Kayin State (S'gaw Karen: ကညီကီၢ်ဆဲၣ်,
pronounced [kɲɔkɔshæ], Burmese:
ကရင်ပြည်နယ်, pronounced [kəjɪ̀ɴ
pjìnɛ̀]; formerly Karen) is a state of Myanmar. The capital city is
Hpa-An, also spelled Pa-An.
The relief of
Kayin State is mountainous with the
Dawna Range running
along the state in a NNW - SSE direction and the southern end of the
Karen Hills in the northwest. It is bordered by Mae Hong Son, Tak,
Kanchanaburi provinces of
Thailand to the east;
Mon State and Bago
Region to the west and south;
Shan State and Kayah
State to the north.
3 Administrative divisions
3.3 Cities and towns
3.4 Villages and hamlets
5.2 Border Trade
8 Health care
9 See also
11 External links
The region that forms today's
Kayin State was part of successive
Burmese kingdoms since the formation of the
Pagan Empire in mid-11th
century. During the 13th to 16th centuries, much of the region
belonged to the Hanthawaddy Kingdom, while the northern part of the
region belonged to Taungoo,a vassal state of Ava Kingdom. The region
became part of
Taungoo Dynasty and
Konbaung Dynasty from 16th to 19th
centuries. The British seized the southern third of today's Kayin
State (below the Salween River) after the First Anglo-Burmese War
(1824-1826), and the rest after the
Second Anglo-Burmese War of 1852.
Towards the end of the British colonial era (1945-1948), the Karen
leadership insisted on a separate state covering today's Kayin State
and much of
Mon State and Taninthayi Region, within the British
Empire. They refused to sign the
Panglong Agreement of February 1947,
which was the basis for the 1947 Constitution of Burma, and boycotted
the pre-independence elections of April 1947. Nonetheless, the
constitution granted the Karen a state, though with an area less than
what the Karen leadership had asked for from the British. The
constitution also guaranteed states with the right to secede from the
Union after a period of 10 years. (The
Panglong Agreement gave only
the Shan and the Kachin a state each; the Chin who actually signed the
agreement did not receive a state.) The Karen National Union, which
dominated the Karen leadership, was not satisfied, and wanted outright
independence. In 1949, the KNU raised a rebellion that continues up to
today. The KNU celebrates January 31 as 'revolution day', marking
the day they went underground at the battle of Insein.
Much of the state has been a battlefield since then. The civilians
have taken the brunt of the war. The KNU today forms the world's
longest-running resistance. The military government changed the
English name of the state to
Kayin State from Karen State in 1989.
Located between latitudes 15° 45' north and 19° 25' north and
longitudes 96° 10' east and 98° 28' east. It has a hot and humid
climate because of the mountain ranges that lie in its backdrop and
its location, which is near the sea, in the tropics. The temperature
of the hottest month in eastern mountain regions never falls below
22.2 °C (71.9 °F). Lowlands in the west and south of the
state are located in the tropical monsoon climate. The lowest annual
rainfall in the region is 3,000 millimetres (120 in) and the
highest is 4,800 millimetres (190 in). The regions get most of
the rain in summer. Some of the rivers and creeks in
Kayin State are
flowing from south to north due to the location of mountains. The main
rivers in the state are Thanlwin (Salween River), Thaungyin (Moei
River), Gyaing and Attaran.
Kayin State consists of one city and nine towns. It has four
districts, seven townships and 4092 villages.
Cities and towns
Villages and hamlets
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
Peinnegon (15°58'0"N 98°21'0"E)
Peinnegon (16°15'0"N 98°21'0"E)
Peinnegon (16°22'0"N 98°19'0"E)
Duk Daw Nain
Due to the mountainous terrain in Kayin State, most villages are small
and contain less than 40 households so a large amount of Kayin's
population is dotted across the countryside over hundreds, if not
thousands of villages. 
Since the 1973 Census, the population of
Kayin State has increased
from 858,429 to 1,055,359 in the 1983 census and 1,574,079 in the
census of 2014. This means the population of
Kayin State has increased
by about 49 percent between the 1983 and the 2014 census. The
Kayin State ranks eleventh in size when compared with
other States and Regions in the country, only higher than Tanintharyi
Region, Nay Pyi Taw Union Territory and Chin State. In terms of the
proportion of the total population, the population of
Kayin State has
marginally increased from 3.0 percent in 1983 to 3.1 percent in
The primary religions practised in
Kayin State are Buddhism,
Christianity and Islam.
Religion in Kayin (2015)
Other religion (0.7%)
Tribal religion (0.1%)
Tourism is one of the main economy of Kayin State. After the signing
of the preliminary ceasefire between the KNU and the Myanmar
government in 2012, the number of visitors to
Kayin State increased
Kayin State experienced over 40,000 tourists in 2013,
followed by 50,000 in 2014. In 2016, the number of visitors reached a
Myawaddy border trading post of
Kayin State is the second biggest
among Myanmar’s 15 border trading posts. It is the main border
crossing trade route between
Thailand and Myanmar. According to
Thailand’s Chamber of Commerce, the monthly trade between the two
countries in 2015 through the
Mae Sot to
Myawaddy crossing was worth
over 3 billion baht (about 90 million US dollar).
Kayin State is a farming state. Currently, there are over 460,000
acres of paddy fields and 260,000 acres of rubber tree plantations in
Kayin State. There is over 9000 acres of coffee land in Thandaung
Kayin State government is trying to implement new farming
technology to improve its agriculture sector.
In 2016, the government announced a strategy to attract domestic and
foreign investors to the
Hpa-An industrial zone. However, shortage
of electricity supply hinders the development of
Kayin State government in conjunction with a Japanese
company has been trying to carry out a feasibility survey for an
1800-megawatt coal-fired power plant to fulfill the need of
electricity supply. On the other hand, community members and local
environmental groups have raised concerns about the potential impacts
from coal plant emissions.
Kayin State is served by
Hpapun Airport and
Hpa-An Airport but none of
those currently use for public transportation.
In 2015, the
Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved a $100 million loan
to improve a 66.4 kilometer section of road connecting the towns of
Kawkareik in Kayin state, the missing link of the Greater
Mekong Subregion (GMS) East-West Corridor.
See also: List of universities in Kayin State
Major universities in Kayin state include
Hpa-An University, Computer
Hpa-An and Technological University, Hpa-An.
Educational opportunities in
Myanmar are extremely limited outside the
main cities of
Yangon and Mandalay. It is especially a problem in
Kayin State where constant fighting between the government and
insurgents for over 60 years has produced thousands of refugees and
internally displaced people. According to official statistics, less
than 10% of primary school students in
Kayin State reach high
school. All the institutions of higher education are located in
The general state of health care in Burma is poor. The military
government spends anywhere from 0.5% to 3% of the country's GDP on
health care, consistently ranking among the lowest in the
world. Although health care is nominally free, in reality,
patients have to pay for medicine and treatment, even in public
clinics and hospitals. Public hospitals lack many of the basic
facilities and equipment.
In general, the health care infrastructure outside of
Mandalay is extremely poor but is especially worse in conflict ridden
areas like Kayin State. The public health care system in the state is
almost non-existent. The entire
Kayin State has fewer hospital beds
Yangon General Hospital. The following is a summary of the
public health care system in the state.
General hospitals with specialist services
Karen Human Rights Group
Democratic Karen Buddhist Army
Karen National Union
Karen National Liberation Army
^ a b Census Report. The 2014
Myanmar Population and Housing Census.
2. Naypyitaw: Ministry of Immigration and Population. May 2015.
^ The Physical Geography of Southeast Asia, Avijit Gupta, Oxford
University Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-19-924802-5
Thant Myint-U (2006). The River of Lost Footsteps--Histories of
Burma. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 253.
^ Myint-U, pp. 258-263
^ https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/06RANGOON698_a.html NORTH KAREN
STATE - WHERE DO YOU RUN? "The mountainous terrain in northern Karen
State cannot support large villages, so most villages have no more
than 40 households."
^ The 2014
Myanmar Population and Housing Census: Kayin State. Nay Pyi
Taw: Ministry of Immigration and Population. 2015. p. 11.
^ Department of Population Ministry of Labour, Immigration and
Population MYANMAR (July 2016). The 2014
Myanmar Population and
Housing Census Census Report Volume 2-C. Department of Population
Ministry of Labour, Immigration and Population MYANMAR.
^ a b Shar, KIC/Saw. "
Kayin State enjoys tourism influx after
ceasefire - Burma News International". Retrieved 2017-10-07.
Myawaddy Border Trade Continues Despite Clashes".
Today. Retrieved 2017-10-08.
^ "Traders Excited By Start of Construction of New Friendship Bridge
Mae Sot and
Myawaddy « Karen News". karennews.org.
^ a b "
Kayin State to develop farming, livestock sectors". The Myanmar
Times. Retrieved 2017-10-08.
^ "News - Government plans
Hpa-an zone to kick-start Kayin economy".
data2.unhcr.org. Retrieved 2017-10-07.
^ Shaung/KIC, S’Phan. "
Kayin State residents oppose coal-fired power
plant through petition - Burma News International". Retrieved
^ Bank, Asian Development (2015-11-12). "ADB Loan to
Help Upgrade Road
Kayin State on GMS Corridor Route". Asian Development Bank.
^ "Education statistics by level and by State and Division". Myanmar
Central Statistical Organization. Archived from the original on
2008-05-24. Retrieved 2009-04-09.
^ "PPI: Almost Half of All World Health Spending is in the United
States". 2007-01-17. Archived from the original on 2008-02-05.
^ Yasmin Anwar (2007-06-28). "Burma junta faulted for rampant
diseases". UC Berkeley News. Archived from the original on
^ "Hospitals and Dispensaries by State and Division".
Statistical Organization. Archived from the original on 2011-04-30.
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Burma's Longest War: Anatomy of the Karen Conflict 2011, Ashley South
at the Transnational Institute
"Planning Map Kayin State" 2008,
Myanmar Information Management Unit
Places adjacent to Kayin State
Mae Hong Son
Mae Hong Son Province, Thailand
Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand
Tak Province, Thailand
Kyain Seikgyi Township
Cities and towns
Administrative divisions of Myanmar