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Kharkiv
Kharkiv
(Ukrainian: Ха́рків [ˈxɑrkiu̯][6]), or Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.[7] In the northeast of the country, it is the largest city of the Slobozhanshchyna historical region. Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is the administrative centre of Kharkiv Oblast
Kharkiv Oblast
and of the surrounding Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Raion, though administratively it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Population: 1, 439,036 (2017 est.)[8] The city was founded in 1654 and after a humble beginning as a small fortress grew to be a major centre of Ukrainian industry, trade and culture in the Russian Empire. Kharkiv
Kharkiv
was the first capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, from December 1919 to January 1934, after which the capital relocated to Kiev.[9] Presently, Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is a major cultural, scientific, educational, transport and industrial centre of Ukraine, with 6 museums, 7 theatres and 80 libraries. Its industry specializes primarily in machinery and in electronics. There are hundreds of industrial companies in the city, including the Morozov Design Bureau
Morozov Design Bureau
and the Malyshev Tank Factory
Malyshev Tank Factory
(leaders in world tank production from the 1930s to the 1980s); Khartron
Khartron
(aerospace and nuclear power plants automation electronics); the Turboatom
Turboatom
(turbines for the hydro-, thermal- and nuclear-power plants), and Antonov
Antonov
(the multipurpose aircraft manufacturing plant).

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Establishment 2.2 Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Fortress 2.3 In the Russian Empire 2.4 Soviet period 2.5 German occupation 2.6 Post-World War II 2.7 In independent Ukraine

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Cityscape

4 Governance

4.1 Legal status and local government 4.2 Politics 4.3 Administrative divisions

5 Demographics

5.1 Ethnicity

5.1.1 Notes

6 Religion 7 Economy

7.1 International Economic Forum 7.2 International Industrial Exhibitions 7.3 Industrial corporations 7.4 IT industry 7.5 Finance industry 7.6 Trade industry

8 Science and education

8.1 Higher education 8.2 Scientific research 8.3 Public libraries 8.4 Secondary schools 8.5 Education centers

9 Culture

9.1 Theaters 9.2 Literature 9.3 Music 9.4 Movies 9.5 Movies festival 9.6 Visual arts 9.7 Museums 9.8 Galleries 9.9 Landmarks

10 Media

10.1 Newspapers 10.2 Magazines 10.3 TV stations 10.4 Radio stations 10.5 Online news in English

11 Sport

11.1 Kharkiv
Kharkiv
International Marathon 11.2 Football (soccer) 11.3 Other sports

12 Sister cities 13 Nobel and Fields prize winners 14 Notable people 15 Transport

15.1 Local transport 15.2 Railways 15.3 Air

16 Recreation 17 Footnotes 18 References 19 Bibliography 20 External links

Name[edit]

The mythical Kharko or Chariton. 1890.

Some sources indicate that the city may have been named after the Hunnic name for 'swan': kharka.[10][better source needed] Other sources offer that the city was named after its near-legendary founder, Kharko (a diminutive form of the name Chariton, Ukrainian: Харитон,[2] or Zechariah, Ukrainian: Захарій).[11] Among other names there are Charkow, Charkov, Zakharpolis.[12] History[edit] See also: Timeline of Kharkiv

19th-century view of Kharkiv, with the Assumption Cathedral belltower dominating the skyline.

Sumska Street
Sumska Street
is the main thoroughfare of Kharkiv

Cultural artifacts date back to the Bronze Age, as well as those of later Scythian and Sarmatian settlers. There is also evidence that the Chernyakhov culture
Chernyakhov culture
flourished in the area from the second to the sixth centuries.[citation needed] Establishment[edit] The city was founded by re-settlers who were running away from the war that engulfed Right-bank Ukraine
Ukraine
in 1654 (see Khmelnytsky Uprising).[2] The years before the region was a sparsely populated part of the Cossack Hetmanate.[13] The group of people came onto the banks of Lopan and Kharkiv
Kharkiv
rivers where an abandoned settlement stood.[14] According to archive documents, the leader of the re-settlers was otaman Ivan Kryvoshlyk.[2] At first the settlement was self-governed under the jurisdiction of a voivode from Chuhuiv
Chuhuiv
that is 40 kilometres (25 mi) to the east.[14] The first appointed voivode from Moscow
Moscow
was Voyin Selifontov in 1656 who started to build a local ostrog (fort).[14] At that time the population of Kharkiv
Kharkiv
was just over 1000, half of whom were local cossacks, while Selifontov brought along a Moscow
Moscow
garrison of another 70 servicemen.[14] The first Kharkiv
Kharkiv
voivode was replaced in two years after constantly complaining that locals refused to cooperate in building the fort.[14] Kharkiv
Kharkiv
also became the centre of the local Sloboda cossack regiment as the area surrounding the Belgorod
Belgorod
fortress was being heavily militarized. With the resettlement of the area by Ukrainians
Ukrainians
it came to be known as Sloboda Ukraine, most of which was included under the jurisdiction of the Razryad Prikaz
Prikaz
(Military Appointment) headed by a district official from Belgorod. By 1657 the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
settlement had a fortress[14] with underground passageways. In 1658 Ivan Ofrosimov was appointed as the new voivode, who worked on forcing locals to kiss the cross to show loyalty to the Moscow tsar.[14] The locals led by their otaman Ivan Kryvoshlyk refused.[14] However, with the election of the new otaman Tymish Lavrynov the community (hromada) sent a request to the tsar to establish a local Assumption market, signed by deans of Kharkiv
Kharkiv
churches (the Assumption Cathedral and parish churches of Annunciation and Trinity).[14] Relationships with the neighboring Chuhuiv
Chuhuiv
sometimes were non-friendly and often their arguments were pacified by force.[14] With the appointment of the third voivode Vasiliy Sukhotin was completely finished the construction of the city fort.[14] Meanwhile, Kharkiv
Kharkiv
had become the centre of Sloboda Ukraine.[15] Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Fortress[edit]

View of Holy Assumption Orthodox Cathedral in Kharkiv

Intercession Cathedral with bell tower and Ozeryanskaya church (right) built in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
in 1689

View of modern pedestrian bridge over Kharkiv River
Kharkiv River
in Kharkiv

The Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Fortress was erected around the Assumption Cathedral and its castle was at University Hill.[14] It was between today's streets: vulytsia Kvitky-Osnovianenko, Constitution Square, Rose Luxemburg Square, Proletarian Square, and Cathedral Descent.[14] The fortress had 10 towers: Chuhuivska Tower, Moskovska Tower, Vestovska Tower, Tainytska Tower, Lopanska Corner Tower, Kharkivska Corner Tower and others.[14] The tallest was Vestovska, some 16 metres (52 ft) tall,[14] while the shortest one was Tainytska which had a secret well 35 metres (115 ft) deep.[14] The fortress had the Lopanski Gates.[14] In 1689 the fortress was expanded and included the Saint-Pokrov Cathedral and Monastery which was baptized[14] and became the center of local eparchy. Coincidentally in the same year in the vicinity of Kharkiv
Kharkiv
in Kolomak, Ivan Mazepa
Ivan Mazepa
was announced the Hetman of Ukraine.[14] Next to the Saint-Pokrov Cathedral was located the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Collegiate that was transferred from Belgorod
Belgorod
to Kharkiv
Kharkiv
in 1726.[14] In the Russian Empire[edit] In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Kiev
Kiev
Governorate. Kharkiv is specifically mentioned as one of the towns making a part of the governorate.[16] In 1727, Belgorod
Belgorod
Governorate was split off, and Kharkiv
Kharkiv
moved to Belgoro Governorate. It was the center of a separate administrative unit, Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Sloboda Cossack regiment. The regiment at some point was detached from Belgorod
Belgorod
Governorate, then attached to it again, until in 1765, Sloboda Ukraine
Ukraine
Governorate was established with the seat in Kharkiv.[17] Kharkiv University
Kharkiv University
was established in 1805 in the Palace of Governorate-General.[14] Alexander Mikolajewicz Mickiewicz, brother of Adam Mickiewicz
Adam Mickiewicz
was a professor of law in the university, another celebrity Goethe
Goethe
searched for instructors for the school.[14] In 1906 Ivan Franko
Ivan Franko
received a doctorate in Russian linguistics here.[14][18] The streets were first cobbled in the city centre in 1830.[19] In 1844 the 90 metres (300 ft) tall Alexander Bell Tower was built next to the first Assumption Cathedral, which on November 16, 1924 was transformed into a radio tower.[14] A system of running water was established in 1870. The Cathedral Descent at one time carried the name of another local trader Vasyl Ivanovych Pashchenko-Tryapkin as Pashchenko Descent.[14] Pashchenko even leased a space to the city council (duma) and was the owner of the city "Old Passage", the city's biggest trade center.[14] After his death in 1894 Pashchenko donated all his possessions to the city.[14] Kharkiv
Kharkiv
became a major industrial centre and with it a centre of Ukrainian culture. In 1812, the first Ukrainian newspaper was published there.[citation needed] One of the first Prosvitas in Eastern Ukraine
Ukraine
was also established in Kharkiv. A powerful nationally aware political movement was also established there and the concept of an Independent Ukraine
Ukraine
was first declared there by the lawyer Mykola Mikhnovsky in 1900. Soon after the Crimean War, in 1860–61 number of hromada societies sprung up across the Ukrainian cities including Kharkiv.[20] Among the most prominent hromada members in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
was Oleksandr Potebnia, a native of Sloboda Ukraine.[20] Beside the old hromada, in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
also existed several student hromadas members of which were future political leaders of Ukraine
Ukraine
such as Borys Martos, Dmytro Antonovych and many others.[20] One of the University of Kharkiv
University of Kharkiv
graduates Oleksandr Kovalenko was one of initiators of the mutiny on Russian battleship Potemkin being the only officer who supported the in-rank sailors. Soviet period[edit]

View of renovated Derzhprom
Derzhprom
building

Memorial to the thousands of Ukrainian intellectuals murdered by the NKVD
NKVD
in 1937–38

When the Tsentralna Rada
Tsentralna Rada
announced the establishment of the Ukrainian People's Republic in November 1917 it envisioned the Sloboda Ukraine Governorate to be part of it.[2] In December 1917 Kharkiv
Kharkiv
became the first city in Ukraine
Ukraine
occupied by the Soviet troops of Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko.[21] The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
in the Tsentralna Rada
Tsentralna Rada
moved to Kharkiv
Kharkiv
shortly after to make it their stronghold and formed their own Rada on 13 December 1917.[21][22] By February 1918 Bolshevik
Bolshevik
forces had captured much of Ukraine.[23] In February 1918 Kharkiv
Kharkiv
became the capital of the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic; but this entity was disbanded six weeks later.[24] In April 1918 the German army occupied Kharkiv.[25] And according to the February 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk between the Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian People's Republic
and the Central Powers it became part of the Ukrainian People's Republic.[26] Early January 1919 Bolshevik
Bolshevik
forces captured Kharkiv.[15] Mid-June 1919 Anton Denikin's White movement
White movement
Volunteer Army
Volunteer Army
captured the city.[27] In December 1919 the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Red Army
Red Army
recaptured Kharkiv.[28] Prior to the formation of the Soviet Union, Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
established Kharkiv
Kharkiv
as the capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (from 1919 to 1934) in opposition to the Ukrainian People's Republic with its capital of Kyiv.[29]

Monument to the persecuted kobzars in Kharkiv

According to linguist George Shevelov, in the early 1920s the share of secondary schools teaching in the Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
was lower than the share of the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Oblasts ethnic Ukrainian population,[30] even though the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
had ordered that all schools in the Ukrainian SSR should be Ukrainian speaking (as part of its Ukrainization policy).[31] As the country's capital, it underwent intense expansion with the construction of buildings to house the newly established Ukrainian Soviet government and administration. Derzhprom
Derzhprom
was the second tallest building in Europe and the tallest in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
at the time with a height of 63 metres (207 ft).[32] In the 1920s, a 150 metres (490 ft) wooden radio tower was built on top of the building. The Roentgen Institute was established in 1931.[33] During the interwar period the city saw the spread of architectural constructivism.[14] One of the best representatives of it was the already mentioned Derzhprom, the Building of the Red Army, the Ukrainian Polytechnic Institute of Distance Learning (UZPI), the City Council building, with its massive asymmetric tower, the central department store that was opened on the 15th Anniversary of the October Revolution.[14] The same year on November 7, 1932 the building of Noblemen Assembly was transformed into the building of All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee.[14][34][35] In 1928, the SVU (Union for the Freedom of Ukraine) process was initiated and court sessions were staged in the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Opera (now the Philharmonia) building. Hundreds of Ukrainian intellectuals were arrested and deported.[citation needed] In the early 1930s, the Holodomor
Holodomor
famine drove many people off the land into the cities, and to Kharkiv
Kharkiv
in particular, in search of food. Many people died and were secretly buried in mass graves in the cemeteries surrounding the city.[citation needed]

Memorial to the thousands of Polish officers executed by the NKVD
NKVD
in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
as part of the Katyn massacre

In 1934 hundreds of Ukrainian writers, intellectuals and cultural workers were arrested and executed in the attempt to eradicate all vestiges of Ukrainian nationalism in Art. The purges continued into 1938. Blind Ukrainian street musicians were also gathered in Kharkiv and murdered by the NKVD.[36] In January 1934 the capital of the Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
was moved from Kharkiv
Kharkiv
to Kyiv.[9] During April and May 1940 about 3,900 Polish prisoners of Starobelsk
Starobelsk
camp were executed in the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
NKVD
NKVD
building, later secretly buried on the grounds of an NKVD
NKVD
pansionat in Pyatykhatky forest (part of the Katyn massacre) on the outskirts of Kharkiv.[37] The site also contains the numerous bodies of Ukrainian cultural workers who were arrested and shot in the 1937–38 Stalinist purges. German occupation[edit]

Memorial to 23 August 1943, the end of German occupation during World War II

During World War II, Kharkiv
Kharkiv
was the site of several military engagements (see below). The city was captured and recaptured by Nazi Germany
Germany
on 24 October 1941;[38][39] there was a disastrous Red Army offensive that failed to capture the city in May 1942;[40][41] the city was successfully retaken by the Soviets on 16 February 1943, captured for a second time by the Germans on 15 March 1943 and then finally liberated on 23 August 1943. Seventy percent of the city was destroyed and tens of thousands of the inhabitants were killed.[citation needed] Kharkiv, the third largest city in the Soviet Union, was the most populous city in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
captured by the Germans, since in the years preceding World War II, Kiev
Kiev
was by population the smaller of the two. The significant Jewish population of Kharkiv
Kharkiv
(Kharkiv's Jewish community prided itself with the second largest synagogue in Europe) suffered greatly during the war. Between December 1941 and January 1942, an estimated 30,000 people[citation needed] (slightly more than half Jewish) were killed and buried in a mass grave by the Germans in a ravine outside of town named Drobytsky Yar. During World War II, four battles took place for control of the city:

First Battle of Kharkov Second Battle of Kharkov Third Battle of Kharkov Fourth Battle of Kharkov
Fourth Battle of Kharkov
(see also Operation Polkovodets Rumyantsev)

Before the occupation, Kharkiv's tank industries were evacuated to the Urals
Urals
with all their equipment, and became the heart of Red Army's tank programs (particularly, producing the T-34
T-34
tank earlier designed in Kharkiv). These enterprises returned to Kharkiv
Kharkiv
after the war, and continue to produce tanks. Of the population of 700,000 that Kharkiv
Kharkiv
had before the start of World War II, 120,000 became Ost-Arbeiter
Ost-Arbeiter
(slave worker) in Germany, 30,000 were executed and 80,000 starved to death during the war.[15] Post-World War II[edit] In the post- World War II
World War II
period many of the destroyed homes and factories were rebuilt. From the constructivism the city was planned to be rebuilt in the style of Stalinist Classicism.[14] An airport was built in 1954. Following the war Kharkiv
Kharkiv
was the third largest scientific-industrial centre in the former USSR
USSR
(after Moscow and Leningrad). In independent Ukraine[edit]

Mirror Stream fountain

By its territorial expansion on September 6, 2012 the city increased its area from about 310 to 350 square kilometres (120 to 140 sq mi).[42] A well-known landmark of Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is the Freedom Square (Ploshcha Svobody formerly known as Dzerzhinsky Square), which is the sixth largest city square in Europe, and the 12th largest square in the world. There is an underground rapid-transit system (metro) with about 38.1 km (24 mi) of track and 29 stations. The new "Victory" underground station (no. 30) was opened in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
on 19 August 2016. All the underground stations have very special distinctive architectures. Kharkiv
Kharkiv
was a host city for the UEFA Euro 2012, and hosted three group soccer matches at the reconstructed Metalist Stadium. A large number of the Orthodox cathedrals were built in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
in the 1990s and 2000s.[citation needed]For example, the Peace Bringing Wives Orthodox cathedral, the St. Vladimir Orthodox cathedral, St. Tamara Orthodox cathedral, etc. In 2007, the Vietnamese minority in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
built the largest Buddhist temple in Europe on a 1 hectare plot with a monument to Ho Chi Minh.[43] The Gor'ky park was fully renovated in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
in the 2000s, having a big number of modern attractions, a lake with lilies and the sport facilities to play tennis, football, beach volleyball, and basketball. The Feldman park was created in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
in recent years, containing a big collection of animals, horses, etc. Geography[edit]

Kharkiv
Kharkiv
and vicinities, LandSat-5 satellite image, near natural colors, 2011-06-18

Lopan- Kharkiv
Kharkiv
river spur

Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is located at the banks of the Kharkiv, Lopan, and Udy rivers, where they flow into the Seversky Donets
Seversky Donets
watershed in the North-Eastern region of Ukraine. Historically, Kharkiv
Kharkiv
lies in the Sloboda Ukraine
Ukraine
region (Slobozhanshchyna also known as Slobidshchyna) in Ukraine, in which it is considered as a main city. The approximate dimensions of City of Kharkiv
Kharkiv
are: from the North to the South - 24.3 km; from the West to the East — 25.2 km. Based on Kharkiv's topography, the city can be conditionally divided on the four lower districts and the four higher districts. The highest point over the sea level in Pyatikhatky in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is 202m, the lowest point over the sea level in Novoselivka in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is 94m.[citation needed] Kharkiv
Kharkiv
lies in the large valley of rivers of Kharkiv, Lopan', Udy, and Nemyshlya. This valley lies from the North West to the South East between the Mid Russian highland and Donetsk
Donetsk
lowland. All the rivers interconnect in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
and flow into the river of Northern Donets. A special system of the concrete and metal dams was designed and built by engineers to regulate the water level in the rivers in Kharkiv.[citation needed] Kharkiv
Kharkiv
has a large number of the green city parks with the long history of more than 100 years with very old oak trees and many flowers.[citation needed] Climate[edit] Kharkiv's climate is humid continental (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with cold and snowy winters as well as the dry and hot summers. Kharkiv
Kharkiv
has rather sunny warm summers which, however, are relatively mild compared to temperatures in South European regions, due to the region's lower elevation, proximity to the Black Sea, and the city's latitude. Kharkiv
Kharkiv
has relatively long and cold winters. The average rainfall totals 513 mm (20 in) per year, with the most in June and July.

Climate data for Kharkiv, Ukraine
Ukraine
(1981−2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 11.0 (51.8) 14.6 (58.3) 21.8 (71.2) 30.5 (86.9) 34.5 (94.1) 36.8 (98.2) 37.6 (99.7) 39.8 (103.6) 33.7 (92.7) 29.3 (84.7) 20.3 (68.5) 13.4 (56.1) 39.8 (103.6)

Average high °C (°F) −2.2 (28) −1.6 (29.1) 4.3 (39.7) 14.0 (57.2) 20.8 (69.4) 24.3 (75.7) 26.4 (79.5) 25.7 (78.3) 19.4 (66.9) 12.0 (53.6) 3.6 (38.5) −1.1 (30) 12.1 (53.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) −4.6 (23.7) −4.5 (23.9) 0.7 (33.3) 9.2 (48.6) 15.6 (60.1) 19.3 (66.7) 21.3 (70.3) 20.3 (68.5) 14.4 (57.9) 7.9 (46.2) 0.9 (33.6) −3.5 (25.7) 8.1 (46.6)

Average low °C (°F) −7.0 (19.4) −7.3 (18.9) −2.4 (27.7) 4.6 (40.3) 10.3 (50.5) 14.2 (57.6) 16.2 (61.2) 14.9 (58.8) 9.8 (49.6) 4.3 (39.7) −1.5 (29.3) −5.9 (21.4) 4.2 (39.6)

Record low °C (°F) −35.6 (−32.1) −29.8 (−21.6) −32.2 (−26) −11.4 (11.5) −1.9 (28.6) 2.2 (36) 5.7 (42.3) 2.2 (36) −2.9 (26.8) −9.1 (15.6) −20.9 (−5.6) −30.8 (−23.4) −35.6 (−32.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 36 (1.42) 33 (1.3) 33 (1.3) 34 (1.34) 50 (1.97) 61 (2.4) 61 (2.4) 43 (1.69) 45 (1.77) 45 (1.77) 40 (1.57) 36 (1.42) 517 (20.35)

Average rainy days 10 8 10 13 14 15 13 10 12 13 13 12 143

Average snowy days 19 18 12 2 0.1 0 0 0 0.03 2 9 18 80

Average relative humidity (%) 86 83 77 66 61 65 65 63 70 78 86 87 74

Mean monthly sunshine hours 51 65 108 162 238 263 273 247 185 124 47 31 1,794

Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[44]

Source #2: NOAA (sun only 1961–1990)[45]

Cityscape[edit]

Panoramic view of central district in Kharkiv, showing the Northern building of V. N. Karazin National University, Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Palace hotel building, and Kharkiv
Kharkiv
hotel buildings.

Panoramic view of central district in Kharkiv, showing the Derzhprom building, multiple apartment buildings, and Northern building of V. N. Karazin National University

Governance[edit] Legal status and local government[edit] The Mayor of Kharkiv
Kharkiv
and the City Council govern all the business and administrative affairs in the City of Kharkiv. The Mayor of Kharkiv
Kharkiv
has the executive powers; the City Council has the administrative powers as far as the government issues is concerned. The Mayor of Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is elected by the direct public election in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
every four years. The City Council is composed of elected representatives, who approve or reject the initiatives on the budget allocation, tasks priorities and other issues in Kharkiv. The representatives to the City Council are elected every four years. The mayor and city council hold their regular meetings in the City Hall in Kharkiv. Politics[edit] Main article: 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine
Ukraine
§ Kharkiv Oblast The 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine
Ukraine
affected Kharkiv
Kharkiv
but to a lesser extent than in neighbouring Donbass, where tensions would lead to armed conflict.[46] On 2 March 2014, a Russian "tourist" from Moscow
Moscow
replaced the Ukrainian flag
Ukrainian flag
with a Russian flag
Russian flag
on the Kharkiv regional state administration building.[47] Five days later, pro-Russian protestors occupied the building and unilaterally declared independence from Ukraine
Ukraine
as the "Kharkov People's Republic".[48][49] The next day, the building was retaken by Ukrainian special forces.[50] Doubts arose about the local origin of the protestors after they initially stormed an opera and ballet theatre believing it was the city hall.[51] On 13 April, some pro-Russian protesters again made it inside the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
regional state administration building.[52] Later on 13 April the building returned permanently to full Ukrainian control.[48][49][50][52][53][54][55][56] Violent clashes resulted in the severe beating of at least 50 pro-Ukrainian protesters in attacks by pro-Russian protesters.[52][55] Kharkiv
Kharkiv
returned to relative calm by 30 April.[57] Relatively peaceful demonstrations continued to be held, with "pro-Russian" rallies gradually diminishing and "pro-Ukrainian unity" demonstrations growing in numbers.[58][59][60] On 28 September, activists dismantled Ukraine's largest monument to Lenin at a pro-Ukrainian rally in the central square.[61] Polls conducted from September to December 2014 found little support in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
for joining Russia.[62][63] From early November until mid-December, Kharkiv
Kharkiv
was struck by seven non-lethal bomb blasts. Targets of these attacks included a rock pub known for raising money for Ukrainian forces, a hospital for Ukrainian forces, a military recruiting centre, and a National Guard base.[64] According to SBU investigator Vasyliy Vovk, Russian covert forces were behind the attacks, and had intended to destabilize the otherwise calm city of Kharkiv.[65] On 8 January 2015 five men wearing balaclavas broke into an office of (the volunteer group aiding refugees from Donbass) Station Kharkiv.[66] Simultaneously with physical threats the men demanded to hear the political position of Station Kharkiv.[66] After being given an answer the men apologized and left.[66] On Sunday 22 February 2015, there was a terrorist bomb attack on a march to commemorate people who died in the Euromaidan
Euromaidan
protests in 2014. The bomb killed two, and wounded nine. The authorities have launched an anti-terrorist operation.[67] The terrorists claim that it was a false flag attack.[68] Kharkiv
Kharkiv
experienced more non-lethal small bombings since 22 February 2015 targeting army fuel tanks, an unoccupied passenger train and a Ukrainian flag
Ukrainian flag
in the city centre.[69] On 23 September 2015, 200 people in balaclavas and camouflage picketed the house of former governor Mykhailo Dobkin, and then went to Kharkiv town hall, where they tried to force their way through the police cordon. At least one tear gas grenade was used. The rioters asked the mayor, Hennadiy Kernes, to come out.[70][71] Administrative divisions[edit] While Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is the administrative centre of the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Oblast (province), the city affairs are managed by the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Municipality. Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is a city of oblast subordinance.

Administrative divisions of Kharkiv

The territory of Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is divided into 9 administrative raions (districts), till February 2016 they were named for people, places, events, and organizations associated with early years of the Soviet Union but many were renamed in February 2016 to comply with decommunization laws.[3] Also, owing to this law, over 200 streets have been renamed in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
since 20 November 2015.[72] The raions are named:[3]

Kholodnohirskyi (Ukrainian: Холодногірський район, Cold Mountain; namesake: the historic name of the neighbourhood[73]) (formerly Leninskyi; namesake: Vladimir Lenin) Shevchenkivskyi (Ukrainian: Шевченківський район); namesake: Taras Shevchenko
Taras Shevchenko
(formerly Dzerzhynskyi; namesake Felix Dzerzhinsky) Kyivskyi (Ukrainian: Київський район); namesake: Kyiv Moskovskyi (Ukrainian: Московський район); namesake: Moscow Nemyshlianskyi (Ukrainian: Немишлянський район); Industrialnyi (Ukrainian: Індустріальний район) (formerly Ordzhonikidzevskyi; namesake: Sergo Ordzhonikidze) Slobidskyi (Ukrainian: Слобідський район); Osnovianskyi (Ukrainian: Основ'янський район); Novobavarskyi (Ukrainian: Новобаварський район)

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop.

1660[74] 1,000

1788[75] 10,742

1850[76] 41,861

1861[76] 50,301

1901[76] 198,273

1916[77] 352,300

1917[78] 382,000

1920[77] 285,000

1926[77] 417,000

1939[79] 833,000

1941[77] 902,312

1941[80] 1,400,000

1941[77][81] 456,639

1943[82] 170,000

1959[76] 930,000

1962[76] 1,000,000

1976[76] 1,384,000

1982[75] 1,500,000

1989 1,593,970

1999 1,510,200

2001[83] 1,470,900

2014[84] 1,430,885

According to the 1989 Soviet Union
Soviet Union
Census, the population of the city was 1,593,970. In 1991, it decreased to 1,510,200, including 1,494,200 permanent residents.[85] Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is the second-largest city in Ukraine after the capital, Kiev.[86] The first independent all-Ukrainian population census was conducted in December 2001, and the next all-Ukrainian population census is decreed to be conducted in 2020. As of 2001, the population of the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
region is as follows: 78.5% living in urban areas, and 21.5% living in rural areas.[87] Ethnicity[edit]

Ethnic group 1897[88] 1926 1939 1959[89] 1989[85] 2001[90][91]

Ukrainians 25.9% 38.6% 48.5% 48.4% 50.4% 52.8%

Russians 63.2% 37.2% 32.9% 40.4% 43.6% 43.2%

Jews 5.7% 19.5% 15.6% 8.7% 3.0% 0.7%

Notes[edit]

1660 year – approximated estimation 1788 year – without the account of children 1920 year – times of the Russian Civil War 1941 year – estimation on May 1, right before German-Soviet War 1941 year – next estimation in September varies between 1,400,000 and 1,450,000 1941 year – another estimation in December during the occupation without the account of children 1943 year – August 23, liberation of the city; estimation varied 170,000 and 220,000 1976 year – estimation on June 1 1982 year – estimation in March

Religion[edit]

The St. Annunciation Orthodox Cathedral is one of the tallest Orthodox churches in the world, which was built in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
on October 2, 1888.

Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is an important religious center in Eastern Ukraine. There are many old and new cathedrals, associated with various churches in Kharkiv. The St. Assumption Orthodox Cathedral was built in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
in the 1680s and re-built in 1820s-1830s.[92] The St. Pokrovsky Orthodox Monastery Cathedral was created in Kharkiv in 1689–1729.[93][94] The St. Annunciation Orthodox Cathedral is one of the tallest Orthodox churches in the world. It was completed in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
on October 2, 1888.[95] The St. Trinity Orthodox Cathedral was built in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
in 1758–1764 and re-built in 1857–1861.[96] The St. Valentine Orthodox Cathedral was built in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
in the 2010s.[97] The St. Tamara Orthodox Cathedral was built in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
in 2012.[98] The St. Peace Bringing Wives Orthodox Cathedral was built in green park near Mirror Stream fountain in August, 2015.[99] The Roman Catholic St. Mary Cathedral was built in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
in 1887–1892. There is the old Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Choral Synagogue, which was fully renovated in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
in 1991–2016. The Jewish population is around 8000 people in Kharkiv.[100] Economy[edit] The 2016–2020 economic development strategy: " Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Success Strategy", is created in Kharkiv.[101][102][103] International Economic Forum[edit] The International Economic Forum: Innovations. Investments. Kharkiv Innitiatives! is being conducted in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
every year.[104] In 2015, the International Economic Forum: Innovations. Investments. Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Innitiatives! was attended by the diplomatic corps representatives from 17 world countries, working in Ukraine
Ukraine
together with top-management of trans-national corporations and investment funds; plus Ukrainian People’s Deputies; plus Ukrainian Central government officials, who determine the national economic development strategy; plus local government managers, who perform practical steps in implementing that strategy; plus managers of technical assistance to Ukraine; plus business and NGO’s representatives; plus media people.[104][105][106][107][108] The key topics of the plenary sessions and panel discussions of the International Economic Forum: Innovations. Investments. Kharkiv Innitiatives! are the implementation of Strategy for Sustainable Development “ Ukraine
Ukraine
– 2020”, the results achieved and plan of further actions to reform the local government and territorial organization of power in Ukraine, export promotion and attraction of investments in Ukraine, new opportunities for public-private partnerships, practical steps to create “electronic government”, issues of energy conservation and development of oil and gas industry in the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Region, creating an effective system of production and processing of agricultural products, investment projects that will receive funding from the State Fund for Regional Development, development of international integration, preparation for privatization of state enterprises.[104][105][106][107][108] International Industrial Exhibitions[edit] The international industrial exhibitions are usually conducted at the Radmir Expohall exhibition center in Kharkiv.[109] Industrial corporations[edit] During the Soviet era, Kharkiv
Kharkiv
was the capital of industrial production in Ukraine
Ukraine
and the third largest[citation needed]centre of industry and commerce in the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union the largely defence-systems-oriented industrial production of the city decreased significantly. In the early 2000s, the industry started to recover and adapt to market economy needs. Now there are more than 380 industrial enterprises concentrated in the city, which have a total number of 150,000 employees.[citation needed] The enterprises form machine-building, electro-technology, instrument-making, and energy conglomerates. State-owned industrial giants, such as Turboatom
Turboatom
and Elektrotyazhmash[110] occupy 17% of the heavy power equipment construction (e.g., turbines) market worldwide. Multipurpose aircraft are produced by the Antonov
Antonov
aircraft manufacturing plant. The Malyshev factory produces not only armoured fighting vehicles, but also harvesters. Khartron[111] is the leading designer of space and commercial control systems in Ukraine
Ukraine
and the former CIS. IT industry[edit] The IT industry is represented by a few hundred small IT start ups, which form a cluster of IT companies in Kharkiv[112][113][114][115] Finance industry[edit] Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is also the headquarters of one of the largest Ukrainian banks, UkrSibbank, which has been part of the BNP Paribas
BNP Paribas
group since December 2005. Trade industry[edit] There are many large modern shopping malls in Kharkiv. There are a large number of markets:

Barabashovo market is the largest market in Ukraine
Ukraine
and one of the largest markets in Europe. Blagoveshinskiy market. Konniy "horse" market. Sumskoi market [116] Raiskiy book market.

Science and education[edit]

Main building of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv
Kharkiv
National University.

Northern building of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv
Kharkiv
National University.

Il'ya I. Mechnikov, Lev D. Landau, Simon A. Kuznets Nobel Laureates Monuments at V. N. Karazin Kharkiv
Kharkiv
National University.

Higher education[edit] The Vasyl N. Karazin Kharkiv National University
Kharkiv National University
is the most prestigious reputable classic university, which was founded due to the efforts by Vasily Karazin
Vasily Karazin
in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
in 1804–1805.[117][118] On 29 January [O.S. 17 January] 1805, the Decree on the Opening of the Imperial University in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
came into force. The Roentgen Institute opened in 1931. It was a specialist cancer treatment facility with 87 research workers, 20 professors, and specialist medical staff. The facilities included chemical, physiology, and bacteriology experimental treatment laboratories. It produced x-ray apparatus for the whole country.[33] The city has 13 national universities and numerous professional, technical and private higher education institutions, offering its students a wide range of disciplines. Kharkiv
Kharkiv
National University (12,000 students), National Technical University "KhPI" (20,000 students), Kharkiv National University
Kharkiv National University
of Radioelectronics (12,000 students), Kharkiv
Kharkiv
National Aerospace University "KhAI", Kharkiv National University
Kharkiv National University
of Pharmacy, Kharkiv National Medical University are the leading[citation needed] universities in Ukraine. More than 17,000 faculty and research staff are employed in the institutions of higher education in Kharkiv. Scientific research[edit] The city has a high concentration of research institutions, which are independent or loosely connected with the universities. Among them are three national science centres: Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Institute of Physics and Technology, Institute of Meteorology, Institute for Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine and 20 national research institutions of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine, such as the B Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine, State Scientific Institution "Institute for Single Crystals", Usikov Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics
Electronics
(IRE), Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA), and others. A total number of 26,000 scientists are working in research and development. A number of world-renowned scientific schools appeared in Kharkiv, such as the theoretical physics school and the mathematical school. There is the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Scientists House in the city, which was built by A. N. Beketov, architect in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
in 1900. All the scientists like to meet and discuss various scientific topics at the Kharkiv Scientists House in Kharkiv.[119] Public libraries[edit] In addition to the libraries affiliated with the various universities and research institutions, the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
State Scientific V. Korolenko-library is a major research library. Secondary schools[edit] Kharkiv
Kharkiv
has 212 (secondary education) schools, including 10 lyceums and 20 gymnasiums.[citation needed] Education centers[edit] There is the educational "Landau Center", which is named after Prof. L.D. Landau, Nobel laureate in Kharkiv.[120] Culture[edit] Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is one of the main cultural centres in Ukraine. It is home to 20 museums, over 10 theaters and a number of art galleries. Large music and cinema festivals are hosted in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
almost every year. Theaters[edit] The Kharkiv
Kharkiv
National Academic Opera and Ballet Theater named after N. V. Lysenko is a biggest theater in Kharkiv.[121][122] The Kharkiv
Kharkiv
State Academic Drama Theater named after T. G. Shevchenko is popular among Ukrainian speaking people [123] The Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Academic Russian Drama Theater named after A.S. Pushkin was recently renovated, and it is quite popular among the locals.[124] The Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Theater of the Young Spectator (now the Theater for Children and Youth) is one of the oldest theaters for children.[125] The Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Puppet Theater (The Kharkiv
Kharkiv
State Academic Puppet Theater named after VA Afanasyev) is the first puppet theater in the territory of Kharkov. It was created in 1935. The Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Academic Theater of Musical Comedy is a theater founded on 1 November 1929 in Kharkiv. Literature[edit] In the 1930s Kharkiv
Kharkiv
was referred to as a Literary Klondike.[citation needed] It was the centre for the work of literary luminaries such as: Les Kurbas, Mykola Kulish, Mykola Khvylovy, Mykola Zerov, Valerian Pidmohylny, Pavlo Filipovych, Marko Voronny, Oleksa Slisarenko. Over 100 of these writers were repressed during the Stalinist purges of the 1930s. This tragic event in Ukrainian history is called the "Executed Renaissance" (Rozstrilene vidrodzhennia). Today a literary museum located on Frunze Street marks their work and achievements. Today, Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is often referred to as the "capital city" of Ukrainian Science fiction
Science fiction
and Fantasy.[126][127] It is the home to a number of popular writers, such as H. L. Oldie, Alexander Zorich, Andrey Dashkov, Yuri Nikitin and Andrey Valentinov; most of them write in Russian and are popular in both Russia
Russia
and Ukraine. The annual science fiction convention "Star Bridge" (Звёздный мост) has been held in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
since 1999.[128] Music[edit] There is the Kharkiv Philharmonic Society
Kharkiv Philharmonic Society
in the city. There is the Organ Music Hall in the city.[129] The Organ Music Hall is situated at the Assumption Cathedral presently. The Rieger–Kloss organ was installed in the building of the Organ Music Hall back in 1986. The new Organ Music Hall will be opened at the extensively renovated building of Kharkiv Philharmonic Society
Kharkiv Philharmonic Society
in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
in November, 2016. The Kharkiv Conservatory
Kharkiv Conservatory
is in the city. The Kharkiv National University
Kharkiv National University
of Arts named after I.P. Kotlyarevsky is situated in the city.[130] Kharkiv
Kharkiv
sponsors the prestigious Hnat Khotkevych
Hnat Khotkevych
International Music Competition of Performers of Ukrainian Folk Instruments, which takes place every three years. Since 1997 four tri-annual competitions have taken place. The 2010 competition was cancelled by the Ukrainian Ministry of Culture two days before its opening.[131] The music festival: " Kharkiv
Kharkiv
- City of Kind Hopes" is conducted in Kharkiv.[132] Movies[edit] At the territory of the city and the region from 1907 to 2008, at least 86 feature films were shot, the most famous are: Fragment of an Empire (1929). Arriving in Leningrad, the main character, in addition to the usual pre-revolutionary buildings, sees the Gosprom - a symbol of a new era. Movies festival[edit] The " Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Lilacs" international movie festival is very popular among the movie stars, makers, producers in Ukraine, Eastern Europe, Western Europe and North America.[133][134] The festival is usually conducted in May every year.[133][133][134] There is a special alley with the metal hand prints by the popular movies actors at Shevchenko park in Kharkiv. [134][135] Visual arts[edit] Kharkiv
Kharkiv
was/is a home for many famous painters Ilya Repin, Zinaida Serebryakova, Henryk Siemiradzki, Vasyl Yermilov,[citation needed] etc. There are many modern arts galleries in the city. For example: the Yermilov Centre, Lilacs Gallery, the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Art Museum, the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Municipal Gallery, the AC Gallery, Palladium Gallery, fthe Semiradsky Gallery, AVEK Gallery, and Arts of Slobozhanshyna Gallery. Museums[edit] There is the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
History Museum named after M. F. Sumtsov in the city.[136] The Natural History Museum at V. N. Karazin Kharkiv
Kharkiv
National University was founded in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
on April 2, 1807. The museum is visited by 40000 visitors every year.[137][138] The V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University
Kharkiv National University
History Museum was established in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
in 1972.[139][140][141] The V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University
Kharkiv National University
Archeology Museum was founded in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
on March 20, 1998. [142][143] The National Technical University " Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Polytechnical Institute" Museum was created in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
on December 29, 1972.[144][145][146][147][148] The National Aerospace
Aerospace
University " Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Aviation Institute" Museum was founded on May 29, 1992.[149] The "National University of Pharmacy" Museum was founded in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
on September 15, 2010.[150][151][152] There are around 147 museums in the Kharkiv's region.[153] The Kharkov Maritime Museum - a museum dedicated to the history of shipbuilding and navigation.[154] The Kharkov Puppet Museum is the oldest museum of dolls in Ukraine. Memorial museum-apartment of the family Grizodubov. Club-Museum of Claudia Shulzhenko.[155] The Museum of "First Aid". The Museum of Urban Transport. Galleries[edit] City Art Gallery. Gallery "AVEC" Cultural Center named after N. K. Roerich Landmarks[edit]

National holiday's fireworks on Freedom Square

Of the many attractions of the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
city are the: Dormition Cathedral, Annunciation Cathedral, Derzhprom
Derzhprom
building, Freedom Square, Taras Shevchenko
Taras Shevchenko
Monument, Mirror Stream, Historical Museum, Choral Synagogue, T. Shevchenko Gardens, Zoo, Children's narrow-gauge railroad, World War I Tank
Tank
Mk V, Memorial Complex, and many more. After the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea
2014 Russian annexation of Crimea
the monument to Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny in Sevastopol
Sevastopol
was removed and handed over to Kharkiv.[156] Media[edit] There are a large number of broadcast and internet TV channels, AM/FM/PM/internet radio-stations, and paper/internet newspapers in Kharkiv. Some are listed below. Newspapers[edit]

"Vremya" "Vecherniy Kharkiv" "Segodnya" "Vesti" "Khar'kovskie Izvestiya"

Magazines[edit]

Guberniya [157]

TV stations[edit]

"Pershyi" channel "Ukraine" channel "Inter" channel "Oblastne Telebachennya" channel

Radio stations[edit]

"Promin'" "Ukrains'ke Radio" "Radio Kharkiv" " Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Oblastne Radio" "Russkoe Radio Ukraina" "Shanson" <r "Retro FM"

Online news in English[edit]

The Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Times Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Observer

Sport[edit]

Bicycles racing competition in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
at Bicycle Day on July 9, 2016

Kharkiv
Kharkiv
EURO 2012 host city emblem

Kharkiv
Kharkiv
International Marathon[edit] The Kharkiv
Kharkiv
International Marathon is considered as a prime international sportive event, attracting many thousands of professional sportsmen, young people, students, professors, locals and tourists to travel to Kharkiv
Kharkiv
and to participate in the international event.[158][159][160][161] Football (soccer)[edit] The most popular sport is football. The city has several football clubs playing in the Ukrainian National competitions. The most successful is FC Dynamo Kharkiv that won eight national titles back in 1920s-1930s.

FC Metalist 1925 Kharkiv, which plays at the Metalist Stadium FC Helios, which plays at the Helios Arena FC Arsenal Kharkiv, which plays at the Arsenal-Spartak Stadium (participates in regional competitions) FC Shakhtar Donetsk
FC Shakhtar Donetsk
also play at the Metalist Stadium
Metalist Stadium
as of 2017, due to the War in Donbass.

There is also a female football club WFC Zhytlobud-1 Kharkiv, which represented Ukraine
Ukraine
in the European competitions and constantly is the main contender for the national title. Metalist Stadium
Metalist Stadium
hosted three group matches at UEFA Euro 2012. Other sports[edit] Kharkiv
Kharkiv
also has an Ice Hockey club, HC Vityaz Kharkiv
Kharkiv
who compete in the Ukrainian Vyscha Liga. Avangard Budy
Avangard Budy
is a bandy club from Kharkiv, which won the Ukrainian championship in 2013. There is a men's volleyball team Lokomotiv Kharkiv
Kharkiv
which performs in Ukraine
Ukraine
and in the European competitions. RC Olimp' is the city's rugby union club. They provide many players for the national team. Tennis is a very popular sport in Kharkiv. There are many professional tennis courts in the city. Elina Svitolina
Elina Svitolina
is a tennis player from Kharkiv. There is a golf club in Kharkiv.[162] Horseriding as a sport is very popular among the locals.[163][164][165][166] There are large stable and the horse riding facilities at Feldman Ecopark in Kharkiv.[167] There is a growing interest to the cycling among the locals.[168][169] There is a large bicycles producing plant in Kharkiv.[170] Presently, the modern bicycle highway is under the construction at "Leso park" district in Kharkiv. Sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Ukraine Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is twinned with:[171]

Belgorod, Russia
Russia
(2001)[172] Bologna, Italy
Italy
(1966)[172] Brno, Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(2005)[172][173] Cetinje, Montenegro
Montenegro
(2011)[174] Cincinnati, United States
United States
(1989)[172][175][176] Daugavpils, Latvia
Latvia
(2006)[172][177] Gaziantep, Turkey
Turkey
(2011)[178] Jinan, China
China
(2004)[172] Kaunas, Lithuania
Lithuania
(2001)[172][179] Kutaisi, Georgia (2005)[172][180] Lille, France
France
(1978)[172][181] Maribor, Slovenia
Slovenia
(2012)[182] Moscow, Russia
Russia
(2001)[172] Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Russia
(2001)[172] Nuremberg, Germany
Germany
(1990)[172][183] Poznań, Poland
Poland
(1998)[172][184][185][186] Rishon LeZion, Israel
Israel
(2008)[172] Saint Petersburg, Russia
Russia
(2003)[172][187] Tianjin, China
China
(1993)[172] Varna, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(1995)[172][188][189] Warsaw, Poland
Poland
(2011)[190] Sulaymaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan (2015)

Nobel and Fields prize winners[edit]

Lev Landau
Lev Landau
– (originally from Baku) a head of the department of theoretical physics at the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Institute of Physics and Technology, a head of the department of experimental physics and a lecturer at the department of theoretical physics at the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
State University, a head of the department of theoretical physics at the at Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute
Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute
1932–37, Nobel Prize for Physics 1962 Simon Kuznets
Simon Kuznets
(economics) Ilya Mechnikov (medicine) Vladimir Drinfeld (mathematics)

Notable people[edit] The following people have been born or have lived in Kharkiv:

Nikolai P. Barabashov
Nikolai P. Barabashov
— astronomer, co-author of the first pictures of the far side of the moon Pavel Batitsky
Pavel Batitsky
— executed Lavrentiy Beria
Lavrentiy Beria
after Khrushchevs' coup d'état in 1953, and commander-in-chief of the Soviet Air Defense Forces from 1966 to 1978 Vladimir Bobri
Vladimir Bobri
— illustrator, author, composer, educator and guitar historian Inna Bohoslovska
Inna Bohoslovska
— lawyer, politician and leader of the Ukrainian public organization Viche Sergei Bortkiewicz — Russian Romantic composer and pianist Maria Burmaka – Ukrainian singer, musician and songwriter Leonid Buryak
Leonid Buryak
- football coach and former Olympic bronze-medal-winning player Leonid Bykov
Leonid Bykov
– Soviet actor, film director, and script writer Adolphe Mouron Cassandre
Adolphe Mouron Cassandre
— Ukrainian-French painter, commercial poster artist, and typeface designer Valentina Chepiga – female bodybuilder and 2000 Ms. Olympia
Ms. Olympia
champion Juliya Chernetsky
Juliya Chernetsky
(Mistress Juliya) — television host, actress, model, and music promoter in the United States Olga Danilov — Israeli Olympic speed skater Alexander Davidovich — Israeli Olympic wrestler Andrey Denisov — Russian diplomat Vladimir Drinfeld — mathematician, awarded Fields Medal in 1990 Isaak Dunayevsky
Isaak Dunayevsky
— Soviet composer and conductor Konstanty Gorski
Konstanty Gorski
— Polish composer, violist, organist, and music teacher Valentina Grizodubova
Valentina Grizodubova
— One of the first female pilots in the Soviet Union Lyudmila Gurchenko
Lyudmila Gurchenko
(Hurchenko) – Soviet and Russian actress, singer and entertainer Mikhail Gurevich — (originally from Rubanshchina) Soviet aircraft designer, a partner (with Artem Mikoyan) of the MiG
MiG
military aviation bureau Mikhail Gurevich — Ukrainian chess player Diana Harkusha — Miss Ukraine
Ukraine
Universe 2014 and Miss Universe 2014's 2nd Runner-up Leonid Haydamaka
Leonid Haydamaka
— bandurist, conductor, founder of first orchestra of Ukrainian folk instruments Maksym Kalynychenko
Maksym Kalynychenko
– Ukrainian football player Vasily Karazin
Vasily Karazin
— founder of Kharkiv
Kharkiv
University, which now bears his name Hnat Khotkevych
Hnat Khotkevych
— Ukrainian writer, ethnographer, composer, bandurist Mikhail Koshkin
Mikhail Koshkin
— (originally from Brynchagi), chief designer of Soviet tank T-34 Olga Krasko
Olga Krasko
— Russian actress Mykola Kulish
Mykola Kulish
— Ukrainian playwright Les Kurbas — Ukrainian dramatist Simon Kuznets
Simon Kuznets
Russian American
Russian American
economist Alexander Voevodin — biomedical scientist and educator

Evgeny Lifshitz — Soviet physicist Eduard Limonov
Eduard Limonov
— writer, poet and controversial politician Gleb Lozino-Lozinskiy — lead developer of Soviet Shuttle Buran program Aleksandr Lyapunov
Aleksandr Lyapunov
— Russian mathematician, mechanician and physicist. Inventor of motion stability theory Boris Mikhailov — photographer / artist Mykola Mikhnovsky — Ukrainian political leader and activist Yuri Nikitin — fantasy and science fiction writer Henry Lion Oldie
Henry Lion Oldie
(Dmitry Gromov and Oleg Ladyzhensky) — science fiction and fantasy writers Igor Olshanetskyi — Israeli Olympic weightlifter Justine Pasek
Justine Pasek
— Miss Universe 2002 Valerian Pidmohylny
Valerian Pidmohylny
— Ukrainian poet Irina Press
Irina Press
— athlete who won two Olympic gold medals Tamara Press
Tamara Press
— Soviet shot putter and discus thrower Olga Rapay-Markish — ceramicist Igor Rybak
Igor Rybak
— Olympic champion lightweight weightlifter Eugen Schauman
Eugen Schauman
– Finnish nationalist who killed Russian general Nikolay Ivanovich Bobrikov
Nikolay Ivanovich Bobrikov
in 1904 Alexander Shchetynsky — composer George Shevelov – Ukrainian and Slavic linguist, philologist, essayist, literary historian, and literary critic Elena Sheynina — children's author Klavdiya Shulzhenko
Klavdiya Shulzhenko
— singer of the Soviet Union Lev Shubnikov
Lev Shubnikov
— Soviet experimental physicist who worked in the Netherlands and USSR Alexander Siloti
Alexander Siloti
— Russian pianist, conductor and composer Hryhorii Skovoroda
Hryhorii Skovoroda
– poet, philosopher and composer Karina Smirnoff
Karina Smirnoff
– professional world champion dancer, starring on Dancing with the Stars Jura Soyfer
Jura Soyfer
— Austrian political journalist and cabaret writer Otto Struve
Otto Struve
— Russian-American astronomer Serafina Schachova – Nephrologist Sergei Sviatchenko
Sergei Sviatchenko
– artist Elina Svitolina
Elina Svitolina
- professional tennis player Mark Taimanov
Mark Taimanov
— chess player and concert pianist Ievgeniia Tetelbaum — Israeli Olympic synchronized swimmer Nikolai Tikhonov
Nikolai Tikhonov
— Premier of the Soviet Union Yevgeniy Timoshenko — professional poker player Anna Tsybuleva — pianist, winner of the Leeds International Piano Competition Anna Ushenina
Anna Ushenina
— women's world chess champion Vladimir Vasyutin — Soviet cosmonaut of Ukrainian descent Yury Vengerovsky — Olympic gold medal winning volleyball player Vitali Vitaliev - journalist and author Igor Vovchanchyn
Igor Vovchanchyn
– Mixed martial artist Vasyl Yermylov
Vasyl Yermylov
– painter and designer Serhiy Zhadan
Serhiy Zhadan
— poet, novelist, and translator Oleksandr Zhdanov
Oleksandr Zhdanov
- professional Ukrainian-Israeli football defender Irina Zhurina – opera singer, People's Artist of Russia Alexander Zorich
Alexander Zorich
(Dmitry Gordevsky and Yana Botsman), science fiction writers.

Transport[edit]

Pushkinska station of Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Metro

Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Railway Station Main Entrance, August 2011

Historical building of Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Airport

The city of Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is one of the largest transportation centers in Ukraine, which is connected to numerous cities of the world by air, rail and road traffic. The city has many transportation methods, including: public transport, taxis, railways, and air traffic. There are about 250 thousand cars in the city.[191] Local transport[edit] Being an important transportation centre of Ukraine, many different means of transportation are available in Kharkiv. Kharkiv's Metro is the city's rapid transit system operating since 1975. It includes three different lines with 30 stations in total.[192][193] The Kharkiv
Kharkiv
buses carry about 12 million passengers annually.[citation needed] Trolleybuses, trams (which celebrated its 100 years of service in 2006), and marshrutkas (private minibuses) are also important means of transportation in the city. Railways[edit] The first railway connection of Kharkiv
Kharkiv
was opened in 1869. The first train to arrive in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
came from the north on 22 May 1869, and on 6 June 1869, traffic was opened on the Kursk–Kharkiv–Azov line. Kharkiv's passenger railway station was reconstructed and expanded in 1901, to be later destroyed in the Second World War. A new Kharkiv railway station was built in 1952.[194] Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is connected with all main cities in Ukraine
Ukraine
and abroad by regular railway trains. Regional trains known as elektrichkas connect Kharkiv
Kharkiv
with nearby towns and villages. Air[edit] Kharkiv
Kharkiv
is served by Kharkiv International Airport
Kharkiv International Airport
has been granted international status. Charter flights are also available. The former largest carrier of the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Airport — Aeromost- Kharkiv
Kharkiv
— is not serving any regular destinations as of 2007[update]. The Kharkiv
Kharkiv
North Airport is a factory airfield and was a major production facility for Antonov
Antonov
aircraft company. Recreation[edit] Kharkiv
Kharkiv
contains numerous beautiful parks and gardens such as the Gor'ky park, Shevchenko park, Hydro park, Strelka park, Feldman ecopark, etc. The Gor'ky park is very popular place for recreation activities among the visitors and local people.The Shevchenko park is situated in close proximity to the V.N. Karazin National University. It is also a very attractive place for recreation activities among the students, professors, locals and foreigners. The Ecopark is situated at circle highway around Kharkiv. It attracts the kids, parents, students, professors, locals and foreigners to make the recreation activities. Footnotes[edit]

^ Kharkiv
Kharkiv
was a capital of the Soviet Ukraine
Ukraine
for some 15 years in 1919–1934.

References[edit]

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National University. September 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2015.  ^ "Органный зал, Харьков – концерты, камерная и органная музыка Харьковская филармония". filarmonia.kh.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Харківський національний університет мистецтв ім І.П.Котляревського". dum.kharkov.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Минкультуры запретил Харькову проводить конкурс им. Гната Хоткевича - Комментарии". Proua.com. 2010-04-16. Archived from the original on 28 December 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2012.  ^ "Фестиваль "Харків - місто добрих надій". Информация для участников Харьковская филармония". filarmonia.kh.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ a b c "Харьковская сирень - Главная". sirenfest.net.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ a b c "times.kh.ua/news/fresh/kharkovskaya_siren_2016_novye_ladoni_znamenitykh_akterov_na_allee_zvezd_foto/158954/". times.kh.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Возвращение "Харьковской сирени": новые ладони знаменитых актеров на Аллее звезд (ФОТО) Восточный Дозор". kharkov.dozor.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Information in English - Харківський історичний музей імені М.Ф.Сумцова". museum.kh.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Музей природы >> ХНУ имени В. Н. Каразина". univer.kharkov.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Державний Музей природи Харківського національного університету імені В.Н. Каразіна". vnz.univ.kiev.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Музей історії Харківського національного університету - Головна". www-museum.univer.kharkov.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Музей истории университета >> ХНУ имени В. Н. Каразина". univer.kharkov.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Музей історії Харківського національного університету імені В.Н. Каразіна". vnz.univ.kiev.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "www.maesu.org/". maesu.org. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Музей археології та етнографії Слобідської України". vnz.univ.kiev.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "www.kpi.kharkov.ua/ru/home/muzeum/". kpi.kharkov.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Музей НТУ "ХПI"". web.kpi.kharkov.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Архів подій Музей НТУ "ХПI"". web.kpi.kharkov.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Фотогалерея Музей НТУ "ХПI"". web.kpi.kharkov.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Музей історії Національного технічного університету "Харківський політехнічний інститут"". vnz.univ.kiev.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Музей Національного аерокосмічного університету "ХАІ"". vnz.univ.kiev.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Музей истории Национального фармацевтического университета - Національний фармацевтичний університет (НФаУ)". nuph.edu.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Экспозиционные залы музея - Національний фармацевтичний університет (НФаУ)". nuph.edu.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Музей історії фармації України". vnz.univ.kiev.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Музеї Харківщини". museums.kh.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "The Kharkov Maritime Museum".  ^ "The KI City Museum. Shulzhenko".  ^ (in Russian) A monument to Sahaidachny in Kharkov, Status quo (23 August 2014) ^ "Губерния - деловой представительский журнал". guberniya.net. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Main 5th Kharkiv
Kharkiv
International Marathon". kharkivmarathon.com. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ " Kharkiv
Kharkiv
International Marathon 2017 - Race Details - Marathon Runners Diary". marathonrunnersdiary.com. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ " Ukraine
Ukraine
Sport Events - Спортивные мероприятия Украины". sportevent.com.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ " Kharkiv
Kharkiv
International Marathon 2016 « СОВЕТ МОЛОДЫХ УЧЁНЫХ". blogs.kpi.kharkov.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "гольф-курорт Superior Golf & Spa Resort в Харькове". superiorresort.com. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "zabytki.in.ua/ru/430/kharkovskii-ippodrom". zabytki.in.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Харьковский ипподром". ippodrom.pp.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Конный спорт". ippodrom.pp.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Харьковский Конный Завод - продажа лошадей в Украине". konezavod.com. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "feldman-ecopark.com/en.html#". feldman-ecopark.com. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "В Харькове установили велосипедный рекорд. Любители двухколесного транспорта выстроились в огромную фигуру велосипеда Харьков Вести". vesti-ukr.com. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Веложизнь в Харькове - Харьков на Незабаром". kharkov.nezabarom.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Харьковский Велосипедный Завод им.Петровского - велосипеды, тележки, санки, товары для отдыха". usi.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ "Sister cities of Kharkiv" (in Russian). Retrieved 4 May 2007.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Міста-побратими – Харківська міська рада (in Ukrainian) ^ " Brno
Brno
– Partnerská města" (in Czech). © 2006–2009 City of Brno. Archived from the original on 25 August 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2009.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ Чорногорське місто Цетіньє стало партнером Харкова(in Ukrainian) ^ Побратимські зв'язки між містами України та США (in Ukrainian) ^ "OKI Sister City Coalition".  ^ Міжрегіональне співробітництво між Україною та Латвією (in Ukrainian) ^ Харків і Газіантеп - міста-побратими(in Ukrainian) ^ Співробітництво між регіонами України та регіонами Литовської Республіки (in Ukrainian) ^ " Kutaisi
Kutaisi
City - International Relations - Sister Cities". Kutaisi City Local Government. 4 October 2011. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011.  ^ Partenariat et amitié existantsеntre villes et régions de France et d‘ Ukraine
Ukraine
(in French) ^ Mestna občina Maribor
Maribor
(in Slovene) ^ Побратимські стосунки між містами та регіонами (in Ukrainian) ^ "Співробітництво міст України та Польщі". Mfa.gov.ua. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2012.  ^ " Poznań
Poznań
- Miasta partnerskie". 1998–2013 Urząd Miasta Poznania (in Polish). City of Poznań. Archived from the original on 23 September 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ " Poznań
Poznań
Official Website – Twin Towns" (in Polish). © 1998–2008 Urząd Miasta Poznania. Retrieved 29 November 2008.  ^ Международные и межрегиональные связи Официальный портал Администрации Санкт-Петербурга (in Russian) ^ Побратимські зв'язки між містами України та Республіки Болгарія (in Ukrainian) ^ "Асоціація міст України і Національна асоціація общин республіки Болгарія підписали угоду про співпрацю". Kmv.gov.ua. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2012.  ^ Харків і Варшава стали містами-побратимами (in Ukrainian) ^ Andrew Rybka (2008-05-31). "Харьков транспортный. Новости. Останови автомобиль. Сколько стоит минута простоя в ежедневных пробках. Харьковские изобретатели бьются над проблемой разгрузки города". Gortransport.kharkov.ua. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ "Metro. Basic facts". City transportation Kharkiv
Kharkiv
(in Ukrainian). Retrieved 1 March 2011.  ^ Poroshenko opens new subway station in Kharkiv, Interfax- Ukraine
Ukraine
(19 August 2016) ^ "Railway Stations :: Euro-2012 :: Офіційний веб-сайт Укрзалізниці". uz.gov.ua. Retrieved 18 June 2017. 

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Kharkiv External links[edit]

Ukraine
Ukraine
portal

Find more aboutKharkivat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Citynet UA — Official website of Kharkiv
Kharkiv
City Information Centre (in English)/(in Ukrainian) Misto Kharkiv
Kharkiv
— Official website of Kharkiv
Kharkiv
City Council (in English)/(in Ukrainian)

v t e

Administrative divisions of Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Oblast

Administrative center: Kharkiv

Raions

Balakliia Barvinkove Blyzniuky Bohodukhiv Borova Chuhuiv Derhachi Dvorichna Izium Kehychivka Kharkiv Kolomak Krasnohrad Krasnokutsk Kupiansk Lozova Nova Vodolaha Pechenihy Pervomaiskyi Sakhnovshchyna Shevchenkove Valky Velykyi Burluk Vovchansk Zachepylivka Zmiiv Zolochiv

Cities

Regional

Chuhuiv Izium Kharkiv Kupiansk Liubotyn Lozova Pervomaiskyi

District

Balakliia Barvinkove Bohodukhiv Derhachi Krasnohrad Merefa Pivdenne Valky Vovchansk Zmiiv

Urban-type settlements Category: Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Oblast

v t e

 Administrative divisions of Ukraine

Capital: Kiev

Oblasts

Cherkasy Chernihiv Chernivtsi Dnipropetrovsk Donetsk Ivano-Frankivsk Kharkiv Kherson Khmelnytskyi Kiev Kirovohrad Luhansk Lviv Mykolaiv Odessa Poltava Rivne Sumy Ternopil Vinnytsia Volyn Zakarpattia Zaporizhia Zhytomyr

Cities with special status

Kiev Sevastopol1

Autonomous republic

Crimea1

Administrative centers

Cherkasy Chernihiv Chernivtsi Dnipro Donetsk Ivano-Frankivsk Kharkiv Kherson Khmelnytskyi Kiev Kropyvnytskyi Luhansk Lutsk Lviv Mykolaiv Odessa Poltava Rivne Sevastopol Simferopol Sumy Ternopil Uzhhorod Vinnytsia Zaporizhia Zhytomyr

1Claimed and controlled by Russia
Russia
as the Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
and the Federal City of Sevastopol

v t e

Cities in Ukraine
Ukraine
(including Crimea) by population

City with special status City of regional significance City of district significance

1,000,000+

Kiev Kharkiv Dnipro Odessa

500,000+

Donetsk Zaporizhia Lviv Kryvyi Rih Mykolaiv

200,000+

Mariupol Luhansk Makiivka Vinnytsia Simferopol Sevastopol Kherson Poltava Chernihiv Cherkasy Sumy Horlivka Zhytomyr Kamianske Kropyvnytskyi Khmelnytskyi Rivne Chernivtsi Kremenchuk Ternopil Ivano-Frankivsk Lutsk Bila Tserkva

100,000+

Kramatorsk Melitopol Kerch Nikopol Sloviansk Berdiansk Sievierodonetsk Alchevsk Pavlohrad Uzhhorod Lysychansk Yevpatoria Yenakiieve

Crimea
Crimea
is the subject of a territorial dispute between Ukraine (Autonomous Republic of Crimea) and Russia
Russia
(Republic of Crimea)

v t e

Historical Capitals of Rus', Ukrainian states and states on Ukrainian soil1

Medieval Ukrainian states

Kievan Rus'

Kiev

Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia

Volodymyr Halych Lviv

Cossack Hetmanate

Chyhyryn Baturyn Hlukhiv

Grand Duchy of Rus'

Kiev

Ukrainian states after Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and before Ukrainian SSR

West Ukrainian People's Republic

Lviv Ternopil Stanyslaviv

Ukrainian People's Republic

Kiev
Kiev
(1917–1920)

* Ukrainian Soviet Republic

Kiev

Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
(since 1917), independent Ukraine
Ukraine
(since 1991)

Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
(part of the SU 1922-91), Ukraine

Kharkiv
Kharkiv
(1919-1934) Kiev
Kiev
(since 1934)

1Meaning (Cossack) states on the territory of current Ukraine

v t e

Ukrainian crisis

General topics

2013–14 Euromaidan

Timeline RSA occupations Anti-Maidan

2014 Ukrainian revolution 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine

Timeline Historical background

Russian military intervention

War in Donbass

Annexation of Crimea
Crimea
by the Russian Federation

Timeline Reaction of Russian intelligentsia

Casualties International sanctions

List of sanctioned people

Media portrayal List of Ukrainian aircraft losses Trilateral Contact Group on Ukraine Little green men Ribbon of Saint George Putin khuylo! Russian embargo of Ukrainian goods Do not buy Russian goods!

Boycott Russian Films

Civil volunteer movement ATO zone Cold War II Civil–military administrations Trolls from Olgino Russian language in Ukraine Decommunization in Ukraine

War in Donbass

Timeline

April–June 2014 July–September 2014 October–December 2014 January–March 2015 April–June 2015 July–September 2015 October–December 2015 January–March 2016 April–June 2016 July–September 2016 October–December 2016 January–March 2017 April–June 2017 July–September 2017 October–December 2017 January 2018–present

Battles

Siege of Sloviansk
Sloviansk
(12 April – 5 July 2014) Battle of Kramatorsk
Kramatorsk
(12 April – 5 July 2014) Battle of Mariupol
Mariupol
(6 May – 14 June 2014) 1st Battle of Donetsk
Donetsk
Airport (26–27 May 2014) Siege of the Luhansk
Luhansk
Border Base (2–4 June 2014) Zelenopillya rocket attack (11 July 2014) Battle in Shakhtarsk
Shakhtarsk
Raion (16 July – 26 August 2014) Battle of Horlivka
Horlivka
(20 July – 6 September 2014) Battle of Ilovaisk
Battle of Ilovaisk
(10 August – 2 September 2014) Snizhne incident (13 August 2014) Novosvitlivka refugee convoy attack (18 August 2014) Battle of Novoazovsk (25–28 August 2014) Mariupol
Mariupol
offensive (4–8 September 2014) 2nd Battle of Donetsk
Donetsk
Airport (28 September 2014 – 21 January 2015) Battle of Debaltseve
Battle of Debaltseve
(16 January – 20 February 2015) Shyrokyne standoff (10 February – 3 July 2015) Battle of Marinka
Battle of Marinka
(3 June 2015) Battle of Svitlodarsk (18–23 December 2016) Battle of Avdiivka (29 January – 4 February 2017)

Related

Humanitarian situation International reactions

Other events

Crimean status referendum (16 March 2014) Support of Ukraine
Ukraine
Act (3 April 2014) Odessa
Odessa
clashes (2 May 2014) Donbass
Donbass
status referendums (11 May 2014) Ukrainian presidential election (25 May 2014) 40th G7 summit (4–5 June 2014) Ukrainian Air Force Ilyushin Il-76 shoot-down
Ukrainian Air Force Ilyushin Il-76 shoot-down
(14 June 2014) Shelling of Donetsk, Russia
Russia
(13 July 2014) Malaysia Airlines Flight 17
Malaysia Airlines Flight 17
shoot-down (17 July 2014)

reactions

UNSC Resolution 2166 (21 July 2014) NATO summit in Wales (4–5 September 2014) Minsk Protocol
Minsk Protocol
(5 September 2014) Ukrainian parliamentary election (26 October 2014) Donbass
Donbass
general elections (2 November 2014) 2014 G20 Brisbane summit
2014 G20 Brisbane summit
(15–16 November 2014) Volnovakha bus attack
Volnovakha bus attack
(13 January 2015) Donetsk
Donetsk
bus attack (22 January 2015) Mariupol
Mariupol
rocket attack (24 January 2015) Minsk II
Minsk II
ceasefire agreement (12 February 2015) Kharkiv
Kharkiv
bombing (22 February 2015) Ukraine
Ukraine
power grid cyberattack (December 2015) 2017 cyberattacks on Ukraine
Ukraine
(27 June 2017)

Proclaimed states

  Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
(17–18 March 2014)   Donetsk
Donetsk
People's Republic (since 7 April 2014)   Luhansk
Luhansk
People's Republic (since 27 April 2014)   Novorossiya
Novorossiya
(24 May 2014 – 20 May 2015)

Background

Pre-1917 Novorossiya 1918 Donets-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic 1918 Taurida Soviet Socialist Republic 1994 Budapest Memorandum 1997 Russian–Ukrainian Friendship Treaty 2004 South-East Ukrainian Autonomous Republic 2012 law on languages 2014 Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement

Main places

Cities

Kiev

Maidan Nezalezhnosti Khreshchatyk

Donetsk

International Airport Donbass
Donbass
Arena Druzhba Arena

Luhansk

International Airport Avanhard Stadium

Kharkiv Odessa Simferopol Sevastopol

Donetsk Oblast

Avdiivka Bakhmut Debaltseve Dobropillia Dokuchaievsk Donetsk Druzhkivka Dzerkalne Horlivka Hrabove Ilovaisk Karlivka Khartsyzk Kirovske Komsomolske Kostiantynivka Kramatorsk Krasnohorivka Lyman Makiivka Marinka Mariupol Mykolaivka Novoazovsk Pisky Pokrovsk Savur-Mohyla Shakhtarsk Siversk Sloviansk Snizhne Soledar Staromykhailivka Svitlodarsk Toretsk Torez Volnovakha Vuhledar Vuhlehirsk Yampil Yasynuvata Yenakiieve Zhdanivka Zuhres

Luhansk Oblast

Alchevsk Antratsyt Brianka Chornukhyne Hirske Izvaryne Kirovsk Krasnodon Krasnyi Luch Luhansk Lutuhyne Lysychansk Metalist Miusynsk Novosvitlivka Oleksandrivsk Pervomaisk Pobieda Popasna Rovenky Rubizhne Shchastya Sievierodonetsk Stakhanov Stanytsia Luhanska Sverdlovsk

(Pro-) Russian

Organizations

Russian Armed Forces Wagner Group Separatist forces

List of equipment Army of the South-East Russian Orthodox Army Vostok Battalion Kalmius Brigade Sparta Battalion Somalia Battalion Prizrak Brigade

Political parties and movements

Donetsk
Donetsk
Republic New Russia
Russia
Party Communist Party of DPR Peace for Lugansk Region Borotba Antifascist Committee of Ukraine Ukrainian Choice Russian-speaking Ukraine The Other Russia Eurasian Youth Union

Night Wolves Don Cossacks

Lead figures

Russian

Vladimir Putin Dmitry Medvedev Vladislav Surkov Sergey Shoygu

Crimean

Sergey Aksyonov Vladimir Konstantinov Natalia Poklonskaya

Donetsk

Vladimir Antyufeyev Eduard Basurin Fyodor Berezin Igor Bezler Alexander Borodai Mikhail Chumachenko Pavel Gubarev Ekaterina Gubareva Igor Kakidzyanov Alexander Khodakovsky Vladimir Kononov Arsen Pavlov† Vyacheslav Ponomarev Andrei Purgin Denis Pushilin Igor Strelkov Mikhail Tolstykh† Alexander Zakharchenko Sergei Zhurikov

Luhansk

Valery Bolotov† Aleksey Karyakin Aleksandr Kharitonov Arsen Klinchaev Sergey Kozlov Aleksey Mozgovoy† Leonid Pasechnik Igor Plotnitsky Gennadiy Tsypkalov†

Others

Aleksandr Dugin Nelya Shtepa Oleg Tsaryov

Ukrainian

Organizations

Government of Ukraine

1st Yatsenyuk 2nd Yatsenyuk Groysman

Ministry of Internal Affairs

National Guard

Azov Donbas

Patrol Police

Dnipro-1 Kharkiv Poltava Sich Svyatyi Mykolai

Armed Forces of Ukraine

Ukrainian Ground Forces

Territorial defense battalions

Aidar Batkivshchyna Dnipro-2 Kharkiv Kryvbas Rukh Oporu

Ukrainian Air Force Ukrainian Airmobile Forces

Security Service of Ukraine

Alpha Group

State Border Guard Service of Ukraine Volunteer battalions

Right Sector Noman Çelebicihan

Lead figures

Petro Poroshenko Oleksandr Turchynov Arseniy Yatsenyuk Volodymyr Groysman Andriy Parubiy Arsen Avakov Vitali Klitschko Oleh Tyahnybok Yuriy Lutsenko Valentyn Nalyvaichenko Valeriy Heletey Stepan Poltorak Mykhailo Koval Mykhailo Kutsyn Oleh Makhnitskyi Viktor Muzhenko Vitaly Yarema Oleh Lyashko Dmytro Yarosh Rinat Akhmetov Ihor Kolomoyskyi Serhiy Taruta Ihor Baluta Semen Semenchenko Hennadiy Moskal Nadiya Savchenko George Tuka Pavlo Zhebrivskyi

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 146579428 GN

.