langer). There are 3 Chieftain of Khattak's, Khan of Terri, Akora and Makhad. it seems till the time of Khushal Khan, khattaks were having one Chieftain at Akora.[citation needed] Bangi khels live at Narrah (Taraf Jamal Khel of Narrah) Bani Afghan, Tabbi sari at Mianwali and some village at Shakar Dara District Kohat. Bangi khel are much in count so mostly considered separate tribe of Khattak's but actually Bangi khel and Akora's are part of Saghri's. Saghris living at Shakardara are called as "Topi Sughri" whereas at Attock
Attock
are called "nar-rray sughri" in local dialect. According to Punjab government revenue record, Saghri khattak's living at Tehsil Jand belong to the following clans/ Pats. Taraf Narrah comprise the Patti khosar khel, Patti Nanadrak, Patti Khatter khel, Patti Abdullh Khel and Patti Chandel Khel, Patti Taraf Syeded Khel comprise Patti Nanadrak, Kotiwal, Qureshi, Bangash, Awan, Malyar and Sarban and Patti Taraf Jamal khel. The property belonging to each Patti is separately compiled as book to avoid mistake due to repetition of names. This system provide authentic family tree through inherited land transfer record. today each Patti is sub divided in dozens of sub khels.[citation needed] Saghris in the past were warlike people and didn't have written history but wisely they recorded their existence through naming their new settlements with old names.[citation needed] Lund Khwar[edit] Lund Khwar
Lund Khwar
was known in the old days as Sammah.[9] The Khattaks here are the direct descendants of those khattak warriors who came down from the khattak hilly areas and settled down in the early sixteenth century during the times of the great Khushal Khan Khattak. In his campaign of Swat, Khushal Khan Khattak had camped here and those of the Khattaks that live here today helped him in his wars against the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.[citation needed] Notables[edit] Further information: List of Khattaks See also[edit]

Pashtunistan Pakthas Afridi Barakzai Yusufzai Zazi Nimat Allah al-Harawi Author of Tarikh-i-Khan Jahani Makhzan-i-Afghani

References[edit]

^ [http://khyber.org/publications/036-040/history.shtml#The%20Khattak%20Tribe A number of Khattak
Khattak
are also found in Sawat valley near Ramet village (Hawai) and Madyan verified by residents lived there and by presence of their tribe names “Khattak” in the land records of Tehsil Bahrain Swat. "History of Kohat - The Khattak
Khattak
Tribe, Gazetteer of the Kohat District, 1883-84"] Check url= value (help).  line feed character in url= at position 75 (help) ^ "Afghan Poetry: Selections from the poems of Khush Hal Khan Khattak., Biddulph, C.D., Saeed Book Bank, Peshawar, 1983 (reprint of 1890 ed.)".  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ Raverty, H. G. A Grammar Of The Pukhto, Pushto: Or Language Of The Afghans, Raverty, H.G., London, 1860.  ^ "Poems from the Diwan of Khushâl Khân Khattak, MacKenzie, D.N, London, Allen & Unwin, 1965".  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ a b Deportation by the Assyrians, Makhzan-i Afghani, page 37: http://www.wdl.org/en/item/3034/?ql=eng&i=gcu&view_type=gallery ^ James Romm; Herodotus (15 March 2014). Histories. Hackett Publishing. p. 181. ISBN 978-1-62466-115-0.  ^ a b "The Histories of Herodotus, George Rawlinson, Translation 1858–1860".  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ "The Pathans 550 B.C.-A.D. 1957" printed St Martin's Press 1958 by MacMillan and Company Limited" ^ a b c d e f g h i "The Pathans 55O B.C.-A.D. 1957 By Sir Olaf Caroe" ^ The Histories of Herodotus, George Rawlinson, Translation 1858–1860. ^ Guardians of the Khaibar Pass: the social organisation and history of the Afridis of Pakistan
Pakistan
David M. Hart Page 7. ^ The races of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
being a brief account of the principal nations, By Henry Walter Bellew - 2004 - 124 pages - Page 85. ^ An inquiry into the ethnography of Afghanistan: prepared and presented to the Ninth international congress of Orientalists, London, September, 1891 - The Oriental university institute, 1891 - 208 pages - pages 107,108,122. ^ A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province: Based on the census report for the Punjab, 1883 - Horace Arthur Rose, Sir Denzil Ibbetson, Sir Edward Maclagan - Printed by the superintendent, Government printing, Punjab, 1914 - Page 217. ^ Qabila: tribal profiles and tribe-state relations in Morocco and on the Afghanistan- Pakistan
Pakistan
Frontier - By David M. Hart - - 2001 - 254 pages - Page 152. ^ Afghanistan
Afghanistan
of the Afghans - Bhavana Books & Prints, 2000 - 272 pages - Ikbal Ali Shah (Sirdar.) - Page 95. ^ Ferishta, History Of The Mohammedan Power In India, The Packard Humanities Institute Persian Texts in Translation, Book 1 Chapter 2 page 11, Part II page 54 and Part II page 130, (90) ^ Dastar Nama, Khushal Khan Khattak, Pashto Academy, University of Peshawar, Pakistan. ^ Journal of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Historical Society, Volume 54, Issues 3-4, Page 30. ^ Perspective, Volume 4, Pakistan
Pakistan
Publications., 1971.Journal of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Historical Society, Volume 54, Issues 3-4, Pakistan Historical Society, 2006 - Page 86. ^ The Armies of India, A. C. Lovett, Major, The Lancer International Inc., 19558 S. Harlem Avenue, Suit 1, Frankfort IL. 60423., 224 pages, Page 152. ^ Sengupta S, Zhivotovsky LA, King R, et al. (2006). "Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of central asian pastoralists". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 78 (2): 202–21. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230 . PMID 16400607.  ^ Firasat S, Khaliq S, Mohyuddin A, et al. (2007). "Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 15 (1): 121–6. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201726. PMC 2588664 . PMID 17047675. 

David M., Hart. Guardians of the Khaibar Pass, the social organisation and history of the Afridis of Pakistan. p. 7. 

v t e

Pashtun tribes

Bettani

Ghilji

Akakhel Alikhel Andar Gulwal Hotak Ibrahimkhel Ibrahimzai Kharoti

Nasher

Nasar Sulaimankhel

Ahmadzai Jabbarkhel

Tarakai Tokhi Painda Khel

Lodi

Dawlatzai Kundi Lodi Lohani

Marwat

Niazi

Kharotakhel

Sarwani Shirani

Harifal Miani

Sur

Gharghashti

Babai Dawi Gandapur

Hafizkhel Ibrahimzai Nattuzai Yaqubzai

Jadun Kakar

Bazai Jalalzai Khudiadadzai Mirdadzai

Ludin Mandokhel Mashwanis Musakhel Nasozai Panni

Barozai

Safi

Karlani

Afridi

Adamkhel Kalakhel

Bangash

Baizais

Banuchi Dawar Dilazak Khattak Khogyani

Kharboni

Sherzad

Wazir

Mahsud

Bahlolzai Shamankhel

Mangal Muqbil Orakzai

Mamozai Zaimukhts

Ormur Tirahi Turi Wardak Wazir

Ahmadzai Darweshkhel Utmanzai

Zadran Zazi

Sarbani

Durrani

Achakzai Alakozai Alizai

Hanbhi

Badozai Barakzai

Nawabi

Barech Ishakzai Kiral Loni Mohammadzai Nurzai Panjpai Popalzai

Habibzai Sadozai Wazirzada

Zirak

Shinwari

Mullagori

Yusufzai

Abakhel Adokhel Akazai Babuzai Balarkhel Chagharzai Degankhel Hassanikhel Hassanzai Khanan Khail Kamalzai Khwaja Khel (Khwajgan) Madakhel Mir khail Mahabatkhel Mulakhel,Malakhail Mandanr

Khadarzai

Niamatkhel Ranizai Tahirkheli Utmankhel Kamal Khel

Other Sarbani

Babar Ghoryakhel

Chamkani Khalil Mulagori

Kasi Zhmaryani Kheshgi Mohmand

Halimzai

Muhammadzai

Sherpao

Storyani Tareen Tarkani

Kakazai Mamund Salarzai Wur

Allied tribes

Awanzai Ismailkhel Sakza

.