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Akkesiphycaceae Alariaceae Chordaceae Costariaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Pseudochordaceae

Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales. There are about 30 different genera.[citation needed] Kelp
Kelp
grows in "underwater forests" (kelp forests) in shallow oceans, and is thought to have appeared in the Miocene, 23 to 5 million years ago.[3] The organisms require nutrient-rich water with temperatures between 6 and 14 °C (43 and 57 °F). They are known for their high growth rate—the genera Macrocystis
Macrocystis
and Nereocystis
Nereocystis
can grow as fast as half a metre a day, ultimately reaching 30 to 80 metres (100 to 260 ft).[4] Through the 19th century, the word "kelp" was closely associated with seaweeds that could be burned to obtain soda ash (primarily sodium carbonate). The seaweeds used included species from both the orders Laminariales
Laminariales
and Fucales. The word "kelp" was also used directly to refer to these processed ashes.[5]

Contents

1 Description 2 Growth and reproduction 3 Kelp
Kelp
forests 4 Commercial uses

4.1 Commercial production 4.2 Renewable energy source

5 Kelp
Kelp
in history and culture 6 Conservation 7 Gallery 8 Prominent species 9 Interactions 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Description[edit] In most kelp, the thallus (or body) consists of flat or leaf-like structures known as blades. Blades originate from elongated stem-like structures, the stipes. The holdfast, a root-like structure, anchors the kelp to the substrate of the ocean. Gas-filled bladders (pneumatocysts) form at the base of blades of American species, such as Nereocystis
Nereocystis
lueteana, (Mert. & Post & Rupr.)[4] to hold the kelp blades close to the surface.

Seaweed, kelp, raw

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 180 kJ (43 kcal)

Carbohydrates

9.57 g

Sugars 0.6

Dietary fiber 1.3 g

Fat

0.56 g

Protein

1.68 g

Vitamins

Thiamine
Thiamine
(B1)

(4%) 0.05 mg

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2)

(13%) 0.15 mg

Niacin
Niacin
(B3)

(3%) 0.47 mg

Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
(B5)

(13%) 0.642 mg

Folate
Folate
(B9)

(45%) 180 μg

Vitamin
Vitamin
C

(4%) 3 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
E

(6%) 0.87 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
K

(63%) 66 μg

Minerals

Calcium

(17%) 168 mg

Iron

(22%) 2.85 mg

Magnesium

(34%) 121 mg

Manganese

(10%) 0.2 mg

Phosphorus

(6%) 42 mg

Potassium

(2%) 89 mg

Sodium

(16%) 233 mg

Zinc

(13%) 1.23 mg

Link to USDA Database entry

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Growth and reproduction[edit] Growth occurs at the base of the meristem, where the blades and stipe meet. Growth may be limited by grazing. Sea urchins, for example, can reduce entire areas to urchin barrens.[6] The kelp life cycle involves a diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophyte stage. The haploid phase begins when the mature organism releases many spores, which then germinate to become male or female gametophytes. Sexual reproduction then results in the beginning of the diploid sporophyte stage, which will develop into a mature individual. The parenchymatous thalli are generally covered with a mucilage layer, rather than cuticle.[7] Kelp
Kelp
forests[edit] Main article: Kelp
Kelp
forest Kelp
Kelp
may develop dense forests with high production,[8] biodiversity and ecological function. Along the Norwegian coast these forests cover 5800 km2,[9] and they support large numbers of animals.[10][11] Numerous sessile animals (sponges, bryozoans and ascidians) are found on kelp stipes and mobile invertebrate fauna are found in high densities on epiphytic algae on the kelp stipes and on kelp holdfasts.[12] More than 100,000 mobile invertebrates per square meter are found on kelp stipes and holdfasts in well-developed kelp forests (Christie et al., 2003). While larger invertebrates and in particular sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller) are important secondary consumers controlling large barren ground areas on the Norwegian coast, they are scarce inside dense kelp forests.[13] Commercial uses[edit]

Alaskan beach kelp

Giant kelp can be harvested fairly easily because of its surface canopy and growth habit of staying in deeper water. Bongo kelp ash is rich in iodine and alkali. In great amount, kelp ash can be used in soap and glass production. Until the Leblanc process was commercialized in the early 19th century, burning of kelp in Scotland
Scotland
was one of the principal industrial sources of soda ash (predominantly sodium carbonate).[14] Alginate, a kelp-derived carbohydrate, is used to thicken products such as ice cream, jelly, salad dressing, and toothpaste, as well as an ingredient in exotic dog food and in manufactured goods[citation needed]. Alginate
Alginate
powder is also used frequently in general dentistry and orthodontics for making impressions of the upper and lower arches. These impressions are subsequently poured up in stone and the stone models are used in diagnosis and treatment [15] Kombu
Kombu
(昆布 in Japanese, and 海带 in Chinese, Saccharina japonica and others), several Pacific
Pacific
species of kelp, is a very important ingredient in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean cuisines. Kombu
Kombu
is used to flavor broths and stews (especially dashi), as a savory garnish (tororo konbu) for rice and other dishes, as a vegetable, and a primary ingredient in popular snacks (such as tsukudani). Transparent sheets of kelp (oboro konbu) are used as an edible decorative wrapping for rice and other foods.[16] Kombu
Kombu
can be used to soften beans during cooking, and to help convert indigestible sugars and thus reduce flatulence.[17] Because of its high concentration of iodine, brown kelp (Laminaria) has been used to treat goiter, an enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by a lack of iodine, since medieval times.[18] In 2010, a group of researchers in the University of Newcastle found that a fibrous material called alginate in sea kelp was better at preventing fat absorption than most over-the-counter slimming treatments in laboratory trials. As a food additive, it may be used to reduce fat absorption and thus obesity.[19] Kelp
Kelp
in its natural form has not yet been proven to have such effects. Commercial production[edit] Commercial production of kelp harvested from its natural habitat took place in Japan
Japan
for over a century. Many countries today produce and consume laminaria products, but the largest is China. Laminaria japonica, the important commercial seaweed, was first introduced into China in the late 1920s from Hokkaido, Japan. Yet mariculture of this algae on a very large commercial scale was realized in China only in the 1950s. Between the 1950s and the 1980s kelp production in China increased from about 60 to over 250,000 dry weight metric tons annually. Renewable energy source[edit] See also: Biomass energy
Biomass energy
and Algae fuel Kelp
Kelp
has a high rate of growth and its decay is quite efficient in yielding methane, as well as sugars that can be converted to ethanol. It has been proposed that large open-ocean kelp farms could serve as a source of renewable energy.[20] Unlike some biofuels such as corn ethanol, kelp energy avoids "food vs fuel" issues and does not require irrigation.[citation needed] Kelp
Kelp
in history and culture[edit] Some of the earliest evidence for human use of marine resources, coming from Middle Stone Age sites in South Africa, includes the harvesting of foods such as abalones, limpets, and mussels associated with kelp forest habitats. In 2007, Erlandson et al. suggested that kelp forests around the Pacific
Pacific
Rim may have facilitated the dispersal of anatomically modern humans following a coastal route from Northeast Asia to the Americas. This "kelp highway hypothesis" suggested that highly productive kelp forests supported rich and diverse marine food webs in nearshore waters, including many types of fish, shellfish, birds, marine mammals, and seaweeds that were similar from Japan
Japan
to California, Erlandson and his colleagues also argued that coastal kelp forests reduced wave energy and provided a linear dispersal corridor entirely at sea level, with few obstacles to maritime peoples. Archaeological evidence from California's Channel Islands confirms that islanders were harvesting kelp forest shellfish and fish beginning as much as 12,000 years ago. During the Highland Clearances, many Scottish Highlanders were moved on to areas of estates known as crofts, and went to industries such as fishing and kelping (producing soda ash from the ashes of kelp). At least until the 1840s, when there were steep falls in the price of kelp, landlords wanted to create pools of cheap or virtually free labour, supplied by families subsisting in new crofting townships. Kelp
Kelp
collection and processing was a very profitable way of using this labour, and landlords petitioned successfully for legislation designed to stop emigration. But the economic collapse of the kelp industry in northern Scotland
Scotland
led to further emigration, especially to North America. Natives of the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
are sometimes nicknamed "Kelpers".[21][22] This designation is primarily applied by outsiders rather than the natives themselves. In Chinese slang, "kelp" (simplified Chinese: 海带; traditional Chinese: 海帶; pinyin: hǎi dài), is used to describe an unemployed returnee. It has negative overtones, implying the person is drifting aimlessly, and is also a homophonic expression (Chinese: 海待; pinyin: hǎidài, literally "sea waiting"). This expression is contrasted with the employed returnee, having a dynamic ability to travel across the ocean: the "sea turtle" (simplified Chinese: 海龟; traditional Chinese: 海龜; pinyin: hǎi gūi) and is also homophonic with another word (simplified Chinese: 海归; traditional Chinese: 海歸; pinyin: hǎi gūi, literally "sea return"). Conservation[edit] Overfishing nearshore ecosystems leads to the degradation of kelp forests. Herbivores are released from their usual population regulation, leading to over-grazing of kelp and other algae. This can quickly result in barren landscapes where only a small number of species can thrive.[23][24] Other major issues that threaten kelp include marine pollution and the quality of water, climate changes and certain invasive species.[25] Gallery[edit]

Giant kelp in Monterey Bay Aquarium's Kelp
Kelp
Forest
Forest
exhibit

Scuba diver in kelp forest

Blue rockfish in kelp forest

Anemone and seastar in kelp forest

An underwater shot of a kelp forest

A kelp forest

A close up view of Ecklonia maxima, giant brown kelp

Kelp
Kelp
found along the coast of La Jolla Shores

Saccharina latissima
Saccharina latissima
in salad form, same also in canned form

Prominent species[edit]

Bull kelp, Nereocystis
Nereocystis
luetkeana, a northwestern American species. Used by coastal indigenous peoples to create fishing nets. Giant kelp, Macrocystis
Macrocystis
pyrifera, the largest seaweed. Found in the Pacific
Pacific
coast of North America
North America
and South America. Kombu, Saccharina japonica
Saccharina japonica
(formerly Laminaria
Laminaria
japonica) and others, several edible species of kelp found in Japan.

Species of Laminaria
Laminaria
in the British Isles;

Laminaria
Laminaria
digitata (Hudson) J.V. Lamouroux (Oarweed; Tangle) Laminaria
Laminaria
hyperborea (Gunnerus) Foslie (Curvie) Laminaria
Laminaria
ochroleuca Bachelot de la Pylaie Laminaria
Laminaria
saccharina (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux (sea belt; sugar kelp; sugarwack)

Species of Laminaria
Laminaria
worldwide, listing of species at AlgaeBase:[26]

Laminaria
Laminaria
agardhii (NE. America) Laminaria
Laminaria
bongardina Postels et Ruprecht (Bering Sea to California) Laminaria
Laminaria
cuneifolia (NE. America) Laminaria
Laminaria
dentigera Klellm. ( California
California
- America) Laminaria
Laminaria
digitata (NE. America) Laminaria
Laminaria
ephemera Setchell (Sitka, Alaska, to Monterey County, California
California
- America) Laminaria
Laminaria
farlowii Setchell (Santa Cruz, California, to Baja California
California
- America) Laminaria
Laminaria
groenlandica (NE. America) Laminaria
Laminaria
longicruris (NE. America) Laminaria
Laminaria
nigripes (NE. America) Laminaria
Laminaria
ontermedia (NE. America) Laminaria
Laminaria
pallida Greville ex J. Agardh (South Africa) Laminaria
Laminaria
platymeris (NE. America) Laminaria
Laminaria
saccharina (Linnaeus) Lamouroux, synonym of Saccharina latissima (north east Atlantic Ocean, Barents Sea south to Galicia - Spain) Laminaria
Laminaria
setchellii Silva (Aleutian Islands, Alaska
Alaska
to Baja California
California
America) Laminaria
Laminaria
sinclairii (Harvey ex Hooker f. ex Harvey) Farlow, Anderson et Eaton (Hope Island, British Columbia to Los Angeles, California
California
- America) Laminaria
Laminaria
solidungula (NE. America) Laminaria
Laminaria
stenophylla (NE. America)

Costaria costata, five-ribbed kelp

Other species in the Laminariales
Laminariales
that may be considered as kelp:

Alaria marginata
Alaria marginata
Post. & Rupr. ( Alaska
Alaska
and California
California
- America) Costaria costata (C.Ag.) Saunders (Japan; Alaska, California
California
- America) Ecklonia brevipes J. Agardh (Australia; New Zealand) Ecklonia maxima
Ecklonia maxima
(Osbeck) Papenfuss (South Africa) Ecklonia radiata (C.Agardh) J. Agardh (Australia; Tasmania; New Zealand; South Africa) Eisenia arborea Aresch. (Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Montrey, Santa Catalina Island, California
California
- America) Egregia menziesii
Egregia menziesii
(Turn.) Aresch. Hedophyllum sessile (C.Ag.) Setch (Alaska, California
California
- America) Macrocystis
Macrocystis
angustifolia Bory (Australia; Tasmania
Tasmania
and South Africa) Pleurophycus gardneri Setch. & Saund. (Alaska, California
California
- America) Pterygophora californica Rupr. (Vancouver Island, British Columbia to Bahia del Ropsario, Baja California
California
and California
California
- America)

Non- Laminariales
Laminariales
species that may be considered as kelp:

Durvillea
Durvillea
antarctica, Fucales
Fucales
(New Zealand, South America, and Australia) Durvillea
Durvillea
willana, Fucales
Fucales
(New Zealand) Durvillaea potatorum (Labillardière) Areschoug, Fucales
Fucales
(Tasmania; Australia)

Interactions[edit] Some animals are named after the kelp, either because they inhabit the same habitat as kelp or because they feed on kelp. These include:

Northern kelp crab
Northern kelp crab
(Pugettia producta) and graceful kelp crab (Pugettia gracilis), Pacific
Pacific
coast of North America. Kelpfish
Kelpfish
(blenny) (e.g., Heterosticbus rostratus, genus Gibbonsia), Pacific
Pacific
coast of North America. Kelp goose
Kelp goose
(kelp hen) (Chloephaga hybrida), South America
South America
and the Falkland Islands Kelp
Kelp
pigeon (sheathbill) (Chionis alba and Chionis minor), Antarctic

See also[edit]

Bladder wrack Blue carbon Durvillea Wrack zone

References[edit]

^ William Miller, III (13 October 2011). Trace Fossils: Concepts, Problems, Prospects: Chapter 13 "Zoophycos and the Role of Type Specimens in Ichnotaxonomy by Davide Olivero. Elsevier. pp. 224–226. ISBN 978-0-08-047535-6. Retrieved 1 April 2013.  ^ Migula, W. (1909). Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Deutsch-Österreich und der Schweiz. Band II. Algen. 2. Teil. Rhodophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Characeae. Gera: Verlag Friedriech von Zezschwitz. pp. i–iv, 1–382, 122 (41 col.) pls.  ^ Macrocystis
Macrocystis
Evolution ^ a b Thomas, D. 2002. Seaweeds. The Natural History Museum, London, p. 15. ISBN 0-565-09175-1 ^ "Kelp," in Oxford English Dictionary (Second Edition). Oxford University Press, 1989. Retrieved 1 December 2006 ^ Norderhaug, KM., Christie, H. 2009. Sea urchin grazing and kelp re-vegetation in the NE Atlantic. Marine Biology Research 5: 515-528. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 95: 135-144 ^ Fritsch, F. E. (1945). Structure and Reproduction of the Algae, Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 226. ISBN 9780521050425. OCLC 223742770.  ^ Abdullah, M.I., Fredriksen, S., 2004. Production, respiration and exudation of dissolved organic matter by the kelp Laminaria
Laminaria
hyperborea along the west coast of Norway. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 84: 887. ^ Rinde, E., 2009. Dokumentasjon av modellerte marine Naturtyper i DNs Naturbase. Førstegenerasjonsmodeller til kommunenes startpakker for kartlegging av marine naturtyper 2007. NIVA report, 32 pp. ^ Christie, H., Jørgensen, N.M., Norderhaug, K.M., Waage-Nielsen, E., 2003. Species distribution and habitat exploitation of fauna associated with kelp ( Laminaria
Laminaria
hyperborea) along the Norwegian coast. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 83, 687-699. ^ Jørgensen, N.M., Christie, H., 2003. Follow me @radd.michyy and lowk3y.nadine l Diurnal, horizontal and vertical dispersal of kelp associated fauna. Hydrobiologia 50, 69-76. ^ Norderhaug, K.M., Christie, H., Rinde, E., 2002. Colonisation of kelp imitations by epiphyte and holdfast fauna; a study of mobility patterns. Marine Biology 141, 965-973. ^ Norderhaug, K.M., Christie, H., 2009. Sea urchin grazing and kelp re-vegetation in the NE Atlantic. Marine Biology Research 5, 515-528. ^ Clow, Archibald; Clow, Nan L. (1952). Chemical Revolution. Ayer Co Pub. pp. 65–90. ISBN 0-8369-1909-2. OCLC 243798097.  ^ Powers, John M. Powers. Craig's Restorative Dental Materials, 12th Edition. C.V. Mosby, 022006. p. 270 ^ Kazuko, Emi: Japanese Cooking, p. 78, Hermes House, 2002, p. 78. ISBN 0-681-32327-2 ^ Graimes, Nicola: The Best-Ever Vegetarian Cookbook, Barnes & Noble Books, 1999, p. 59. ISBN 0-7607-1740-0 ^ Iodine
Iodine
Helps Kelp
Kelp
Fight Free Radicals and May Aid Humans, Too Newswise, Retrieved on July 8, 2008. ^ "Is Seaweed
Seaweed
The Answer To A Dieter's Prayer?". Sky News. March 22, 2010. Archived from the original on March 25, 2010. Retrieved March 23, 2010.  ^ Christiansen, Ryan C. (2008-10-31). "British report: Use kelp to produce energy". Biomassmagazine.com. Retrieved 2013-02-12.  ^ [1] allwords.com definition for "Kelper", ^ [2] dictionary.com definition for "Kelper" ^ Dayton, P.K. 1985a. Ecology of kelp communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 16: 215-245. ^ Sala, E., C.F. Bourdouresque and M. Harmelin-Vivien. 1998. Fishing, trophic cascades, and the structure of algal assemblages: evaluation of an old but untested paradigm. Oikos 82: 425-439. ^ Planet, Team (2012-01-12). "Green Glossary: Kelp
Kelp
Forests: Other Marine Life: Animal Planet". Animals.howstuffworks.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-24. Retrieved 2013-02-12.  ^ AlgaeBase Laminariales

Further reading[edit]

Druehl, L.D. 1988. Cultivated edible kelp. in Algae and Human Affairs. Lembi, C.A. and Waaland, J.R. (Editors) 1988.ISBN 0 521 32115 8. Erlandson, J.M., M.H. Graham, B.J. Bourque, D. Corbett, J.A. Estes, & R.S. Steneck. 2007. The Kelp
Kelp
Highway hypothesis: marine ecology, the coastal migration theory, and the peopling of the Americas. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology 2:161-174.

External links[edit]

Media related to Laminariales
Laminariales
at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Laminariales
Laminariales
at Wikispecies

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1055316 AlgaeBase: d0c3d08b90e638c63 EoL: 3565 EPPO: 1LMINO Fossilworks: 306707 GBIF: 560 ITIS: 11211 NCBI: 2886 WoRMS: 845

Authority control

LCCN

.