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Khalsa
Khalsa
(Punjabi: "the pure") refers to both a special group of initiated Sikh
Sikh
warriors, as well as a community that considers Sikhism as its faith.[1][2] The Khalsa
Khalsa
tradition was initiated in 1699 by the last living Guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh. Its formation was a key event in the history of Sikhism.[2] The founding of Khalsa
Khalsa
is celebrated by Sikhs during the festival of Vaisakhi.[3][4][5] Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
started the Khalsa
Khalsa
tradition after his father had been beheaded for resisting the religious persecution of non-Muslims (mainly Kashmiri Hindus) during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.[6][7][8] The Khalsa
Khalsa
redefined the Sikh
Sikh
tradition from the start. It formulated an initiation ceremony (amrit pahul, nectar ceremony) and rules of conduct for the Khalsa
Khalsa
warriors. It created a new institution for the temporal leadership of the Sikhs, replacing the masands system maintained by the earlier Gurus of Sikhism. Additionally, the Khalsa
Khalsa
provided a political and religious vision for the Sikh
Sikh
community.[1][9][10]:127 Upon initiation, a Khalsa
Khalsa
Sikh
Sikh
was given the title of Singh
Singh
(male) or Kaur (female). The rules of life, included behavioral code (Rahit, such as no tobacco, no alcohol, etc.), and a dress code (Five Ks).[10]:121–126 The initiated Khalsa
Khalsa
is also a warrior with a duty to protect the innocent from any form of religious persecution. The Sikhs who revere the teachings of Sikh
Sikh
gurus, but have not undergone the initiation have been called Sahajdhari. A Sahajdhari Sikhs do not accept some or all elements of the dress and behavioral codes of the Khalsa
Khalsa
Sikhs.[11] The Khalsa
Khalsa
has been predominantly a male institution in Sikh
Sikh
history, with Khalsa
Khalsa
authority in male leaders. In contemporary era, it has become more open to women.[1]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Background 3 Foundation 4 Dress and code of conduct

4.1 Prohibitions 4.2 Duties and warriors

5 Initiation 6 Initial tensions with the non- Khalsa
Khalsa
disciples 7 Contemporary status 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Etymology[edit] "Khalsa", according to McLeod, is derived from the Arabic word "Khalisa" which means "pure".[12][13] Sikhism
Sikhism
emerged in the northwestern part of Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
(now parts of Pakistan and India). During the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
rule, according to Eleanor Nesbitt, khalsa originally meant the land that was possessed directly by the emperor, which was different from jagir land granted to lords in exchange for a promise of loyalty and annual tribute to the emperor.[14] Prior to Guru Gobind Singh, the religious organization was organized through the masands or agents. The masands would collect revenue from rural regions for the Sikh
Sikh
cause, much like jagirs would for the Islamic emperor.[14][15] The khalsa, in Sikhism, came to mean pure loyalty to the Guru, and not to the intermediary masands who were increasingly becoming corrupt, states Nesbitt.[14][16] Background[edit] The Sikhs faced religious persecution during the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
rule. Guru Arjan
Guru Arjan
Dev, the fifth Guru, was arrested and executed by Emperor Jahangir
Jahangir
in 1606.[17] The following Guru, Guru Hargobind
Guru Hargobind
formally militarised the Sikhs and emphasised the complementary nature of the temporal power and spiritual power.[18] In 1675, Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Guru of the Sikhs and the father of Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
was executed by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
for resisting religious persecution of non-Muslims, and for refusing to convert to Islam.[6][7][8] Foundation[edit]

Panj Pyare

Bhai Daya Singh

Bhai Himmat Singh

Bhai Mohkam Singh

Bhai Dharam Singh

Bhai Sahib Singh

v t e

Keshgarh Sahib
Keshgarh Sahib
Gurudwara at Anandpur Sahib, Punjab, the birthplace of Khalsa

In 1699, the tenth Guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
asked Sikhs to gather at Anandpur Sahib
Anandpur Sahib
on 30 March 1699, the day of Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi
(the annual harvest festival). Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
addressed the congregation from the entryway of a tent pitched on a hill (now called Kesgarh Sahib). He drew his sword, according to the Sikh
Sikh
tradition, and then asked for a volunteer from those who gathered, someone willing to sacrifice his head. One came forward, whom he took inside a tent. The Guru returned to the crowd without the volunteer, but with a bloody sword.[19] He asked for another volunteer, and repeated the same process of returning from the tent without anyone and with a bloodied sword four more times. After the fifth volunteer went with him into the tent, the Guru returned with all five volunteers, all safe. He called them the Panj Pyare
Panj Pyare
and the first Khalsa
Khalsa
in the Sikh tradition.[19] These five volunteers were : Daya Ram (Bhai Daya Singh), Dharam Das (Bhai Dharam Singh), Himmat Rai (Bhai Himmat Singh), Mohkam Chand (Bhai Mohkam Singh), and Sahib Chand (Bhai Sahib Singh).

A Fresco of Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
and The Panj Piare
Panj Piare
in Gurdwara
Gurdwara
Bhai Than Singh
Singh
built in the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
then mixed water and sugar into an iron bowl, stirring it with a double-edged sword to prepare what he called Amrit ("nectar"). He then administered this to the Panj Pyare, accompanied with recitations from the Adi Granth, thus founding the khande ka pahul (baptism ceremony) of a Khalsa
Khalsa
– a warrior community.[19][20] The Guru also gave them a new surname "Singh" (lion). After the first five Khalsa
Khalsa
had been baptized, the Guru asked the five to baptize him as a Khalsa. This made the Guru the sixth Khalsa, and his name changed from Guru Gobind Rai to Guru Gobind Singh.[19] He introduced ideas that indirectly challenged the discriminatory taxes imposed by Islamic authorities. For example, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
had imposed taxes on non-Muslims that were collected from the Sikhs as well, for example the jizya (poll tax on non-Muslims), pilgrim tax and Bhaddar tax – the last being a tax to be paid by anyone following the Hindu
Hindu
ritual of shaving the head after the death of a loved one and cremation.[21] Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
declared that Khalsa
Khalsa
do not need to continue this practice, because Bhaddar is not dharam, but a bharam (illusion).[21][22] Not shaving the head also meant not having to pay the taxes by Sikhs who lived in Delhi
Delhi
and other parts of the Mughal Empire.[21] However, the new code of conduct also led to internal disagreements between Sikhs in the 18th century, particularly between the Nanakpanthi and the Khalsa.[21] Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
had deep respect for the Khalsa, and stated that there is no difference between the True Guru and the sangat (panth).[23] Before his founding of the Khalsa, the Sikh
Sikh
movement had used the Sanskrit word Sisya (literally, disciple or student), but the favored term thereafter became Khalsa.[24] Additionally, prior to the Khalsa, the Sikh
Sikh
congregations across India had a system of Masands appointed by the Sikh
Sikh
Gurus. The Masands led the local Sikh communities, local temples, collected wealth and donations for the Sikh
Sikh
cause.[24] Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
concluded that the Masands system had become corrupt, he abolished them and introduced a more centralized system with the help of Khalsa
Khalsa
that was under his direct supervision.[24] These developments created two groups of Sikhs, those who initiated as Khalsa, and others who remained Sikhs but did not undertake the initiation.[24] The Khalsa
Khalsa
Sikhs saw themselves as a separate religious entity, while the Nanak-panthi Sikhs retained their different perspective.[25][26] The Khalsa
Khalsa
warrior community tradition started by Guru Gobind Singh has contributed to modern scholarly debate on pluralism within Sikhism. His tradition has survived into the modern times, with initiated Sikh
Sikh
referred to as Khalsa
Khalsa
Sikh, while those who do not get baptized referred to as Sahajdhari Sikhs.[27][28][29]

An inscription naming the five members of the Khalsa
Khalsa
Panth, at Takht Keshgarh Sahib, the birthplace of Khalsa
Khalsa
on Baisakh
Baisakh
1, 1756 Vikram Samvat.

The creation of the Khalsa; initiated by Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh
Sikh
Guru.

Dress and code of conduct[edit] Main article: Five Ks

Kanga, Kara and Kirpan
Kirpan
– three of the five Ks

Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
initiated the Five K's
Five K's
tradition of the Khalsa,[30][31]

Kesh: uncut hair. Kangha: a wooden comb. Kara: an iron or steel bracelet worn on the wrist. Kirpan: a sword. Kacchera: short breeches.

He also announced a code of discipline for Khalsa
Khalsa
warriors. Tobacco, eating meat slaughtered according to Muslim ritual and sex with Muslims were forbidden.[30][32] The Khalsas also agreed to never interact with those who followed rivals or their successors.[30] The co-initiation of men and women from different castes into the ranks of Khalsa
Khalsa
also institutionalized the principle of equality in Sikhism regardless of one's caste or gender.[32] According to Owen and Sambhi, Guru Gobind Singh's significance to the Sikh
Sikh
tradition has been very important, as he institutionalized the Khalsa, resisted the ongoing persecution by the Mughal Empire, and continued "the defense of Sikhism
Sikhism
and Hinduism against the Muslim assault of Aurangzeb".[33] Prohibitions[edit] The four prohibitions[34] or mandatory restrictions of the Khalsa
Khalsa
or life of khalsa at time of Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
Ji are:

Not to disturb the natural growth of the hairs. Not to eat meat of any animal slaughtered according to Muslim rituals. Cohabiting with a person other than one's spouse. Using tobacco or alcohol.

A Khalsa
Khalsa
who breaks any code of conduct is no longer a Khalsa, is excommunicated from the Khalsa Panth
Khalsa Panth
and must go 'pesh' (get baptised again). Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
also gave the Khalsa
Khalsa
52 hukams or 52 specific additional guidelines while living in Nanded
Nanded
in 1708.[35] Duties and warriors[edit] Main articles: Dal Khalsa, Sikh
Sikh
Khalsa
Khalsa
Army, Fauj-i-Ain, and Fauj-i-Khas A Khalsa
Khalsa
is enjoined to be honest, treat everyone as equal, meditate on God, maintain his fidelity, resist tyranny and religious persecution of oneself and others.[citation needed] One of the duties of the Khalsa
Khalsa
is to practice arms. This has been deemed necessary due to the rising persecution from the rulers. Before joining the Khalsa, most of the people were from professions like farming, pottery, masonry, carpenters, Labanas, etc. Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
in Oct, 1708 deputed his disciple Banda Singh Bahadur to lead the Khalsa
Khalsa
in an uprising against the Mughals. Banda Singh
Singh
Bahadur first established a Sikh
Sikh
kingdom and then brought in the Land reforms in the form of breaking up large estates and distributing the land to peasants. He and his comrades were eventually defeated and executed, but he became an icon among the Sikhs. After a long exile the Khalsa
Khalsa
regrouped under Nawab Kapur Singh, who gathered local Khalsa
Khalsa
leaders and created Dal Khalsa, a coalition army. The Dal Khalsa
Khalsa
fought against the Mughals and the Afghans, eventually resulting in the establishment of a number of small republics called misls (autonomous confederacies) and later in the formation of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire. After the fall of the Mughal empire and the later establishment of the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
in the Punjab, the Khalsa
Khalsa
was converted into a strong, multireligious and multinational fighting force, modernised according to European principles: the Sikh Khalsa Army
Sikh Khalsa Army
which had a huge role in the expansion of the empire. Led by generals like: Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Singh
himself, Misr Diwan Chand and Hari Singh
Singh
Nalwa. It successfully defeated all its adversaries, including the Afghan tribals and army, Hill Chiefs, Misldars, Chinese, Tibetan and Gurkhas. By the time of death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Singh
in 1839, the whole army of Sikh
Sikh
Empire was assessed at 120,000 men, with 250 artillery pieces. The irregular levies were included.[36] The official name of the state ( Sikh
Sikh
Empire) of Sikhs was "Sarkar-i-Khalsa": Government of the Khalsa. The boundaries of this state stretched from Tibet
Tibet
to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and from Kashmir
Kashmir
to Sutlej in the south and included regions of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Kashmir, Ladakh, etc. The "Sarkar-i-Khalsa" was dissolved during two wars fought against the British between 1846 and 1849.[citation needed] Initiation[edit] Main article: Amrit Sanchar Initiation into the Khalsa
Khalsa
is referred to as Amrit Sanchar
Amrit Sanchar
(water of immortality life-cycle rite) or Khande di Pahul (Initiation with the double edged sword).[37] Anyone from any previous religion, age, or knowledge group can take Amrit (Amrit Chhakh) when they are convinced that they are ready.[38] This baptism is done by the Panj Pyare
Panj Pyare
in front of the Guru Granth Sahib. The devotee must arrive to the place of baptism, usually a Gurdwara, in the morning after bathing completely including having washed their hair and must be wearing the 5 articles of the Khalsa
Khalsa
uniform.[39] After baptism, the new Singh
Singh
or Kaur must abide by the four restrictions or must get re-baptised if they break any of them. Jasjpit Singh
Singh
in Lucinda Mosher book describes taking Amrit as a huge commitment, "You are making a commitment to God, to God's creation, to yourself – and you're giving up yourself. It is like giving up your own ego and accepting God into your life – and accepting yourself as one with the entire creation."[40] Initial tensions with the non- Khalsa
Khalsa
disciples[edit]

Akalis at the Holy Tank

With the creation of Khalsa, Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
had abolished all existing social divisions as was fundamental in the teachings of Sri Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
Dev.[41] In their new order, the former lowest of the low would stand with the former highest; all would become one and drink from the same vessel.[42] All previous beliefs relating to family, occupation, customs and ceremonies were declared useless by the Guru. This caused discomfort to the conservative followers of the Guru and they protested. Many departed from the ceremony, but the Guru declared that the low castes should be raised and would dwell next to him.[42] The newswriter of the Mughal government, Ghulam Mohyiuddin, reporting to the emperor wrote:[43][44]

“ He has abolished caste and custom, old rituals, beliefs and superstitions of the Hindus and bonded them in one single brotherhood. No one will be superior or inferior to another. Men of all castes have been made to eat out of the single bowl. Though orthodox men have opposed him, about twenty thousand men and women have taken baptism of steel at his hand on the first day. The Guru has also told the gathering: "I'll call myself Gobind Singh
Singh
only if I can make the meek sparrows pounce upon the hawks and tear them; only if one combatant of my force faces a legion of the enemy" ”

Sri Gur Sobha (18th century) by Sainapati (Saina Singh) contains two sections (adhyays) on the controversies that arose, when Guru Gobind Singh's disciples in Delhi
Delhi
heard the news of his new order.[45] Much of the controversy stated in Sri Gur Sobha revolves around bhaddar, the ritual shaving of head after death of a close relative, which was discouraged by Guru Gobind Singh. According to Sainapti, while creating the Khalsa, Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
said that bhaddar is bharam (illusion), and not dharam.[45] Tensions developed between the Punjabi Khatri
Khatri
disciples of the Guru in Delhi, and members of the newly formed Khalsa. A prominent Khatri disciple was expelled from the place of worship (dharmasala) for refusing to join the Khalsa. Another disciple was expelled for eating with him, starting a chain of further expulsions.[45] The expelled disciples convened a community gathering, at which two wealthy Khatris demanded that the Khalsa
Khalsa
produce a written order from the Guru that a new mandatory code of conduct had been promulgated. A Khatri
Khatri
family that refused to follow the bhaddar ritual was boycotted by the Khatri community.[45] The Khatri
Khatri
council (panch) closed the bazaar to pressure the Khalsa. The Khalsa
Khalsa
petitioned the state officials to intervene, who forced reopening of the shops. Later, peace was established between the two groups in a sangat (congregation). However, hostility between some Khatris and the Khalsa
Khalsa
persisted in the later years.[45] Contemporary status[edit]

Khalsa
Khalsa
principles of Deg to cook food (langar) in huge amount

Today, the Khalsa
Khalsa
is respected by the entire gamut of Sikhs; however, not all Sikhs are Amritdharis[19] The issue of Khalsa
Khalsa
code of conduct has led to several controversies. In the early 1950s, a serious split occurred in the Canadian Sikh
Sikh
community, when the Khalsa
Khalsa
Diwan Society in Vancouver, British Columbia elected a clean-shaven Sikh
Sikh
to serve on its management committee.[46] Although most of the early Sikh immigrants to Canada were non-Khalsa, and a majority of the members of the society were clean-shaven non- Khalsa
Khalsa
Sikhs, a faction objected to the election of a non- Khalsa
Khalsa
to the management committee. The factions in Vancouver
Vancouver
and Victoria, British Columbia
Victoria, British Columbia
broke away from the Khalsa Diwan Society, and established their own gurdwara society called Akali Singh.[46] In the United Kingdom there have been tensions between the Khalsa Sikhs and the non- Khalsa
Khalsa
Sikhs. Many Sikhs in Britain have insisted on their right of not conforming to the Khalsa
Khalsa
norms, while maintaining that they are truly Sikh. On the other hand, some of the Khalsa
Khalsa
Sikhs think of the non- Khalsa
Khalsa
Sikhs as having abandoned the Sikh
Sikh
faith altogether.[47] Each year the Khalsa
Khalsa
display their military skills around the world at a festival called Hola Mohalla. During Hola Mohalla
Hola Mohalla
military exercises are performed alongside mock battles followed by kirtan and valour poetry competitions. The Khalsa
Khalsa
also lead the Sikhs in the annual Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi
parade.[48]

The Khalsa
Khalsa
celebrating the Sikh
Sikh
festival Hola Mohalla
Hola Mohalla
or simply Hola.

See also[edit]

Chakram Gatka Khalsa
Khalsa
Heritage Memorial Complex Langar Nihang Sects of Sikhism Sikh
Sikh
history

References[edit]

^ a b c Khalsa: Sikhism, Encyclopaedia Britannica ^ a b Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh
Singh
(2012). Birth of the Khalsa, The: A Feminist Re-Memory of Sikh
Sikh
Identity. State University of New York Press. p. xi. ISBN 978-0-7914-8266-7.  ^ Cath Senker (2007). My Sikh
Sikh
Year. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4042-3733-9. , Quote: " Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi
is the most important mela. It marks the Sikh
Sikh
New Year. At Vaisakhi, Sikhs remember how their community, the Khalsa, first began." ^ William Owen Cole; Piara Singh
Singh
Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4. , Quote: "The Sikh
Sikh
new year, Vaisakhi, occurs at Sangrand in April, usually on the thirteenth day." ^ Knut A. Jacobsen (2008). South Asian Religions on Display: Religious Processions in South Asia and in the Diaspora. Routledge. p. 192. ISBN 978-1-134-07459-4. , Quote: "(...) for the Sikhs, it [Baisakhi] celebrates the foundation of the Khalsa
Khalsa
in 1699." ^ a b Arvind-Pal Singh
Singh
Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 53–54. ISBN 978-1-4411-0231-7. , Quote: "The Guru's stance was a clear and unambiguous challenge, not to the sovereignty of the Mughal state, but to the state's policy of not recognizing the sovereign existence of non-Muslims, their traditions and ways of life". ^ a b Seiple, Chris (2013). The Routledge handbook of religion and security. New York: Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-415-66744-9.  ^ a b Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh
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Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 236–238. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8. ; Fenech, Louis E. (2001). "Martyrdom and the Execution of Guru Arjan
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in Early Sikh
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Sources". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 121 (1): 20–31. doi:10.2307/606726. ; Fenech, Louis E. (1997). "Martyrdom and the Sikh
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Tradition". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 117 (4): 623–642. doi:10.2307/606445. ; McLeod, Hew (1999). "Sikhs and Muslims in the Punjab". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. Taylor & Francis. 22 (sup001): 155–165. doi:10.1080/00856408708723379. ISSN 0085-6401.  ^ Singh, Teja (2006). A Short History of the Sikhs: Volume One. Patiala: Punjabi University. p. 107. ISBN 8173800073.  ^ a b Singh, Kartar (2008). Life of Guru Gobind Singh. Ludhiana, India: Lahore Bookshop.  ^ Sikhism: Sects and Other Groups, Encyclopaedia Britannica ^ Sandeep Chohan and Ron Geaves (2001), The religious dimension in the struggle for Khalistan and its roots in Sikh
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history, International Journal of Punjab Studies, Volume 8, Issue 1, page 85 ^ S Jain (1994). Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Volume 74. Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. p. 217. , Quote: The word "Khalsa" (from Persian khalis) itself means "pure". ^ a b c Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 54–57, 29, 143. ISBN 978-0-19-874557-0.  ^ E. G. Wace (1884). Final Report on the First Regular Settlement of the Simla District in the Punjab. Calcutta Central Press. pp. xxvi–xxviii, 3, 28.  ^ W. H. McLeod (2003). Sikhs of the Khalsa: A History of the Khalsa Rahit. Oxford University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-19-565916-0.  ^ N. Jayapalan (2001). History of India. Atlantic. p. 160. ISBN 9788171569281.  ^ Singh, H.S. (2005). Sikh
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Studies, Book 7. Hemkunt Press. p. 19. ISBN 9788170102458.  ^ a b c d e Mahmood, Cynthia Keppley (1996). Fighting for faith and nation dialogues with Sikh
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militants. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 43–45. ISBN 978-0812215922. OCLC 44966032.  ^ P Dhavan (2011). When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh Warrior Tradition, 1699-1799. Oxford University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-19-975655-1.  ^ a b c d Arvind-Pal Singh
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Mandair; Christopher Shackle; Gurharpal Singh
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Religion, Culture and Ethnicity. Routledge. pp. 25–28. ISBN 978-1-136-84627-4.  ^ P Dhavan (2011). When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh Warrior Tradition, 1699-1799. Oxford University Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-0-19-975655-1.  ^ Cole, W. Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh
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(1978). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 38–39. ISBN 0-7100-8842-6. , Quote: All the battles I have won against tyranny I have fought with the devoted backing of the people. Through them only have I been able to bestow gifts, through their help I have escaped from harm. The love and generosity of these Sikhs have enriched my heart and home. Through their grace I have attained all learning, through their help in battle I have slain all my enemies. I was born to serve them, through them I reached eminence. What would I have been without their kind and ready help?There are millions of insignificant people like me. True service is the service of these people. I am not inclined to serve others of higher caste: charity will bear fruit in this and the next world, If given to such worthy people as these. All other sacrifices are and charities are profitless. From toe to toe, whatever I call my own, all I possess and carry, I dedicate to these people.</poem> ^ a b c d Harjot Oberoi (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh
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Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 59–62. ISBN 978-0-226-61592-9.  ^ Harjot Oberoi (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh
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Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 24, 77–78, 89–90. ISBN 978-0-226-61592-9.  ^ Arvind-Pal S. Mandair; Christopher Shackle; Gurharpal Singh
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Religion, Culture and Ethnicity. Routledge. pp. 30–33. ISBN 978-1-136-84634-2.  ^ Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-19-100411-7.  ^ Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.  ^ Knut A. Jacobsen; Kristina Myrvold (2012). Sikhs Across Borders: Transnational Practices of European Sikhs. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 142–147, 156–157. ISBN 978-1-4411-0358-1.  ^ a b c Cole, W. Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh
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(1978). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Routledge. p. 37. ISBN 0-7100-8842-6.  ^ Eleanor Nesbitt, "Sikhism: a very short introduction", ISBN 0-19-280601-7, Oxford University Press, pp. 40–43 ^ a b John M Koller (2016). The Indian Way: An Introduction to the Philosophies & Religions of India. Routledge. pp. 312–313. ISBN 978-1-315-50740-8.  ^ Cole, W. Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh
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(1978). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 36. ISBN 0-7100-8842-6.  ^ "Section Six". Archived from the original on February 2, 2002.  ^ Singh, Balawindara (2004). Fifty-Two Commandments Of Guru Gobind Singh. Michigan, US: Singh
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Bros. p. 9.  ^ Major Pearse, Hugh; Ranjit Singh
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Empire. Delhi, India: National Book Shop. ISBN 81-7116-231-2.  ^ Nesbitt, Eleanor (2005). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191578069.  ^ Taylor, Elizabeth (2012). Religion: A Clinical Guide for Nurses. Springer Publishing Company. p. 259. ISBN 9780826108616.  ^ Brodd, Jeffrey (2009). World Religions: A Voyage of Discovery. Saint Mary's Press. p. 118. ISBN 9780884899976.  ^ Mosher, Lucinda (2005). Faith in the Neighborhood: Belonging. Church Publishing, Inc. p. 50. ISBN 9781596271517.  ^ Shan, Harnam (2002). Creation Of Khalsa. Chandigarh, India: Guru Nanak Dev Mission Patiala. p. 9.  ^ a b Cunningham, Joseph Davey (2002). " Sikhism
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under Govind". A history of Sikhs. Rupa & Co., New Delhi. pp. 68–69. ISBN 8171677649.  ^ Singh, Sangat (2005). "Evolution of Sikh
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Brothers. pp. 67–68. ISBN 8172052758.  ^ Singh, Gopal. A history of the Sikh
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Who and What is a Khalsa? Creation of the Khalsa Rise of the Khalsa Order of The Khalsa

v t e

Sikh
Sikh
topics

Gurus

Guru Nanak Guru Angad Guru Amar Das Guru Ram Das Guru Arjan Guru Hargobind Guru Har Rai Guru Har Krishan Guru Tegh Bahadur Guru Gobind Singh Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
( Sikh
Sikh
holy book)

Philosophy

Beliefs and principles Guru Maneyo Granth Sikh
Sikh
Rehat Maryada Prohibitions

Cannabis and Sikhism

Diet in Sikhism

Practices

Khalsa Ardās Kirtan Langar Naam Karan Anand Karaj Amrit Sanchar Amrit Velā Antam Sanskar Three Pillars Kirat Karo Naam Japo Vand Chhako Sikh
Sikh
practices The Five Ks Simran Sewa Charhdi Kala Dasvand Jhatka

Scripture

Guru Granth Sahib Adi Granth Dasam Granth Gurbani Mul Mantar Japji Sahib Chaupai Jaap Sahib Rehras Sukhmani Sahib Tav-Prasad Savaiye

By country

Australia Afghanistan Belgium Canada

Vancouver

Fiji France Germany India Indonesia Iraq Italy Malaysia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Pakistan Singapore Switzerland Thailand United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States

Other topics

History Gurmukhi alphabet Ik Onkar Waheguru Khanda Gurdwara
Gurdwara
(Harmandir Sahib) Panj Pyare Literature Music Names Places Politics Nanakshahi calendar Ramananda Fariduddin Ganjshakar Kabir History of the Punjab Sardar Dastar Islam Jainism Hinduism Sikh
Sikh
Empire Mela Maghi Maghi Vaisakhi Hola Mohalla 3HO Sikhs Women in Sikhism Sikhism
Sikhism
and sexual orientation Idolatry in Sikhism Criticism Punjab region Punjabi people Punjabi language
Punjabi language
(Gurmukhī)

Takht

Akal Takht Damdama Sahib Kesgarh Sahib Hazur Sahib Patna
Patna
Sahib

Sikhism
Sikhism
portal

v t e

Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh

Family

Guru Tegh Bahadur, Mata Gujri Mata Jito, Mata Sundari, Mata Sahib Kaur Jujhar Singh, Zorawar Singh, Fateh Singh, Ajit Singh

The Leader

Khalsa Panj Pyare Guru Maneyo Granth The Five Ks

The Soldier

Battle of Bhangani,(1688) Battle of Nadaun,(1687) Battle of Guler (1696), First Battle of Anandpur,(1700) Battle of Anandpur Sahib
Anandpur Sahib
(1701), Battle of Nirmohgarh (1702), Battle of Basoli (1702) Battle of Anandpur (1704) Battle of Chamkaur
Chamkaur
(1704) Battle of Bichhora Sahib, Battle of Muktsar.

The Saint

v t e

Dasam Granth

Jaap Sahib Akal Ustat Bachitar Natak Chandi Charitar Ukat(i) Bilas Chandi Charitar 2 Chandi di Var Gyan Parbodh Chobis Avatar Brahm Avtar Rudar Avtar Sabad patshahi 10 33 Swaiyey Khalsa
Khalsa
Mahima Shastar Nam Mala Charitropakhyan Zafarnamah Hikayats

Associates

Banda Bahadur Mata Bhag Kaur Bhai Kanhaiya Bhai Mani Singh Bhai Nand Lal

Pir Budhu Shah

Opponents

Aurangzeb, Wazir Khan Jamshed Khan and Wasil Beg

Places

Patna Anandpur Sahib Muktsar Sahib Chamkaur

List of places named after Guru Gobind Singh

Gurudwaras

Takht Sri Keshgarh Sahib Takht Sri Hazur Sahib Takht Sri Patna
Patna
Sahib Nada Sahib

Sik

.