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Geshe
Geshe
Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
(Tibetan: དགེ་བཤེས་བཀལ་བཟང་རྒྱ་མཚོ།, Wylie: dge bshes bskal bzang rgya mtsho) (b. 1931) is a Buddhist monk, meditation teacher, scholar, and author.[1] He is the founder and former spiritual director of the New Kadampa Tradition-International Kadampa Buddhist Union (NKT-IKBU), an "entirely independent"[2] Modern Buddhist order that presents itself to be a tradition based on the teachings of the Gelugpa tradition of Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
[nb 1], which has grown to become a global Buddhist organisation and currently claims to have 1200 centers and branches in 40 countries around the world.[4] Geshe
Geshe
Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
is known among students of Buddhism
Buddhism
for establishing the NKT and for his books which outline what he sees as key aspects of the Gelugpa tradition.[5] He has become known for elevating the status of Dorje Shugden, by claiming Shugden's appearance is enlightened.[6]

Contents

1 Life and education in Tibet 2 Leaving Tibet and life in India 3 Claimed teacher 4 Journey to the West 5 Establishing Buddhist centres

5.1 Creation of the NKT-IKBU

6 Books 7 Emphasis on lineage 8 Ordination of Westerners 9 Development of Western Dharma
Dharma
teachers 10 Retirement 11 Bibliography 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Life and education in Tibet[edit] Geshe
Geshe
Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
was born in 1931 on the 4th day of the 6th month of the Tibetan lunar calendar), in Yangcho Tang, Tibet and named Lobsang Chuponpa. At the age of eight he joined Ngamring Jampa Ling Monastery where he was ordained as a novice monk and given the monastic name "Kelsang Gyatso" meaning "Ocean of Good Fortune".[citation needed][nb 2] Geshe
Geshe
Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
continued his studies at Sera Monastery
Sera Monastery
near Lhasa.[8] Leaving Tibet and life in India[edit] After escaping to India via Nepal during the Tibetan exodus in 1959, Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
stayed at the monastic study centre established at Buxa Fort. All he brought with him were two Buddhist scriptures — Shantideva's Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life
Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life
and a text by Je Tsongkhapa. In 1971 the Indian Government donated large tracts of land in South India
South India
to the community in exile, separate monasteries were established in the south.[9][10] At this time, Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
left the monastery at Buxa for Mussoorie
Mussoorie
(a hill station in the Indian state of Uttarakhand) where he taught and engaged in intensive meditation retreat for several years.[11] At that time Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
was "by all accounts, a very well respected scholar and meditator" within the Tibetan exile community.[12] Claimed teacher[edit] Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
removed references to the 14th Dalai Lama
Lama
and Ling Rinpoche
Rinpoche
in the second edition of Clear Light of Bliss, to create a close association between himself and Trijang Rinpoche.[13][further explanation needed] Journey to the West[edit] In 1976, at the suggestion of the Dalai Lama, Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
was invited by Lama
Lama
Thubten Yeshe through their mutual spiritual guide to become the resident teacher at the main FPMT
FPMT
center, Manjushri Institute in Ulverston, Cumbria
Cumbria
in England.[14]:129 In 1991 Following a three-year retreat in Tharpaland, Dumfries, he founded the NKT-IKBU . He retired as General Spiritual Director of the NKT-IKBU
NKT-IKBU
in August 2009 but continues to write books and practice materials.[citation needed] Lama
Lama
Yeshe's decision to invite his former classmate[15]:136 to be Resident Teacher at the FPMT's Manjushri Institute in England
England
was advised by the Dalai Lama.[12] He arrived in August 1977 and gave his first teaching on Lamrim
Lamrim
on September 10.[16] Under Kelsang Gyatso's spiritual direction, Manjushri Institute "became a thriving training and retreat center."[17] Kelsang Gyatso taught the General Program at Manjushri from 1977 to 1987.[18] At that time, the Geshe
Geshe
studies programme was taught by Jampa Tekchok and then Konchog Tsewang (1982–1990). (In 1990 the Geshe
Geshe
Studies Programme at Manjushri Institute was cancelled, as it had been in most of the other FPMT
FPMT
Centres where it had been established.[19]) On October 13, 1983, Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
became a naturalized British citizen [20] Establishing Buddhist centres[edit] Main article: Manjushri Institute In 1979, Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
opened a Buddhist teaching centre (Madhyamaka Centre in Yorkshire) under his own spiritual direction and apparently without FPMT
FPMT
approval.[14]:130 David Kay explained how many Geshes who happened to teach at FPMT
FPMT
Centers in the early years still considered themselves to be autonomous entities: "Not all of the geshes shared Lama
Lama
Yeshe's vision of Gelug
Gelug
Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West or understood themselves to be part of it."[21] Robert Bluck explained that as a consequence of opening Madhayamaka Centre, Lama
Lama
Yeshe asked for Kelsang Gyatso's resignation, "but his students petitioned him to remain, and a struggle ensued for control of Manjushri Institute, which eventually withdrew from the FPMT."[14]:130 Although some FPMT
FPMT
students regarded Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
as a "rogue geshe" as a result of his separation from the FPMT[citation needed], Bluck suggests an alternative view: " FPMT
FPMT
teachers became increasingly remote, with Kelsang Gyatso's single-minded approach and personal example inspiring many students."[14]:132–133

1998 Berlin
Berlin
New Kadampa Tradition
New Kadampa Tradition
demonstration protest against the 14th Dalai Lama. Some German slogans translated are "You know that Dorje Shugden
Dorje Shugden
harms no being, please Dalai Lama
Lama
stop spreading lies!" and " Dorje Shugden
Dorje Shugden
loves all Buddhist traditions, please don't lie!"

Creation of the NKT-IKBU[edit] Main article: New Kadampa Tradition In 1987, Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
entered a 3-year retreat at Tharpaland International Retreat Centre in Dumfries, Scotland. During his retreat, he wrote five books and established the foundations of the NKT-IKBU.[14] :130 After completing his retreat in the early months of 1991, Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
announced the creation of the NKT-IKBU, an event which was celebrated by his students in the NKT-IKBU
NKT-IKBU
magazine Full Moon as "a wonderful development in the history of the Buddhadharma."[22] Since that time, the NKT-IKBU
NKT-IKBU
has grown to comprise over 1100 Centres and groups throughout 40 countries.[4] Kelsang Gyatso's teachings had a practical emphasis teachings based on Lamrim, Lojong
Lojong
and Mahamudra[citation needed]. When he established the NKT-IKBU
NKT-IKBU
study programs he said:

I wanted to encourage people to practice purely. Just having a lot of Dharma
Dharma
knowledge, studying a lot intellectually but not practicing, is a serious problem. This was my experience in Tibet. Intellectual knowledge alone does not give peace.[23]

Waterhouse commented that "He teaches in English with a strong Tibetan accent. He is an endearing character to look at; petite with slightly downcast eyes which look about him as he walks or teaches his devoted students."[15]:137 Spanswick observes that "many of those who hear him speak are struck by his wisdom and sincerity."[24] At the heart of the NKT-IKBU
NKT-IKBU
are its three study programs: the General Program, the Foundation Program, and the Teacher Training Program.[25] In these programs students exclusively study Kelsang Gyatso's books with authorized NKT-IKBU
NKT-IKBU
Dharma
Dharma
teachers.[citation needed] According to the NKT-IKBU, it "seeks not to offer a westernized form of Buddhism, but rather to make traditional Gelugpa Buddhism accessible to westerners."[26] To achieve this, Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
taught himself English[27] Books[edit]

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Kelsang has taught extensively on all aspects of Buddha's Sutras and Tantras in light of the teachings and tradition of Je Tsongkhapa. He is also a prolific writer and translator.[28] His books, present various key aspects of Buddhism
Buddhism
as taught by the Gelug
Gelug
scholastic tradition.[5] Several have been well regarded and recommended by senior Gelug
Gelug
Lamas. Kelsang Gyatso's books were first published by Wisdom Publications. In 1985, Tharpa Publications was founded, to publish his teachings and since then has been the exclusive publisher of his works worldwide. With an aim to provide Western Dharma
Dharma
practitioners with essential Buddhist texts, Kelsang has now published 22 books. His first book published in 1980 was a commentary to Shantideva's Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life called Meaningful to Behold. This was followed by Clear Light of Bliss in 1982. A number of Kelsang Gyatso's textbooks have received favourable reviews.[29] Bluck writes that "The three most popular works—Introduction to Buddhism, The New Meditation Handbook
The New Meditation Handbook
and Transform Your Life—have sold 165,000 copies between them, showing their appeal far beyond the movement itself."[30] Batchelor says that Kelsang Gyatso's books are written with "considerable clarity."[31] Braizer echoes this sentiment, saying that Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
writes "excellent" books that are "an important contribution to Western understanding of Buddhism
Buddhism
and its traditions. They can stand on their own merit."[32] Guide to Dakini Land and Essence of Vajrayana
Vajrayana
have been described as "the most detailed and revealing commentary on specific tantric practices yet to be published in a Western language."[33] In his book review of Guide to Dakini Land, Richard Guard said:

It is remarkable that the author has managed to give us so much information in only a few hundred pages. The editors are to be commended for their skilful efforts in conveying Kelsang Gyatso’s instructions in such simple and precise language... By making this book available for Vajrayogini
Vajrayogini
practitioners, Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
has truly brought a blessing into our lives.[34]

Over a million copies of Kelsang Gyatso's books have been sold.[35] His books include titles for beginners such as Introduction to Buddhism, Transform Your Life and How to Solve Our Human Problems, books about the Mahayana
Mahayana
path like Universal Compassion
Universal Compassion
(Lojong), The New Heart of Wisdom (Heart Sutra) and Joyful Path of Good Fortune (Lamrim), and books on Vajrayana
Vajrayana
(Tantra) like Mahamudra
Mahamudra
Tantra, Guide to Dakini Land and Essence of Vajrayana. Two of his books are commentaries on Indian Mahayana
Mahayana
texts: the book Ocean of Nectar is a commentary to Chandrakirti's Guide to the Middle Way, and Meaningful to Behold is a commentary to Shantideva's Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life or Bodhicharyavatara. Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
has also translated and/or composed many sadhanas, or prayer booklets, for the practice of many of the Buddhist Tantras. Emphasis on lineage[edit] Kay says that NKT-IKBU
NKT-IKBU
practitioners practice their tradition exclusively, "eschewing eclecticism."[36] Kelsang Gyatso's "conservative and traditional presentation of Buddhism" is appealing to Westerners who "wish for a meaningful alternative to spiritual pluralism."[14] :151 According to Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
in Understanding the Mind:

Every Teacher and every tradition has a slightly different approach and employs different methods. The practices taught by one Teacher will differ from those taught by another, and if we try to combine them we shall become confused, develop doubts, and lose direction. If we try to create a synthesis of different traditions we shall destroy the special power of each and be left only with a mishmash of our own making that will be a source of confusion and doubt.[37]

Therefore, Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
has taught in Great Treasury of Merit that the most effective way to progress spiritually is by "following one tradition purely — relying upon one Teacher, practising only his teachings, and following his Dharma
Dharma
Protector. If we mix traditions many obstacles arise and it takes a long time for us to attain realizations."[38] Ordination of Westerners[edit] There are currently 700 monks and nuns within the New Kadampa Tradition, all ordained by Kelsang Gyatso. Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
says:

Western people are well educated; they do not have blind faith but immediately question and try to understand the truth. I cannot pretend with you. We cannot be like a fully ordained monk who has taken 253 vows, but who is not even keeping one. We should never do like this; we need to do everything correctly and purely. The Kadampa ordination solves all these problems. Practically speaking, all the 253 vows explained in the Vinaya
Vinaya
Sutra
Sutra
are included within the ten commitments.[39]

That is to say, the vows of those ordained within the New Kadampa Tradition do not enumerate the multitude of details specified by the Indian and Tibetan Vinaya
Vinaya
traditions. Rather, the vows follow a pragmatic approach in which the ten global commitments held by Vinaya novices constitute full ordination. The vows held by monks and nuns within the New Kadampa Tradition
New Kadampa Tradition
are as follows:

Throughout my life I will abandon killing, stealing, lying or cheating, sexual activity, taking intoxicants and engaging in meaningless activities. I will practice contentment, reduce my desire for worldly pleasures, maintain the commitments of refuge, and practice the three trainings of moral discipline, concentration and wisdom.[40]

Development of Western Dharma
Dharma
teachers[edit] Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
founded the New Kadampa Tradition
New Kadampa Tradition
"to bring pure Buddhist teachings to the west,"[41] where he would train equally four types of teacher: monks, nuns, lay men and lay women.[42] NKT-IKBU Dharma
Dharma
Centres are mixed communities of lay and ordained practitioners who are all on the same teaching programs. He also promotes the development of local teachers in their own language.[43] This is a departure from most Tibetan Buddhist Centres where monastics take precedence over lay people, monks take precedence over nuns, and Tibetans take precedence over Westerners. In a teaching called Training as a Qualified Dharma
Dharma
Teacher, Kelsang Gyatso explained where the teachers of the NKT-IKBU
NKT-IKBU
come from:

We need qualified Teachers. The New Kadampa Tradition
New Kadampa Tradition
cannot buy qualified Teachers, nor can we invite them from outside. We need Teachers who can teach the twelve texts that we have chosen as our objects of study in the Teacher Training Programme and the Foundation Programme. Other Teachers cannot teach these books because they have not studied them and they do not have the transmissions. Therefore, qualified Teachers within the New Kadampa Tradition
New Kadampa Tradition
can come only from our own students.[44]

Retirement[edit] In August 2009, he voluntarily stepped down as General Spiritual Director of the NKT-IKBU, in a democratic system of succession that he established in the NKT-IKBU's Internal Rules.[45] Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
has engaged in meditation retreat and continued to write Dharma
Dharma
books to preserve and promote the Kadampa Buddhism
Buddhism
of Je Tsongkhapa, in accordance with the instructions of Trijang Rinpoche.[46] According to Richard Spanswick, "Since taking up residence at Conishead Priory, Geshe
Geshe
Kelsang has been working to produce a complete set of instructions for westerners wishing to set out on the path to enlightenment."[47] Continuing this task, a new book entitled Modern Buddhism: The Path of Wisdom and Compassion was released in January 2010, and its oral transmission was given by Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
at the Fall 2010 NKT-IKBU
NKT-IKBU
Festival.[48] Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
has not made any public appearances since October 2013. The NKT claims that he is currently "in strict retreat."[49] Bibliography[edit]

The Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Vow: A Practical Guide to Helping Others, Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 1995) ISBN 978-0-948006-50-0 Buddhism
Buddhism
in the Tibetan Tradition: A Guide, Routledge & Kegan Paul (1984) ISBN 0-7102-0242-3, (Library Edition 2008) ISBN 978-0-415-46099-6 Clear Light of Bliss: Tantric Meditation Manual, Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 1992) ISBN 978-0-948006-21-0 Eight Steps to Happiness: The Buddhist Way of Loving Kindness, Tharpa Publications (2000) ISBN 978-0-9817277-8-3 Essence of Vajrayana: The Highest Yoga Tantra
Tantra
Practice of Heruka Body Mandala, Tharpa Publications (1997) ISBN 978-0-948006-48-7 Great Treasury of Merit: How to Rely Upon a Spiritual Guide, Tharpa Publications (1992) ISBN 978-0-948006-22-7 Guide to Dakini Land: The Highest Yoga Tantra
Tantra
Practice of Buddha Vajrayogini, Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 1996) ISBN 978-0-948006-39-5 Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life: How to Enjoy a Life of Great Meaning and Altruism, a translation of Shantideva's Bodhisattvacharyavatara with Neil Elliott, Tharpa Publications (2002) ISBN 978-0-948006-88-3 Heart Jewel: The Essential Practices of Kadampa Buddhism, Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 1997) ISBN 978-0-948006-56-2 The New Heart of Wisdom: Profound Teachings from Buddha's Heart, Tharpa Publications (5th. ed., 2012) ISBN 978-1906665043 How to Solve Our Human Problems: The Four Noble Truths, Tharpa Publications (2005, US ed., 2007) ISBN 978-0-9789067-1-9 Introduction to Buddhism: An Explanation of the Buddhist Way of Life, Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 2001, US ed. 2008) ISBN 978-0-9789067-7-1 Joyful Path of Good Fortune: The Complete Buddhist Path to Enlightenment, Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 1995) ISBN 978-0-948006-46-3 Living Meaningfully, Dying Joyfully: The Profound Practice of Transference of Consciousness, Tharpa Publications (1999) ISBN 978-0-948006-63-0 Mahamudra
Mahamudra
Tantra: The Supreme Heart Jewel Nectar, Tharpa Publications (2005) ISBN 978-0-948006-93-7 Meaningful to Behold: The Bodhisattva's Way of Life, Tharpa Publications (5th. ed., 2008) ISBN 978-1-906665-11-1 Modern Buddhism: The Path of Wisdom and Compassion, Tharpa Publications (2010) ISBN 978-1-906665-08-1 The New Meditation Handbook: Meditations to Make Our Life Happy and Meaningful, Tharpa Publications (2003) ISBN 978-0-9817277-1-4 Ocean of Nectar: The True Nature of All Things, Tharpa Publications (1995) ISBN 978-0-948006-23-4 The Oral Instructions of the Mahamudra, Tharpa Publications (2015) ISBN 978-1910368237 Tantric Grounds and Paths: How to Enter, Progress on, and Complete the Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Path, Tharpa Publications (1994) ISBN 978-0-948006-33-3 Transform Your Life: A Blissful Journey, Tharpa Publications (2001, US ed. 2007) ISBN 978-0-9789067-4-0 Understanding the Mind: The Nature and Power of the Mind, Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 1997) ISBN 978-0-948006-78-4 Universal Compassion: Inspiring Solutions for Difficult Times, Tharpa Publications (4th. ed., 2002) ISBN 978-0-948006-72-2

Notes[edit]

^ Albeit "not subordinate to Tibetan authorities other than Geshe Gyatso himself."[3] ^ In November 1986, Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
oversaw the rebuilding of Ngamring Jampa Ling Monastery after its destruction, and it was fully restored and reopened by September 1988.[7]

References[edit]

^ Smith, Jean (1999). Radiant Mind: Essential Buddhist Teachings and Texts. New York: Riverhead Books. p. 324. ^ A Moral Discipline Guide: The Internal Rules of The New Kadampa Tradition – International Kadampa Buddhist Union section §3. ^ Cozort, Daniel (2003). The Making of the Western Lama. Quoted in Heine, S., & Prebish, C. S. (2003). Buddhism
Buddhism
in the Modern World: Adaptations of an Ancient Tradition. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 231. ^ a b Center.org/en/centers "Kadampa Centres" Check url= value (help). Kadampa Buddhism. NKT-IKBU. 2013. Retrieved 2014-04-29.  ^ a b Powers, John (1996). "Review: Wisdom and Compassion in Mahāyāna Buddhism" (PDF). Journal of Buddhist Ethics. 3. ISSN 1076-9005.  ^ Kay, David (2004). Tibetan and Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
in Britain: Transplantation, Development and Adaptation. RoutledgeCurzon critical studies in Buddhism. London: RoutledgeCurzon. p. 101-2. ^ 'Full Moon Magazine 1991 ^ The Riverside Dictionary of Biography. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 346. ISBN 0618493379.  ^ "About The Re-establishment of Drepung Gomang Monastic University in India". Drepung Gomang Monastery. Retrieved 2014-04-29.  ^ "Buxa Refugee Camp" (PDF). Retrieved 9 May 2012.  ^ Cozort, D.. quoted in Heine, S., & Prebish, C. S. (2003). Buddhism
Buddhism
in the modern world: Adaptations of an ancient tradition. New York: Oxford University . p. 230. ^ a b Kay, David (2004). Tibetan and Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
in Britain: Transplantation, Development and Adaptation. RoutledgeCurzon critical studies in Buddhism. London: RoutledgeCurzon. p. 56. ^ Kay, David (2004). Tibetan and Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
in Britain: Transplantation, Development and Adaptation. RoutledgeCurzon critical studies in Buddhism. London: RoutledgeCurzon. p. 89-90. ^ a b c d e f Bluck, Robert (2006). British Buddhism: Teachings, Practice and Development. Routledge critical studies in Buddhism. London: Routledge.  ^ a b Waterhouse, Helen (1997). Buddhism
Buddhism
in Bath: Adaptation and Authority. Leeds Monograph Series. Community Religions Project, University of Leeds. ISBN 1871363055.  ^ Cozort, D.. quoted in Heine, S., & Prebish, C. S. (2003). Buddhism
Buddhism
in the modern world: Adaptations of an ancient tradition. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 225, 230. ^ Cresswell, Jamie. "Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition" entry in Melton, J. Gordon, and Martin Baumann. 2002. Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO. p. 508. ^ Kay, D. N. (2004). Tibetan and Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
in Britain: Transplantation, development and adaptation. RoutledgeCurzon critical studies in Buddhism. London: RoutledgeCurzon. pp. 56, 73. ^ Cozort, D.. quoted in Heine, S., & Prebish, C. S. (2003). Buddhism
Buddhism
in the modern world: Adaptations of an ancient tradition. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 226. ^ Cozort, D.. quoted in Heine, S., & Prebish, C. S. (2003). Buddhism
Buddhism
in the modern world: Adaptations of an ancient tradition. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 230. ^ Kay, D. N. (2004). Tibetan and Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
in Britain: Transplantation, development and adaptation. RoutledgeCurzon critical studies in Buddhism. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-415-29765-6. p. 65. ^ Kay, D. N. (2004). Tibetan and Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
in Britain: Transplantation, development and adaptation. RoutledgeCurzon critical studies in Buddhism. London: RoutledgeCurzon. p. 78. ^ From Interview with Geshe
Geshe
Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
by Donald S. Lopez, Jr. Tricycle Magazine, Spring 1998, Vol. 7 No. 3. p. 74. ^ Spanswick, Richard. (2000). The Guide: Following the Buddhist Path. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences. (8:32-8:56) ^ Cozort, D.. quoted in Heine, S., & Prebish, C. S. (2003). Buddhism
Buddhism
in the modern world: Adaptations of an ancient tradition. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 232. ^ Partridge, C. H. (2004). New religions: A guide : new religious movements, sects, and alternative spiritualities. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 205. ^ Belither, James. Modern Day Kadampas: The History and Development of the New Kadampa Tradition
New Kadampa Tradition
Archived 2008-12-11 at the Wayback Machine.. retrieved 2008-12-10. ^ Chryssides, George (1999). Exploring New Religions. London: Cassell. p. 235. ^ How to Solve Our Human Problems: The Four Noble Truths, reviewed by Publishers Weekly, retrieved 2009-08-27. ^ Bluck, Robert (2006). British Buddhism: Teachings, Practice and Development. Routledge critical studies in Buddhism. London: Routledge. p. 138. ^ Batchelor, Stephen (1994). The Awakening of the West: The Encounter of Buddhism
Buddhism
and Western Culture. Berkeley, Calif: Parallax Press. p. 203. ^ Brazier, David (2002). The New Buddhism. New York: Palgrave. p. 77. ^ Cozort, D.. quoted in Heine, S., & Prebish, C. S. (2003). Buddhism
Buddhism
in the modern world: Adaptations of an ancient tradition. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 235. ^ Book review Guide to Dakini Land: A Commentary to the Highest Yoga Tantra
Tantra
Practice of Vajrayogini, reviewed by Richard Guard. Tibetan Journal (Autumn 1991), pp. 81, 83 ^ London book fair 2009 ^ Kay, David (1997). The New Kadampa Tradition
New Kadampa Tradition
and the Continuity of Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
in Transition, Journal of Contemporary Religion 12:3 (October 1997), p. 286. ^ Kelsang Gyatso. (2002). Understanding the mind: Lorig, an explanation of the nature and functions of the mind. Ulverston, Eng: Tharpa Publications. pp. 161-162. ^ Kelsang Gyatso. (1992). Great Treasury of Merit: How to rely upon a Spiritual Guide. Ulverston, U.K.: Tharpa Publications. p. 31. ^ Gyatso, Kelsang. (1999). The Ordination Handbook of the New Kadampa Tradition. p.20. ^ Gyatso, Kelsang. (2010). Sojong Ceremony. p.15. ^ Spanswick, Richard. (2000). The Guide: Following the Buddhist Path. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences. (5:49-5:58) ^ Waterhouse, Helen (2001). Representing western Buddhism: a United Kingdom focus. quoted in Beckerlegge, G. (2001). From sacred text to internet. Religion today, v. 1. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate. p. 139. ^ Wishfulfilling Jewels for Dharma
Dharma
Practitioners: The Benefits of the Foundation and Teacher Training Programs by Geshe
Geshe
Kelsang Gyatso. 1990-10-??. retrieved 2009-03-12. ^ Geshe
Geshe
Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
(1992). Training as a Qualified Dharma
Dharma
Teacher, quoted in Religion Today: A Reader, edited by Susan Mumm, p. 43. ^ A Moral Discipline Guide: The Internal Rules of the New Kadampa Tradition — International Kadampa Buddhist Union, Section 5§2, retrieved 2010-03-10. ^ Waterhouse, Helen (2001). Representing western Buddhism: a United Kingdom focus. quoted in Beckerlegge, G. (2001). From sacred text to internet. Religion today, v. 1. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate. pp. 140, 142. ^ Spanswick, Richard. (2000). The Guide: Following the Buddhist Path. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences. (9:40-9:57) ^ Kadampa Buddhist Festivals and Celebrations, retrieved 2010-03-09. ^ "Meet the Buddhists Who Hate the Dalai Lama
Lama
More Than the Chinese Do". Foreign Policy. 13 March 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

Powers, John (1996). "Review: Wisdom and Compassion in Mahāyāna Buddhism" (PDF). Journal of Buddhist Ethics. 3. ISSN 1076-9005.  - (A review of Ocean of Nectar: Wisdom and Compassion in Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
by Geshe
Geshe
Kelsang Gyatso). Waterhouse, Helen (1997). Authority and adaptation: a case study in British Buddhism
Buddhism
(PDF) (Ph.D.). Bath Spa University. 

External links[edit]

NKT-IKBU
NKT-IKBU
official website Tharpa Publications — The publisher of Geshe
Geshe
Kelsang Gyatso's books Modern Buddhism
Buddhism
The Path of Compassion and Wisdom — Free eBook by Geshe
Geshe
Kelsang Gyatso New Kadampa Truth — Fighting smears against Geshe
Geshe
Kelsang Gyatso New Kadampa Truths Writing and discussion critical of the New Kadampa movement by ex members. Note similarly named "New Kadampa Truth" created to refute these claims.

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The Buddha

Tathāgata Birthday Four sights Physical characteristics Footprint Relics Iconography in Laos and Thailand Films Miracles Family

Suddhodāna (father) Māyā (mother) Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) Yasodhara (wife) Rāhula
Rāhula
(son) Ānanda (cousin) Devadatta
Devadatta
(cousin)

Places where the Buddha
Buddha
stayed Buddha
Buddha
in world religions

Key concepts

Avidyā (Ignorance) Bardo Bodhicitta Bodhisattva Buddha-nature Dhamma theory Dharma Enlightenment Five hindrances Indriya Karma Kleshas Mind Stream Parinirvana Pratītyasamutpāda Rebirth Saṃsāra Saṅkhāra Skandha Śūnyatā Taṇhā
Taṇhā
(Craving) Tathātā Ten Fetters Three marks of existence

Impermanence Dukkha Anatta

Two truths doctrine

Cosmology

Ten spiritual realms Six realms

Deva (Buddhism) Human realm Asura realm Hungry Ghost realm Animal realm Hell

Three planes of existence

Practices

Bhavana Bodhipakkhiyādhammā Brahmavihara

Mettā Karuṇā Mudita Upekkha

Buddhābhiseka Dāna Devotion Dhyāna Faith Five Strengths Iddhipada Meditation

Mantras Kammaṭṭhāna Recollection Smarana Anapanasati Samatha Vipassanā
Vipassanā
(Vipassana movement) Shikantaza Zazen Kōan Mandala Tonglen Tantra Tertön Terma

Merit Mindfulness

Satipatthana

Nekkhamma Pāramitā Paritta Puja

Offerings Prostration Chanting

Refuge Satya

Sacca

Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Sati Dhamma vicaya Pīti Passaddhi

Śīla

Five Precepts Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow Prātimokṣa

Threefold Training

Śīla Samadhi Prajñā

Vīrya

Four Right Exertions

Nirvana

Bodhi Bodhisattva Buddhahood Pratyekabuddha Four stages of enlightenment

Sotāpanna Sakadagami Anāgāmi Arhat

Monasticism

Bhikkhu Bhikkhuni Śrāmaṇera Śrāmaṇerī Anagarika Ajahn Sayadaw Zen
Zen
master Rōshi Lama Rinpoche Geshe Tulku Householder Upāsaka and Upāsikā Śrāvaka

The ten principal disciples

Shaolin Monastery

Major figures

Gautama Buddha Kaundinya Assaji Sāriputta Mahamoggallāna Mulian Ānanda Mahākassapa Anuruddha Mahākaccana Nanda Subhuti Punna Upali Mahapajapati Gotamī Khema Uppalavanna Asita Channa Yasa Buddhaghoṣa Nagasena Angulimala Bodhidharma Nagarjuna Asanga Vasubandhu Atiśa Padmasambhava Nichiren Songtsen Gampo Emperor Wen of Sui Dalai Lama Panchen Lama Karmapa Shamarpa Naropa Xuanzang Zhiyi

Texts

Tripiṭaka Madhyamakālaṃkāra Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras Pāli Canon Chinese Buddhist canon Tibetan Buddhist canon

Branches

Theravada Mahayana

Chan Buddhism

Zen Seon Thiền

Pure Land Tiantai Nichiren Madhyamaka Yogachara

Navayana Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Dzogchen

Early Buddhist schools Pre-sectarian Buddhism Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

Countries

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China India Indonesia Japan Korea Laos Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Russia

Kalmykia Buryatia

Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Tibet Vietnam Middle East

Iran

Western countries

Argentina Australia Brazil France United Kingdom United States Venezuela

History

Timeline Ashoka Buddhist councils History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution Greco-Buddhism Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Persecution of Buddhists Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal Buddhist crisis Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism Buddhist modernism Vipassana movement 969 Movement Women in Buddhism

Philosophy

Abhidharma Atomism Buddhology Creator Economics Eight Consciousnesses Engaged Buddhism Eschatology Ethics Evolution Humanism Logic Reality Secular Buddhism Socialism The unanswered questions

Culture

Architecture

Temple Vihara Wat Stupa Pagoda Candi Dzong architecture Japanese Buddhist architecture Korean Buddhist temples Thai temple art and architecture Tibetan Buddhist architecture

Art

Greco-Buddhist

Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree Budai Buddharupa Calendar Cuisine Funeral Holidays

Vesak Uposatha Magha Puja Asalha Puja Vassa

Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi Kasaya Mahabodhi Temple Mantra

Om mani padme hum

Mudra Music Pilgrimage

Lumbini Maya Devi Temple Bodh Gaya Sarnath Kushinagar

Poetry Prayer beads Prayer wheel Symbolism

Dharmachakra Flag Bhavacakra Swastika Thangka

Temple of the Tooth Vegetarianism

Miscellaneous

Abhijñā Amitābha Avalokiteśvara

Guanyin

Brahmā Dhammapada Dharma
Dharma
talk Hinayana Kalpa Koliya Lineage Maitreya Māra Ṛddhi Sacred languages

Pali Sanskrit

Siddhi Sutra Vinaya

Comparison

Bahá'í Faith Christianity

Influences Comparison

East Asian religions Gnosticism Hinduism Jainism Judaism Psychology Science Theosophy Violence Western philosophy

Lists

Bodhisattvas Books Buddhas

named

Buddhists Suttas Temples

Category Portal

v t e

Modern Buddhist writers (19th century to date)

Buddhism Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West Buddhist modernism

Theravada
Theravada
/ Vipassana movement

Acharya Buddharakkhita Analayo Balangoda Ananda
Ananda
Maitreya
Maitreya
Thero B. R. Ambedkar Allan Bennett Thanissaro Bhikkhu Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
Bodhi P.D. Premasiri Ajahn Chah Anagarika Dharmapala S. N. Goenka Joseph Goldstein Henepola Gunaratana Jack Kornfield Noah Levine Nyanatiloka Walpola Rahula Sharon Salzberg Sangharakshita Rahul Sankrityayan Ajahn Sumedho Ajahn Sucitto Nanavira Thera Ñāṇananda Thera Nyanaponika Thera

Mahayana

Stephen Batchelor David Brazier Tanaka Chigaku Daisaku Ikeda Nikkyō Niwano Yin Shun

Vajrayana

Pema Chödrön Surya Das Anagarika Govinda Kelsang Gyatso Dalai Lama Namkhai Norbu Thinley Norbu Ole Nydahl Matthieu Ricard Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche Sogyal Rinpoche Thrangu Rinpoche Yongey Mingyur Rinpoche Robert Thurman Chögyam Trungpa

Zen

Reb Anderson Taisen Deshimaru Gil Fronsdal Steve Hagen Thích Nhất Hạnh Hsuan Hua Nan Huai-Chin Philip Kapleau Dainin Katagiri David Loy Taizan Maezumi Kitaro Nishida Shohaku Okumura Paul Reps Seung Sahn Daewon Seongcheol Sheng-yen D. T. Suzuki Shunryu Suzuki Brad Warner Hakuun Yasutani Han Yong-un Hsing Yun

Scholars

Alexander Berzin Lokesh Chandra Edward Conze Heinrich Dumoulin Walter Evans-Wentz Richard Gombrich Herbert V. Guenther Red Pine George de Roerich C. A. F. Rhys Davids T. W. Rhys Davids Theodore Stcherbatsky Lucien Stryk B. Alan Wallace David Kalupahana KN Jayatilleke

Westerners influenced by Buddhism

Edwin Arnold Helena Blavatsky Fritjof Capra Leonard Cohen Alexandra David-Néel Sam Harris Heinrich Harrer Hermann Hesse Carl Jung Jon Kabat-Zinn Nietzsche H.S. Olcott Helena Roerich J.D. Salinger Gary Snyder Alan Watts A.N. Whitehead Western philosophy and Buddhism Buddhism
Buddhism
and psychology

Lists

List of modern Eastern religions writers List of writers on Buddhism

Buddhism
Buddhism
Portal Indian religions Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 61573858 LCCN: n83153791 ISNI: 0000 0001 1065 4284 GND: 114908567 SUDOC: 029277167 BNF: cb12093820v (data) B

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