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Kayin State
Kayin State
(S'gaw Karen: ကညီကီၢ်ဆဲၣ်, pronounced [kɲɔkɔshæ], Burmese: ကရင်ပြည်နယ်, pronounced [kəjɪ̀ɴ pjìnɛ̀]; formerly Karen) is a state of Myanmar. The capital city is Hpa-An, also spelled Pa-An. The relief of Kayin State
Kayin State
is mountainous with the Dawna Range
Dawna Range
running along the state in a NNW - SSE direction and the southern end of the Karen Hills
Karen Hills
in the northwest.[2] It is bordered by Mae Hong Son, Tak, and Kanchanaburi
Kanchanaburi
provinces of Thailand
Thailand
to the east; Mon State
Mon State
and Bago Region to the west and south; Mandalay
Mandalay
Region, Shan State
Shan State
and Kayah State to the north.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography 3 Administrative divisions

3.1 Districts 3.2 Townships 3.3 Cities and towns 3.4 Villages and hamlets

4 Demographics

4.1 Population 4.2 Religion

5 Economy

5.1 Tourism 5.2 Border Trade 5.3 Agriculture 5.4 Industry

6 Transport 7 Education 8 Health care 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

History[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1973 858,429 —    

1983 1,055,359 +22.9%

2014 1,574,079 +49.2%

Source: 2014 Myanmar
Myanmar
Census[1]

The region that forms today's Kayin State
Kayin State
was part of successive Burmese kingdoms since the formation of the Pagan Empire
Pagan Empire
in mid-11th century. During the 13th to 16th centuries, much of the region belonged to the Hanthawaddy Kingdom, while the northern part of the region belonged to Taungoo,a vassal state of Ava Kingdom. The region became part of Taungoo
Taungoo
Dynasty and Konbaung Dynasty
Konbaung Dynasty
from 16th to 19th centuries. The British seized the southern third of today's Kayin State (below the Salween River) after the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824-1826), and the rest after the Second Anglo-Burmese War of 1852. Towards the end of the British colonial era (1945-1948), the Karen leadership insisted on a separate state covering today's Kayin State and much of Mon State
Mon State
and Taninthayi Region, within the British Empire. They refused to sign the Panglong Agreement
Panglong Agreement
of February 1947, which was the basis for the 1947 Constitution of Burma, and boycotted the pre-independence elections of April 1947.[3] Nonetheless, the constitution granted the Karen a state, though with an area less than what the Karen leadership had asked for from the British. The constitution also guaranteed states with the right to secede from the Union after a period of 10 years. (The Panglong Agreement
Panglong Agreement
gave only the Shan and the Kachin a state each; the Chin who actually signed the agreement did not receive a state.) The Karen National Union, which dominated the Karen leadership, was not satisfied, and wanted outright independence. In 1949, the KNU raised a rebellion that continues up to today.[4] The KNU celebrates January 31 as 'revolution day', marking the day they went underground at the battle of Insein. Much of the state has been a battlefield since then. The civilians have taken the brunt of the war. The KNU today forms the world's longest-running resistance. The military government changed the English name of the state to Kayin State
Kayin State
from Karen State in 1989. Geography[edit] Located between latitudes 15° 45' north and 19° 25' north and longitudes 96° 10' east and 98° 28' east. It has a hot and humid climate because of the mountain ranges that lie in its backdrop and its location, which is near the sea, in the tropics. The temperature of the hottest month in eastern mountain regions never falls below 22.2 °C (71.9 °F). Lowlands in the west and south of the state are located in the tropical monsoon climate. The lowest annual rainfall in the region is 3,000 millimetres (120 in) and the highest is 4,800 millimetres (190 in). The regions get most of the rain in summer. Some of the rivers and creeks in Kayin State
Kayin State
are flowing from south to north due to the location of mountains. The main rivers in the state are Thanlwin (Salween River), Thaungyin (Moei River), Gyaing and Attaran. Administrative divisions[edit] Kayin State
Kayin State
consists of one city and nine towns. It has four districts, seven townships and 4092 villages. Districts[edit]

Hpa-an
Hpa-an
District Myawaddy
Myawaddy
District Kawkareik
Kawkareik
District Hpapun
Hpapun
District

Townships[edit]

Hpa-an
Hpa-an
Township Hlaingbwe
Hlaingbwe
Township Hpapun
Hpapun
Township Thandaunggyi Township Myawaddy
Myawaddy
Township Kawkareik
Kawkareik
Township Kyainseikgyi
Kyainseikgyi
Township

Cities and towns[edit]

Hpa-an Hlaingbwe Hpapun Thandang Thandanggyi Myawaddy Kawkareik Kyainseikgyi Payathonsu Kyaikdon Kyondoe

Villages and hamlets[edit] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Tagondaing Kale Htimahto Kyongawon Winpauk Taungdi Myohaung Anankwin Phabya Karesaw Kyaukbilu Pulein Kyeikywa Khonkhan Apalon Kanni I Htipalamaw Hlagazaing Kawankathaung Winhtaung Lutshan Paya-ngokto Katokkra Kaingdaw Peinnegon (15°58'0"N 98°21'0"E) Peinnegon (16°15'0"N 98°21'0"E) Peinnegon (16°22'0"N 98°19'0"E) Kanni II Thabyegon Myaingkon Naungkwe Naungpalein Thanbaya Thabyu Retphaw Phadaw Winkana Nyeinchanmyine Htilonhpaung Doh-Li Duk Daw Nain Tamoowoug Akalaw Ywathit Kronwa Kyungyaung Tanyin Shitpyit Lonsi Missakit Na-awn Pyinmahtein Yapru Kalonhte Phathalē Taungbauk

Due to the mountainous terrain in Kayin State, most villages are small and contain less than 40 households so a large amount of Kayin's population is dotted across the countryside over hundreds, if not thousands of villages. [5] Demographics[edit] Population[edit] Since the 1973 Census, the population of Kayin State
Kayin State
has increased from 858,429 to 1,055,359 in the 1983 census and 1,574,079 in the census of 2014. This means the population of Kayin State
Kayin State
has increased by about 49 percent between the 1983 and the 2014 census. The population of Kayin State
Kayin State
ranks eleventh in size when compared with other States and Regions in the country, only higher than Tanintharyi Region, Nay Pyi Taw Union Territory and Chin State. In terms of the proportion of the total population, the population of Kayin State
Kayin State
has marginally increased from 3.0 percent in 1983 to 3.1 percent in 2014.[6] Religion[edit] The primary religions practised in Kayin State
Kayin State
are Buddhism, Christianity
Christianity
and Islam.

Religion in Kayin (2015)[7]    Buddhism
Buddhism
(84.5%)    Christianity
Christianity
(9.5%)    Islam
Islam
(4.6%)   Other religion (0.7%)    Hinduism
Hinduism
(0.6%)   Tribal religion (0.1%)

Economy[edit] Tourism[edit] Tourism is one of the main economy of Kayin State. After the signing of the preliminary ceasefire between the KNU and the Myanmar government in 2012, the number of visitors to Kayin State
Kayin State
increased largely.[8] Kayin State
Kayin State
experienced over 40,000 tourists in 2013, followed by 50,000 in 2014. In 2016, the number of visitors reached a record 150,000.[8] Border Trade[edit] Myawaddy
Myawaddy
border trading post of Kayin State
Kayin State
is the second biggest among Myanmar’s 15 border trading posts.[9] It is the main border crossing trade route between Thailand
Thailand
and Myanmar. According to Thailand’s Chamber of Commerce, the monthly trade between the two countries in 2015 through the Mae Sot
Mae Sot
to Myawaddy
Myawaddy
crossing was worth over 3 billion baht (about 90 million US dollar).[10] Agriculture[edit] Kayin State
Kayin State
is a farming state. Currently, there are over 460,000 acres of paddy fields and 260,000 acres of rubber tree plantations in Kayin State.[11] There is over 9000 acres of coffee land in Thandaung area. The Kayin State
Kayin State
government is trying to implement new farming technology to improve its agriculture sector.[11] Industry[edit] In 2016, the government announced a strategy to attract domestic and foreign investors to the Hpa-An
Hpa-An
industrial zone.[12] However, shortage of electricity supply hinders the development of Hpa-An
Hpa-An
industrial zone. The Kayin State
Kayin State
government in conjunction with a Japanese company has been trying to carry out a feasibility survey for an 1800-megawatt coal-fired power plant to fulfill the need of electricity supply. On the other hand, community members and local environmental groups have raised concerns about the potential impacts from coal plant emissions.[13] Transport[edit] Kayin State
Kayin State
is served by Hpapun
Hpapun
Airport and Hpa-An
Hpa-An
Airport but none of those currently use for public transportation. In 2015, the Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
(ADB) approved a $100 million loan to improve a 66.4 kilometer section of road connecting the towns of Eindu and Kawkareik
Kawkareik
in Kayin state, the missing link of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) East-West Corridor.[14] Education[edit] See also: List of universities in Kayin State Major universities in Kayin state include Hpa-An
Hpa-An
University, Computer University, Hpa-An
Hpa-An
and Technological University, Hpa-An. Educational opportunities in Myanmar
Myanmar
are extremely limited outside the main cities of Yangon
Yangon
and Mandalay. It is especially a problem in Kayin State
Kayin State
where constant fighting between the government and insurgents for over 60 years has produced thousands of refugees and internally displaced people. According to official statistics, less than 10% of primary school students in Kayin State
Kayin State
reach high school.[15] All the institutions of higher education are located in Hpa-An
Hpa-An
City.

AY 2002-2003 Primary Middle High

Schools 1139 78 31

Teachers 3400 1200 400

Students 148,000 47,000 12,000

Health care[edit] The general state of health care in Burma is poor. The military government spends anywhere from 0.5% to 3% of the country's GDP on health care, consistently ranking among the lowest in the world.[16][17] Although health care is nominally free, in reality, patients have to pay for medicine and treatment, even in public clinics and hospitals. Public hospitals lack many of the basic facilities and equipment. In general, the health care infrastructure outside of Yangon
Yangon
and Mandalay
Mandalay
is extremely poor but is especially worse in conflict ridden areas like Kayin State. The public health care system in the state is almost non-existent. The entire Kayin State
Kayin State
has fewer hospital beds than the Yangon
Yangon
General Hospital. The following is a summary of the public health care system in the state.[18]

2002–2003 # Hospitals # Beds

Specialist hospitals 0 0

General hospitals with specialist services 1 200

General hospitals 7 275

Health clinics 17 272

Total 25 747

See also[edit]

Karen Human Rights Group Democratic Karen Buddhist Army Karen National Union Karen National Liberation Army

References[edit]

^ a b Census Report. The 2014 Myanmar
Myanmar
Population and Housing Census. 2. Naypyitaw: Ministry of Immigration and Population. May 2015. p. 17.  ^ The Physical Geography of Southeast Asia, Avijit Gupta, Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-19-924802-5 ^ Thant Myint-U (2006). The River of Lost Footsteps--Histories of Burma. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-374-16342-6.  ^ Myint-U, pp. 258-263 ^ https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/06RANGOON698_a.html NORTH KAREN STATE - WHERE DO YOU RUN? "The mountainous terrain in northern Karen State cannot support large villages, so most villages have no more than 40 households." ^ The 2014 Myanmar
Myanmar
Population and Housing Census: Kayin State. Nay Pyi Taw: Ministry of Immigration and Population. 2015. p. 11.  ^ Department of Population Ministry of Labour, Immigration and Population MYANMAR (July 2016). The 2014 Myanmar
Myanmar
Population and Housing Census Census Report Volume 2-C. Department of Population Ministry of Labour, Immigration and Population MYANMAR. pp. 12–15.  ^ a b Shar, KIC/Saw. " Kayin State
Kayin State
enjoys tourism influx after ceasefire - Burma News International". Retrieved 2017-10-07.  ^ " Myawaddy
Myawaddy
Border Trade Continues Despite Clashes". Myanmar
Myanmar
Business Today. Retrieved 2017-10-08.  ^ "Traders Excited By Start of Construction of New Friendship Bridge Between Mae Sot
Mae Sot
and Myawaddy
Myawaddy
«  Karen News". karennews.org. Retrieved 2017-10-08.  ^ a b " Kayin State
Kayin State
to develop farming, livestock sectors". The Myanmar Times. Retrieved 2017-10-08.  ^ "News - Government plans Hpa-an
Hpa-an
zone to kick-start Kayin economy". data2.unhcr.org. Retrieved 2017-10-07.  ^ Shaung/KIC, S’Phan. " Kayin State
Kayin State
residents oppose coal-fired power plant through petition - Burma News International". Retrieved 2017-10-08.  ^ Bank, Asian Development (2015-11-12). "ADB Loan to Help Upgrade Road in Kayin State
Kayin State
on GMS Corridor Route". Asian Development Bank. Retrieved 2017-10-07.  ^ "Education statistics by level and by State and Division". Myanmar Central Statistical Organization. Archived from the original on 2008-05-24. Retrieved 2009-04-09.  ^ "PPI: Almost Half of All World Health Spending is in the United States". 2007-01-17. Archived from the original on 2008-02-05.  ^ Yasmin Anwar (2007-06-28). "Burma junta faulted for rampant diseases". UC Berkeley News. Archived from the original on 2012-07-02.  ^ "Hospitals and Dispensaries by State and Division". Myanmar
Myanmar
Central Statistical Organization. Archived from the original on 2011-04-30. Retrieved 2009-04-11. 

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External links[edit]

Burma's Longest War: Anatomy of the Karen Conflict 2011, Ashley South at the Transnational Institute "Planning Map Kayin State" 2008, Myanmar
Myanmar
Information Management Unit (MIMU)

Places adjacent to Kayin State

  Mandalay
Mandalay
Region  Bago Region  Shan State  Kayah State

 Mon State

 Kayin State

Mae Hong Son
Mae Hong Son
Province,  Thailand

Kanchanaburi
Kanchanaburi
Province,  Thailand Tak Province,  Thailand

v t e

Kayin State

Capital: Hpa-an

Hpa-an
Hpa-an
District

Hlaingbwe
Hlaingbwe
Township Hpa-an
Hpa-an
Township Thandaunggyi Township

Hpapun
Hpapun
District

Hpapun
Hpapun
Township

Kawkareik
Kawkareik
District

Kawkareik
Kawkareik
Township Kyain Seikgyi
Kyain Seikgyi
Township

Myawaddy
Myawaddy
District

Myawaddy
Myawaddy
Township

Cities and towns

Bawgali Hlaingbwe Hpa-an Hpapun Kamamaung Kawkareik Kyain Seikgyi Kyeikdon Kyondoe Leiktho Myawaddy Paingkyon Payathonsu Shanywathit Sukali Thandang Thandanggyi Wawlay

v t e

Administrative divisions of Myanmar

States

Chin Kachin Kayah Kayin Mon Rakhine Shan

Regions

Ayeyarwady Bago Magway Mandalay Sagaing Tanintharyi Yangon

Self-Administered Zones

Danu Kokang Naga Pa Laung Pa-O

Self-Administered Divisions

Wa

Union Territories

.

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