The Info List - Kenzaburō Ōe

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Kenzaburō Ōe
Kenzaburō Ōe
(大江 健三郎, Ōe Kenzaburō, born 31 January 1935) is a Japanese writer and a major figure in contemporary Japanese literature. His novels, short stories and essays, strongly influenced by French and American literature and literary theory, deal with political, social and philosophical issues, including nuclear weapons, nuclear power, social non-conformism, and existentialism. Ōe was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
in 1994 for creating "an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today".[1]


1 Life 2 Writing

2.1 About his son Hikari 2.2 2006–2008 2.3 2013

3 Honors 4 Selected works

4.1 Books available in English

5 Nobel lecture 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Life[edit] Ōe was born in Ōse (大瀬村, Ōse-mura), a village now in Uchiko, Ehime Prefecture on Shikoku. He was the third son of seven children. Ōe's grandmother taught him art and oral performance. His grandmother died in 1944, and later that year, Ōe's father died in the Pacific War. Ōe's mother became his primary educator, buying him books such as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
and The Wonderful Adventures of Nils, whose impact Ōe says "he will carry to the grave".[2] Ōe remembers his elementary school teacher claiming that Emperor Hirohito
was a living god, and asking him every morning, "What would you do if the emperor commanded you to die?" Ōe always replied, "I would die, sir. I would cut open my belly and die." At home in bed at night he would acknowledge his reluctance to die and feel ashamed.[3] After the war, he realized he had been taught lies and felt betrayed. This sense of betrayal later appeared in his writing.[3] Ōe attended high school in Matsuyama. At the age of 18, he made his first trip to Tokyo and in the following year began studying French Literature at Tokyo University
Tokyo University
under the direction of Professor Kazuo Watanabe, a specialist on François Rabelais. Oe began publishing stories in 1957, while still a student, strongly influenced by contemporary writing in France and the United States. He married in February 1960. His wife, Yukari, was the daughter of film director Mansaku Itami and sister of film director Juzo Itami. The same year he met Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
on a trip to China. He also went to Russia and Europe the following year, visiting Sartre in Paris.[4][5] In 1961, Ōe's novellas Seventeen and The Death of a Political Youth were published by a Japanese literary magazine. Both were inspired by seventeen-year-old Yamaguchi Otoya, who assassinated the chairman of Japan's Socialist Party in 1960, and then killed himself in prison three weeks later. Yamaguchi had admirers among the extreme right wing who were angered by The Death of a Political Youth and both Ōe and the magazine received death threats day and night for weeks. The magazine soon apologized to offended readers, but Ōe did not. The story has never been reprinted or translated.[3] Ōe lives in Tokyo. He has three children; the eldest son, Hikari, has been brain-damaged since his birth in 1963, and his disability has been a recurring motif in Ōe's writings since. In 1994 Ōe won the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
and was named to receive Japan's Order of Culture. He refused the latter because it is bestowed by the Emperor. Ōe said, "I do not recognize any authority, any value, higher than democracy." Once again, he received threats.[3]

Ōe at a 2013 antinuclear demonstration in Tokyo

In 2005, two retired Japanese military officers sued Ōe for libel for his 1970 essay, Okinawa Notes, in which he had written that members of the Japanese military had coerced masses of Okinawan civilians into committing suicide during the Allied invasion of the island in 1945. In March 2008, the Osaka
District Court dismissed all charges against Ōe. In this ruling, Judge Toshimasa Fukami stated, "The military was deeply involved in the mass suicides". In a news conference following the trial, Ōe said, "The judge accurately read my writing."[6] Ōe has been involved with pacifist and anti-nuclear campaigns and has written books regarding the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Hibakusha. Following the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, he urged Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda
Yoshihiko Noda
to "halt plans to restart nuclear power plants and instead abandon nuclear energy".[7] Ōe has said Japan
has an "ethical responsibility" to abandon nuclear power in the aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, just as it renounced war under its postwar Constitution. He has called for "an immediate end to nuclear power generation and warned that Japan
would suffer another nuclear catastrophe if it tries to resume nuclear power plant operations". In 2013, he organized a mass demonstration in Tokyo against nuclear power.[8] Ōe has also criticized moves to amend Article 9 of the Constitution, which forever renounces war.[9] Writing[edit] Ōe explained, shortly after learning that he'd been awarded the Nobel Prize, "I am writing about the dignity of human beings".[10] After his first student works set in his own university milieu, in the late 1950s he produced works such as 飼育 (Shiiku), about a black GI set upon by Japanese youth (made into a film, "The Catch" by Nagisa Oshima in 1961) and Nip the Buds, Shoot the Kids, focusing on young children living in Arcadian transformations of Ōe's own rural Shikoku childhood.[11] He later identified these child figures as belonging to the 'child god' archetype of Jung and Kerényi, which is characterised by abandonment, hermaphrodism, invincibility, and association with beginning and end.[12] The first two characteristics are present in these early stories, while the latter two features come to the fore in the 'idiot boy' stories which appeared after the birth of Hikari.[13] Between 1958 and 1961 Ōe published a series of works incorporating sexual metaphors for the occupation of Japan. He summarised the common theme of these stories as "the relationship of a foreigner as the big power [Z], a Japanese who is more or less placed in a humiliating position [X], and, sandwiched between the two, the third party [Y] (sometimes a prostitute who caters only to foreigners or an interpreter)".[14] In each of these works, the Japanese X is inactive, failing to take the initiative to resolve the situation and showing no psychological or spiritual development.[15] The graphically sexual nature of this group of stories prompted a critical outcry; Ōe said of the culmination of the series Our Times, "I personally like this novel [because] I do not think I will ever write another novel which is filled only with sexual words."[16] Ōe's next phase moved away from sexual content, shifting this time toward the violent fringes of society. The works which he published between 1961 and 1964 are influenced by existentialism and picaresque literature, populated with more or less criminal rogues and anti-heroes whose position on the fringes of society allows them to make pointed criticisms of it.[17] Ōe's admission that Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn
Huckleberry Finn
is his favorite book can be said to find a context in this period.[18] He explains, "I have always wanted to write about our country, our society and feelings about the contemporary scene. But there is a big difference between us and classic Japanese literature." In 1994, he explained that he was proud the Swedish Academy recognized the strength of modern Japanese literature
Japanese literature
and hoped the prize would encourage others.[10] According to Leo Ou-fan Lee
Leo Ou-fan Lee
writing in Muse, Ōe's latest works tend "toward bolder experiments with the technique of 'defamiliarization' by negotiating his narratives across several imaginary landscapes pertaining to painting, film, drama, music and architecture".[19] Ōe believes that novelists have always worked to spur the imagination of their readers.[1] About his son Hikari[edit]

Book cover of the 1996 English version of Kenzaburō Ōe's book about his handicapped son and their life as a family.

Ōe credits his son Hikari for influencing his literary career. Ōe tried to give his son a "voice" through his writing. Several of Ōe's books feature a character based on his son.[20] In Ōe's 1964 book, A Personal Matter, the writer describes the pain involved in accepting his brain-damaged son into his life.[21] Hikari figures prominently in many of the books singled out for praise by the Nobel committee: Hikari's life is the core of the first book published after Ōe was awarded the Nobel Prize. The 1996 book, A Healing Family, celebrates the small victories in Hikari's life.[22] Hikari was a strong influence on Father, Where are you Going?, Teach Us to Outgrow Our Madness, and The Day He Himself Shall Wipe My Tears Away, three novels which rework the same premise—the father of a disabled son attempts to recreate the life of his own father, who shut himself away and died. The protagonist's ignorance of his father is compared to his son's inability to understand him; the lack of information about his father's story makes the task impossible to complete, but capable of endless repetition, and, "repetition becomes the fabric of the stories".[23] 2006–2008[edit] Ōe did not write much during the nearly two years (2006–2008) of his libel case. He is beginning a new novel, which The New York Times reported would feature a character "based on his father", a staunch supporter of the imperial system who drowned in a flood during World War II. Another projected character is a contemporary young Japanese woman who “rejects everything about Japan” and in one act tries to destroy the imperial order."[24] 2013[edit] Ōe published a new book at the end of 2013. Named Bannen Yoshikishu and published by Kodansha (English title is In Late Style). The novel is the sixth in a series with the main character of Kogito Choko, who can be considered Ōe's literary alter ego. The novel is also in a sense a culmination of the I-novels that Ōe has continued to write since his son was born mentally disabled in 1963. In the novel, Choko loses interest in the novel he had been writing when the Great East Japan
earthquake and tsunami struck the Tohoku region on March 11, 2011. Instead, he begins writing about an age of catastrophe, as well as about the fact that he himself is approaching his late 70s.[25] Honors[edit]

Akutagawa Prize, 1958.[11] Shinchosha
Literary Prize, 1964. Tanizaki Prize, 1967. Noma Prize, 1973. Yomiuri Prize, 1982. Jiro Osaragi Prize (Asahi Shimbun), 1983. Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature, 1994.[10] Order of Culture, 1994 – refused.[24] Legion of Honour, 2002.[26]

In 2006, the Kenzaburō Ōe Prize was established to promote Japanese literary novels published in the last year. The winning work is selected solely by Ōe. The winner receives no cash award, but the novel is translated into other languages. Selected works[edit] The number of Kenzaburo Ōe's works translated into English and other languages remains limited, so that much of his literary output is still only available in Japanese.[27] The few translations have often appeared after a marked lag in time.[28] Work of his has also been translated into Chinese, French, and German.[29] In a statistical overview of writings by and about Kenzaburo Ōe, OCLC/ WorldCat
encompasses roughly 700 works in 1,500+ publications in 28 languages and 27,000+ library holdings.[30] This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. Books available in English[edit]

Memushiri Kouchi, 1958 – Nip the Buds, Shoot the Kids (translated by Paul Mackintosh and Maki Sugiyama) Sevuntiin, 1961 – Seventeen (translated by Luk Van Haute) Seiteki Ningen 1963 Sexual Humans, published as J (translated by Luk Van Haute) Kojinteki na taiken, 1964 – A Personal Matter
A Personal Matter
(translated by John Nathan) Hiroshima noto, 1965 – Hiroshima Notes (translated by David L. Swain, Toshi Yonezawa) Man'en gannen no futtoboru, 1967 – The Silent Cry
The Silent Cry
(translated by John Bester) Warera no kyōki wo ikinobiru michi wo oshieyo, 1969 – Teach Us to Outgrow Our Madness (1977) Mizukara waga namida wo nuguitamau hi, 1972 – The Day He Himself Shall Wipe My Tears Away in Teach Us to Outgrow Our Madness (1977) Pinchiranna chosho,' 1976 – The Pinch Runner Memorandum (translated by Michiko N. Wilson) Atarashii hito yo mezame yo, 1983 – Rouse Up O Young Men of the New Age! (translated by John Nathan) Jinsei no shinseki, 1989 – An Echo of Heaven (translated by Margaret Mitsutani) Shizuka-na seikatsu, 1990 – A Quiet Life (translated by Kunioki Yanagishita & William Wetherall) Kaifuku suru kazoku, 1995 – A Healing Family (translated by Stephen Snyder, illustrated by Yukari Oe) Chugaeri, 1999 – Somersault (translated by Philip Gabriel) Torikae ko (Chenjiringu), 2000 – The Changeling (translated by Deborah Boehm) Suishi, 2009 – Death by Water (translated by Deborah Boehm).

Year Japanese Title English Title Comments

1957 奇妙な仕事 Kimyou na shigoto The Strange Work His first short story

死者の奢り Shisha no ogori Lavish Are The Dead Short story

他人の足 Tanin no ashi Someone Else's Feet Short story

飼育 Shiiku Prize Stock Short story awarded the Akutagawa prize

1958 見るまえに跳べ Miru mae ni tobe Leap before you look Short story

芽むしり仔撃ち Memushiri kouchi Nip the Buds, Shoot the Kids His first novel

1961 セヴンティーン Sevuntīn Seventeen Short novel

1963 叫び声 Sakebigoe Cry

性的人間 Seiteki ningen The sexual man (Also known as "J") Short story

1964 空の怪物アグイー Sora no kaibutsu Aguī Aghwee the Sky Monster Short story

個人的な体験 Kojinteki na taiken A Personal Matter Awarded the Shinchosha
Literary Prize

1965 厳粛な綱渡り Genshuku na tsunawatari The Solemn Rope-walking Essay

ヒロシマ・ノート Hiroshima nōto Hiroshima Notes Reportage

1967 万延元年のフットボール Man'en gan'nen no futtobōru The Silent Cry Novel, awarded the Jun'ichirō Tanizaki prize

1968 持続する志 Jizoku suru kokorozashi Continuous will Essay

1969 われらの狂気を生き延びる道を教えよ Warera no kyōki wo ikinobiru michi wo oshieyo Teach Us to Outgrow Our Madness

1970 壊れものとしての人間 Kowaremono toshiteno ningen A Human Being as a fragile article Essay

核時代の想像力 Kakujidai no sozouryoku Imagination of the Atomic Age Talk

沖縄ノート Okinawa nōto Okinawa Notes Reportage

1972 鯨の死滅する日 Kujira no shimetsu suru hi The Day Whales Vanish Essay

みずから我が涙をぬぐいたまう日 Mizukara waga namida wo nuguitamau hi The Day He Himself Shall Wipe My Tears Away

1973 同時代としての戦後 Doujidai toshiteno sengo The Post-war Times as Contemporaries Essay

洪水はわが魂に及び Kōzui wa waga tamashii ni oyobi The Flood Invades My Spirit Awarded the Noma Literary Prize

1976 ピンチランナー調書 Pinchi ran'nā chōsho The Pinch Runner Memorandum

1979 同時代ゲーム Dojidai gemu The Game of Contemporaneity

1980 (現代 ゲーム) Gendai gemu" Sometimes the Heart of the Turtle

1982 「雨の木」を聴く女たち Rein tsurī wo kiku on'natachi Women Listening to the "Rain Tree" Awarded the Yomiuri Literary Prize

1983 新しい人よ眼ざめよ Atarashii hito yo, mezameyo Rouse Up, O Young Men of the New Age! Awarded the Jiro Osaragi prize

1984 いかに木を殺すか Ikani ki wo korosu ka How Do We Kill the Tree ?

1985 河馬に嚙まれる Kaba ni kamareru Bitten by the Hippopotamus Awarded the Yasunari Kawabata
Yasunari Kawabata
Literary Prize

1986 M/Tと森のフシギの物語 M/T to mori no fushigi no monogatari M/T and the Narrative About the Marvels of the Forest

1987 懐かしい年への手紙 Natsukashī tosi eno tegami Letters for Nostalgic Years

1988 「最後の小説」 'Saigo no syousetu' 'The Last Novel' Essay

新しい文学のために Atarashii bungaku no tame ni For the New Literature Essay

キルプの軍団 Kirupu no gundan The Army of Quilp

1989 人生の親戚 Jinsei no shinseki An Echo of Heaven Awarded the Sei Ito Literary Prize

1990 治療塔 Chiryou tou The Tower of Treatment

静かな生活 Shizuka na seikatsu A Quiet Life

1991 治療塔惑星 Chiryou tou wakusei The Tower of Treatment and the Planet

1992 僕が本当に若かった頃 Boku ga hontou ni wakakatta koro The Time that I Was Really Young

1993 「救い主」が殴られるまで 'Sukuinushi' ga nagurareru made Until the Savior Gets Socked 燃えあがる緑の木 第一部 Moeagaru midori no ki dai ichi bu The Flaming Green Tree Trilogy I

1994 揺れ動く (ヴァシレーション) Yureugoku (Vashirēshon) Vacillating 燃えあがる緑の木 第二部 Moeagaru midori no ki dai ni bu The Flaming Green Tree Trilogy II

1995 大いなる日に Ōinaru hi ni On the Great Day 燃えあがる緑の木 第三部 Moeagaru midori no ki dai san bu The Flaming Green Tree Trilogy III

曖昧な日本の私 Aimai na Nihon no watashi Japan, the Ambiguous, and Myself: The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Speech and Other Lectures Talk

恢復する家族 Kaifukusuru kazoku A Healing Family Essay with Yukari Oe

1999 宙返り Chūgaeri Somersault

2000 取り替え子 (チェンジリング) Torikae ko (Chenjiringu) The Changeling

2001 「自分の木」の下で 'Jibun no ki' no shita de Under the "Tree of Mine" Essay with Yukari Oe

2002 憂い顔の童子 Ureigao no dōji The Infant with a Melancholic Face

2003 「新しい人」の方へ 'Atarashii hito' no hou he Toward the "New Man" Essay with Yukari Oe

二百年の子供 Nihyaku nen no kodomo The Children of 200 Years

2005 さようなら、私の本よ! Sayōnara, watashi no hon yo! Farewell, My Books!

2007 臈たしアナベル・リイ 総毛立ちつ身まかりつ Routashi Anaberu rī souke dachitu mimakaritu The Beautiful Annabel Lee was Chilled and Killed

2009 水死 sui shi Death by Water

2013 晩年様式集(イン・レイト・スタイル) Bannen Youshiki shū (In Reito Sutairu) In Late Style

Nobel lecture[edit] Ōe's Nobel lecture on 7 December 1994 entitled "Aimai na Nihon no watashi" (Japan, the Ambiguous and Myself)[31] began with a commentary on his life as a child and how he was fascinated by The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Huckleberry Finn
and The Wonderful Adventures of Nils, which he used to take his mind off from the terror of World War II. He described surviving various hardships by using writing as an escape, "representing these sufferings of mine in the form of the novel," and how his son Hikari similarly uses music as a method of expressing "the voice of a crying and dark soul." Ōe dedicated a large portion of his speech to his opinion of Yasunari Kawabata's acceptance speech, saying that the vagueness of Kawabata's title and his discussions of the poems written by medieval Zen monks were the inspiration for the title of his acceptance speech. Ōe, however, stated that rather than feeling spiritual affinity with his compatriot Kawabata, he felt more affinity with the Irish poet, William Butler Yeats, whose poetry had a significant effect on his writings and his life, even being a major inspiration for his trilogy, A Flaming Green Tree and the source of its title. Ōe stated, "Yeats is the writer in whose wake I would like to follow." He mentioned that based on his experiences of Japan, he cannot utter in unison with Kawabata the phrase "Japan, the Beautiful and Myself". Ōe also discussed the revival of militaristic feelings in Japan
and the necessity for rejecting these feelings, and how Ōe desired to be of use in a cure and reconciliation of mankind. See also[edit]

portal Biography portal Novels portal

List of Japanese Nobel laureates List of Nobel laureates
List of Nobel laureates
affiliated with the University of Tokyo Anti-nuclear
power movement in Japan Relocation of Marine Corps Air Station Futenma


^ a b "Oe, Pamuk: World needs imagination", Yomiuri.co.jp; May 18, 2008. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
1994: Kenzaburo Oe (biography)". Nobel media. Retrieved 2013-05-02.  ^ a b c d Weston, Mark (1999). Giants of Japan: The Lives of Japan's Most Influential Men and Women. New York: Kodansha International. pp. 294–295, 299. ISBN 1-568362862.  ^ Kenzaburo Oe, The Art of Fiction No. 195 The Paris Review ^ Jaggi, Maya. "Profile: Kenzaburo Oë". the Guardian. Retrieved 2015-11-22.  ^ Onishi, Norimitsu. "Japanese Court Rejects Defamation Lawsuit Against Nobel Laureate," New York Times. March 29, 2008. ^ "Nobel laureate Oe urges nation to end reliance on nuclear power". The Japan
Times. September 8, 2011.  ^ [1] Mainichi Daily News, September 15, 2013, "Some 8,000 March in Tokyo Against Restart of Any Nuclear Power Plants" (accessed November 10, 2013) ^ [2] Asahi Shumbun, 18 May 2013, "Writer Oe calls for stopping moves to revise Constitution" (accessed 9 November 2013) ^ a b c Sterngold, James. "Nobel in Literature Goes to Kenzaburo Oe of Japan," New York Times. October 14, 1994. ^ a b Wilson, Michiko. (1986) The Marginal World of Ōe Kenzaburō: A Study in Themes and Techniques, p. 12. ^ Ōe, The Method of a Novel, p. 197. ^ Wilson, p. 135. ^ Ōe, Ōe Kenzaburō Zensakuhin, Vol. 2 (Supplement No. 3). p. 16. ^ Wilson p. 32. ^ Wilson, p. 29. ^ Wilson p. 47. ^ Theroux, Paul. "Speaking of Books: Creative Dissertating; Creative Dissertating", nytimes.com, February 8, 1970. ^ Lee, Leo Ou-fan (November 2009). "Always too late". Muse Magazine (34): 104.  ^ Sobsey, Richard Archived 2009-07-01 at the Wayback Machine.. "Hikari Finds His Voice," Canadian Broadcast Corporation (CBC), produced by Compassionate Healthcare Network (CHN). July 1995. ^ Nobel Prize, 1994 laureate biography ^ WorldCat
Identities Archived 2010-12-30 at the Wayback Machine.: Ōe, Hikari 1963–  ^ Wilson, p. 61. ^ a b Onishi, Norimitsu. "Released From Rigors of a Trial, a Nobel Laureate’s Ink Flows Freely," New York Times. May 17, 2008. ^ "Oe's latest novel offers glimmer of hope in a world beset by catastrophe". Retrieved 2013-12-16.  ^ "Novelist Oe inducted into France's Legion of Honor. - Free Online Library". www.thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 2016-01-28.  ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "Kenzaburo Ōe". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski
Public Library. Archived from the original on 10 February 2015.  ^ Tayler, Christopher. "The Changeling by Kenzaburo Oe." The Guardian. Friday June 11, 2010. Retrieved on November 9, 2012. ^ Jing, Xiaolei. "Embracing Foreign Literature." Beijing Review. No. 7 February 19, 2009. Updated February 13, 2009. Retrieved on November 9, 2012. ^ WorldCat
Identities Archived 2010-12-30 at the Wayback Machine.: Ōe, Kenzaburō 1935– ^ [3]


Ōe, Kenzaburō. (1968). Ōe Kenzaburō Zensakuhin (Complete Works of Oe Kenzaburo).Tokyo: Shinchosha. _____________. (1978). Shosetsu no hoho (The Method of a Novel). Tokyo: Iwanami. Wilson, Michiko N. (1986). The Marginal World of Ōe Kenzaburō: A Study in Themes and Techniques. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-87332-343-7 (cloth) ISBN 978-1-56324-580-0 (paper)

Further reading[edit]

Kimura, Akio. (2007) Faulkner and Oe: The Self-Critical Imagination. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America. Rapp, Rayne and Faye Ginsburg. "Enabling Disability: Rewriting Kinship, Reimagining Citizenship." (Archive) Public Culture. Volume 13, Issue 3. p. 533–556. Ueda, Hozumi (上田 穗積 Ueda Hozumi). "Mice and Elephants, or Forests and Prairies : A Comparison of Ohe Kenzaburoh and Murakami Haruki" (鼠と象、あるいは森と平原 : 大江健三郎と村上春樹) (in Japanese) National Institute of Informatics (NII) Article ID (NAID) :40019369258. NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID) :AN10074725. ISSN 0910-3430. Journal Type :大学紀要. NDL Article ID :023863147. NDL Source Classification :ZV1(一般学術誌—一般学術誌・大学紀要). NDL Call No. :Z22-1315. Databases : NDL Wilson, Michiko N. (2007). ″Kenzaburo Ôe: Laughing Prophet and Soulful Healer,″ on the official Nobel Foundation Website, [4]

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Kenzaburō Ōe

Nobel Biography Nobel Laureate page Kenzaburō Ōe
Kenzaburō Ōe
Prize Sarah Fay (Winter 2007). "Kenzaburo Oe, The Art of Fiction No. 195". The Paris Review. 

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Works by Kenzaburō Ōe

Nip the Buds, Shoot the Kids Aghwee the Sky Monster A Personal Matter The Silent Cry The Day He Himself Shall Wipe My Tears Away The Pinch Runner Memorandum The Game of Contemporaneity Rouse Up O Young Men of the New Age! M/T and the Narrative About the Marvels of the Forest Somersault The Changeling The Beautiful Annabel Lee was Chilled and Killed

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature


1901 Sully Prudhomme 1902 Theodor Mommsen 1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson 1904 Frédéric Mistral
Frédéric Mistral
/ José Echegaray 1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz 1906 Giosuè Carducci 1907 Rudyard Kipling 1908 Rudolf Eucken 1909 Selma Lagerlöf 1910 Paul Heyse 1911 Maurice Maeterlinck 1912 Gerhart Hauptmann 1913 Rabindranath Tagore 1914 1915 Romain Rolland 1916 Verner von Heidenstam 1917 Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan 1918 1919 Carl Spitteler 1920 Knut Hamsun 1921 Anatole France 1922 Jacinto Benavente 1923 W. B. Yeats 1924 Władysław Reymont 1925 George Bernard Shaw


1926 Grazia Deledda 1927 Henri Bergson 1928 Sigrid Undset 1929 Thomas Mann 1930 Sinclair Lewis 1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt 1932 John Galsworthy 1933 Ivan Bunin 1934 Luigi Pirandello 1935 1936 Eugene O'Neill 1937 Roger Martin du Gard 1938 Pearl S. Buck 1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 Johannes V. Jensen 1945 Gabriela Mistral 1946 Hermann Hesse 1947 André Gide 1948 T. S. Eliot 1949 William Faulkner 1950 Bertrand Russell


1951 Pär Lagerkvist 1952 François Mauriac 1953 Winston Churchill 1954 Ernest Hemingway 1955 Halldór Laxness 1956 Juan Ramón Jiménez 1957 Albert Camus 1958 Boris Pasternak 1959 Salvatore Quasimodo 1960 Saint-John Perse 1961 Ivo Andrić 1962 John Steinbeck 1963 Giorgos Seferis 1964 Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
(declined award) 1965 Mikhail Sholokhov 1966 Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
/ Nelly Sachs 1967 Miguel Ángel Asturias 1968 Yasunari Kawabata 1969 Samuel Beckett 1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1971 Pablo Neruda 1972 Heinrich Böll 1973 Patrick White 1974 Eyvind Johnson
Eyvind Johnson
/ Harry Martinson 1975 Eugenio Montale


1976 Saul Bellow 1977 Vicente Aleixandre 1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer 1979 Odysseas Elytis 1980 Czesław Miłosz 1981 Elias Canetti 1982 Gabriel García Márquez 1983 William Golding 1984 Jaroslav Seifert 1985 Claude Simon 1986 Wole Soyinka 1987 Joseph Brodsky 1988 Naguib Mahfouz 1989 Camilo José Cela 1990 Octavio Paz 1991 Nadine Gordimer 1992 Derek Walcott 1993 Toni Morrison 1994 Kenzaburō Ōe 1995 Seamus Heaney 1996 Wisława Szymborska 1997 Dario Fo 1998 José Saramago 1999 Günter Grass 2000 Gao Xingjian


2001 V. S. Naipaul 2002 Imre Kertész 2003 J. M. Coetzee 2004 Elfriede Jelinek 2005 Harold Pinter 2006 Orhan Pamuk 2007 Doris Lessing 2008 J. M. G. Le Clézio 2009 Herta Müller 2010 Mario Vargas Llosa 2011 Tomas Tranströmer 2012 Mo Yan 2013 Alice Munro 2014 Patrick Modiano 2015 Svetlana Alexievich 2016 Bob Dylan 2017 Kazuo Ishiguro

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1994 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize


George Andrew Olah
George Andrew Olah
(United States/Hungary)


Kenzaburō Ōe
Kenzaburō Ōe


Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
(Palestine) Shimon Peres
Shimon Peres
(Israel) Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin


Bertram Brockhouse
Bertram Brockhouse
(Canada) Clifford Glenwood Shull (United States)

Physiology or Medicine

Alfred G. Gilman
Alfred G. Gilman
(United States) Martin Rodbell
Martin Rodbell
(United States)

Economic Sciences

John Harsanyi (United States) John Forbes Nash (United States) Reinhard Selten
Reinhard Selten

Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
recipients 1990 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

v t e

Recipients of the Mondello Prize

Single Prize for Literature: Bartolo Cattafi (1975) • Achille Campanile (1976) • Günter Grass
Günter Grass

Jury Prize: Denise McSmith (1975) • Stefano D'Arrigo (1977) • Jurij Trifonov (1978) • Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz
Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz
(1979) • Pietro Consagra (1980) • Ignazio Buttitta, Angelo Maria e Ela Ripellino (1983) • Leonardo Sciascia
Leonardo Sciascia
(1985) • Wang Meng (1987) • Mikhail Gorbaciov (1988) • Peter Carey, José Donoso, Northrop Frye, Jorge Semprún, Wole Soyinka, Lu Tongliu (1990) • Fernanda Pivano
Fernanda Pivano
(1992) • Associazione Scrittori Cinesi (1993) • Dong Baoucum, Fan Boaci, Wang Huanbao, Shi Peide, Chen Yuanbin (1995) • Xu Huainzhong, Xiao Xue, Yu Yougqnan, Qin Weinjung (1996) • Khushwant Singh
Khushwant Singh
(1997) • Javier Marías
Javier Marías
(1998) • Francesco Burdin (2001) • Luciano Erba (2002) • Isabella Quarantotti De Filippo (2003) • Marina Rullo (2006) • Andrea Ceccherini (2007) • Enrique Vila-Matas
Enrique Vila-Matas
(2009) • Francesco Forgione (2010)

First narrative work: Carmelo Samonà (1978) • Fausta Garavini (1979)

First poetic work: Giovanni Giuga (1978) • Gilberto Sacerdoti (1979)

Prize for foreign literature: Milan Kundera
Milan Kundera
(1978) • N. Scott Momaday (1979) • Juan Carlos Onetti (1980) • Tadeusz Konwicki (1981)

Prize for foreign poetry: Jannis Ritsos (1978) • Josif Brodskij (1979) • Juan Gelman
Juan Gelman
(1980) • Gyula Illyés
Gyula Illyés

First work: Valerio Magrelli
Valerio Magrelli
(1980) • Ferruccio Benzoni, Stefano Simoncelli, Walter Valeri, Laura Mancinelli
Laura Mancinelli
(1981) • Jolanda Insana (1982) • Daniele Del Giudice (1983) • Aldo Busi
Aldo Busi
(1984) • Elisabetta Rasy, Dario Villa (1985) • Marco Lodoli, Angelo Mainardi (1986) • Marco Ceriani, Giovanni Giudice (1987) • Edoardo Albinati, Silvana La Spina (1988) • Andrea Canobbio, Romana Petri (1990) • Anna Cascella (1991) • Marco Caporali, Nelida Milani (1992) • Silvana Grasso, Giulio Mozzi (1993) • Ernesto Franco (1994) • Roberto Deidier (1995) • Giuseppe Quatriglio, Tiziano Scarpa (1996) • Fabrizio Rondolino (1997) • Alba Donati (1998) • Paolo Febbraro (1999) • Evelina Santangelo (2000) • Giuseppe Lupo (2001) • Giovanni Bergamini, Simona Corso (2003) • Adriano Lo Monaco (2004) • Piercarlo Rizzi (2005) • Francesco Fontana (2006) • Paolo Fallai (2007) • Luca Giachi (2008) • Carlo Carabba (2009) • Gabriele Pedullà (2010)

Foreign author: Alain Robbe-Grillet
Alain Robbe-Grillet
(1982) • Thomas Bernhard
Thomas Bernhard
(1983) • Adolfo Bioy Casares
Adolfo Bioy Casares
(1984) • Bernard Malamud
Bernard Malamud
(1985) • Friedrich Dürrenmatt
Friedrich Dürrenmatt
(1986) • Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
(1987) • V. S. Naipaul (1988) • Octavio Paz
Octavio Paz
(1989) • Christa Wolf
Christa Wolf
(1990) • Kurt Vonnegut (1991) • Bohumil Hrabal
Bohumil Hrabal
(1992) • Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
(1993) • J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
(1994) • Vladimir Vojnovič (1995) • David Grossman (1996) • Philippe Jaccottet
Philippe Jaccottet
(1998) • Don DeLillo
Don DeLillo
(1999) • Aleksandar Tišma (2000) • Nuruddin Farah
Nuruddin Farah
(2001) • Per Olov Enquist (2002) • Adunis
(2003) • Les Murray (2004) • Magda Szabó (2005) • Uwe Timm
Uwe Timm
(2006) • Bapsi Sidhwa
Bapsi Sidhwa
(2007) • Viktor Erofeev (2009) • Edmund White
Edmund White
(2010) • Javier Cercas
Javier Cercas
(2011) • Elizabeth Strout
Elizabeth Strout
(2012) • Péter Esterházy
Péter Esterházy
(2013) • Joe R. Lansdale (2014) • Emmanuel Carrère
Emmanuel Carrère
(2015) • Marilynne Robinson (2016) • Cees Nooteboom
Cees Nooteboom

Italian Author: Alberto Moravia
Alberto Moravia
(1982) • Vittorio Sereni
Vittorio Sereni
alla memoria (1983) • Italo Calvino
Italo Calvino
(1984) • Mario Luzi (1985) • Paolo Volponi (1986) • Luigi Malerba (1987) • Oreste del Buono (1988) • Giovanni Macchia (1989) • Gianni Celati, Emilio Villa (1990) • Andrea Zanzotto (1991) • Ottiero Ottieri (1992) • Attilio Bertolucci (1993) • Luigi Meneghello (1994) • Fernando Bandini, Michele Perriera (1995) • Nico Orengo (1996) • Giuseppe Bonaviri, Giovanni Raboni
Giovanni Raboni
(1997) • Carlo Ginzburg
Carlo Ginzburg
(1998) • Alessandro Parronchi (1999) • Elio Bartolini (2000) • Roberto Alajmo (2001) • Andrea Camilleri
Andrea Camilleri
(2002) • Andrea Carraro, Antonio Franchini, Giorgio Pressburger
Giorgio Pressburger
(2003) • Maurizio Bettini, Giorgio Montefoschi, Nelo Risi
Nelo Risi
(2004) • pr. Raffaele Nigro, sec. Maurizio Cucchi, ter. Giuseppe Conte (2005) • pr. Paolo Di Stefano, sec. Giulio Angioni (2006) • pr. Mario Fortunato, sec. Toni Maraini, ter. Andrea Di Consoli (2007) • pr. Andrea Bajani, sec. Antonio Scurati, ter. Flavio Soriga (2008) • pr. Mario Desiati, sec. Osvaldo Guerrieri, ter. Gregorio Scalise (2009) • pr. Lorenzo Pavolini, sec. Roberto Cazzola, ter. (2010) • pr. Eugenio Baroncelli, sec. Milo De Angelis, ter. Igiaba Scego
Igiaba Scego
(2011) • pr. Edoardo Albinati, sec. Paolo Di Paolo, ter. Davide Orecchio (2012) • pr. Andrea Canobbio, sec. Valerio Magrelli, ter. Walter Siti (2013) • pr. Irene Chias, sec. Giorgio Falco, ter. Francesco Pecoraro (2014) • pr. Nicola Lagioia, sec. Letizia Muratori, ter. Marco Missiroli (2015) • pr. Marcello Fois, sec. Emanuele Tonon, ter. Romana Petri (2016) • pr. Stefano Massini, sec. Alessandro Zaccuri, ter. Alessandra Sarchi (2017)

"Five Continents" Award: Kōbō Abe, Tahar Ben Jelloun, Germaine Greer, Wilson Harris, José Saramago
José Saramago
(1992) • Kenzaburō Ōe
Kenzaburō Ōe
(1993) • Stephen Spender
Stephen Spender
(1994) • Thomas Keneally, Alberto Arbasino (1996) • Margaret Atwood, André Brink, David Malouf, Romesh Gunesekera, Christoph Ransmayr
Christoph Ransmayr

"Palermo bridge for Europe" Award: Dacia Maraini
Dacia Maraini
(1999), Premio Palermo ponte per il Mediterraneo Alberto Arbasino
Alberto Arbasino

"Ignazio Buttitta" Award: Nino De Vita (2003) • Attilio Lolini (2005) • Roberto Rossi Precerotti (2006) • Silvia Bre (2007)

Supermondello Tiziano Scarpa (2009) • Michela Murgia (2010) • Eugenio Baroncelli (2011) • Davide Orecchio (2012) • Valerio Magrelli (2013) • Giorgio Falco (2014) • Marco Missiroli (2015) • Romana Petri (2016) • Stefano Massini (2017)

award of the President: Ibrahim al-Koni (2009) • Emmanuele Maria Emanuele (2010) • Antonio Calabrò (2011)

Poetry prize: Antonio Riccardi (2010)

Translation Award: Evgenij Solonovic (2010)

Identity and dialectal literatures award: Gialuigi Beccaria e Marco Paolini (2010)

Essays Prize: Marzio Barbagli (2010)

Mondello for Multiculturality Award: Kim Thúy
Kim Thúy

Mondello Youths Award: Claudia Durastanti (2011) • Edoardo Albinati (2012) • Alessandro Zaccuri (2017)

"Targa Archimede", Premio all'Intelligenza d'Impresa: Enzo Sellerio (2011)

Prize for Literary Criticism: Salvatore Silvano Nigro (2012) • Maurizio Bettini (2013) • Enrico Testa (2014) • Ermanno Cavazzoni (2015) • Serena Vitale (2016) • Antonio Prete (2017)

Award for best motivation: Simona Gioè (2012)

award for travel literature: Marina Valensise (2013)

Award 40 Years of Mondello: Gipi

Authority control

Identities VIAF: 97169275 LCCN: n81033861 ISNI: 0000 0001 2031 278X GND: 118735969 SELIBR: 105115 SUDOC: 027051641 BNF: cb11918035n (data) BIBSYS: 90585344 NLA: 35395540 NDL: 00057559 NKC: jn20000604307 BNE: XX965890