HOME
The Info List - Kartikeya





Kartikeya
Kartikeya
(IAST: Kārttikēya) , also known as Murugan, Skanda, Kumara,[2] and Subrahmanya, is the Hindu
Hindu
god of war.[3][4][1] He is the son of Parvati
Parvati
and Shiva, brother of Ganesha, and a god whose life story has many versions in Hinduism.[5] An important deity around South Asia
South Asia
since ancient times, Kartikeya
Kartikeya
is particularly popular and predominantly worshipped in South India
India
and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
as Murugan.[3][5][4] Kartikeya
Kartikeya
is an ancient god, traceable to the Vedic
Vedic
era. Archaeological evidence from 1st-century CE and earlier,[6] where he is found with Hindu
Hindu
god Agni
Agni
(fire), suggest that he was a significant deity in early Hinduism.[3] He is found in many medieval temples all over India, such as at the Ellora Caves
Ellora Caves
and Elephanta Caves.[7] The iconography of Kartikeya
Kartikeya
varies significantly; he is typically represented as an ever-youthful man, riding or near a peacock, dressed with weapons sometimes near a rooster. Most icons show him with one head, but some show him with six heads reflecting the legend surrounding his birth where six mothers symbolizing the six stars of Pleiades
Pleiades
cluster who took care of newly born baby Kartikeya.[3][5][4] He grows up quickly into a philosopher-warrior, destroys evil in the form of demon Taraka, teaches the pursuit of ethical life and the theology of Shaiva Siddhanta.[4][1] He has inspired many poet-saints, such as Arunagirinathar.[1][8] Kartikeya, as Murugan
Murugan
or Subrahmanya, is found as a primary deity in temples wherever communities of the Tamil people live worldwide, particularly in Sri Lanka, Mauritius, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Africa
South Africa
and Réunion. Three of the six richest and busiest temples in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
are dedicated to him.[1] The Kataragama
Kataragama
temple dedicated to him in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
attracts Tamils, Sinhalese people
Sinhalese people
and the Vedda people.[6] He is also found in other parts of India, sometimes as Skanda, but in a secondary role along with Ganesha, Parvati
Parvati
and Shiva.[4]

Contents

1 Etymology and nomenclature 2 Textual references

2.1 Ancient 2.2 In Tamil literature 2.3 Puranas 2.4 Buddhism and Jainism

3 Iconography 4 Legends 5 Theology 6 Worship

6.1 Within India

6.1.1 South India 6.1.2 East India 6.1.3 North India

6.2 Beyond India

6.2.1 Malaysia 6.2.2 Sri Lanka

7 Temples 8 Notes 9 References

9.1 Bibliography

10 External links

Etymology and nomenclature[edit]

Sculpture of the god Skanda, from Kannauj, North India, circa 8th century.

Kartikeya
Kartikeya
is known by numerous names in ancient and medieval texts of the Indian culture. Most common among these are Murugan, Kumara, Skanda, and Subrahmanya. Others include Aaiyyan, Cheyon, Senthil, Vēlaṇ, Svaminatha ("ruler of the gods", from -natha king), Saravanan ("born amongst the reeds"), Arumugam or Shanmuga ("six-faced"),[9] Dandapani ("wielder of the mace", from -pani hand), Guha (cave, secret) or Guruguha (cave-teacher), Kadhirvelan, Kandhan, Vishakha and Mahasena.[10] In ancient coins where the inscription has survived along with his images, his names appear as Kumara, Brahmanya or Brahmanyadeva.[11] On some ancient Indo-Scythian coins, his names appear in Greek script as Skanda, Kumara and Vishaka.[12] In ancient statues, he appears as Mahasena, Skanda and Vishakha.[13] Skanda is derived from skanḍr-, which means to "spill, ooze, leap, attack".[14] This root is derived from the legend of his unusual birth. The legend, translates Lochtefeld, states " Shiva
Shiva
and Parvati are disturbed while making love, and Shiva
Shiva
inadvertently spills his semen on the ground".[4] This semen incubates in River Ganges, preserved by the heat of god Agni, and this fetus is born as baby Kartikeya
Kartikeya
on the banks of Ganges. The "spill" epithet leads to the name Skanda.[4][14] Additionally N. Gopala Pillai postulated that Skanda derives from Alexander the Great.[15] Kartikeya
Kartikeya
means "of the Krittikas".[4] This epithet is also linked to his birth. After he appears on the banks of the River Ganges, he is seen by the six of the seven brightest stars cluster in the night sky called Krittikas in Hindu
Hindu
texts (called Pleiades
Pleiades
in Greek texts). These six mothers all want to take care of him and nurse baby Kartikkeya. They argue. Baby Kartikkeya ends the argument by growing five more heads to have a total of six heads so he can look at all six moms, and let them each nurse one.[4][16] Another legend explains his various names as the result of competition by many to seek and claim him. He loves everyone, and takes many names and forms to be with them. For example, Kumara spends time with goddess Ganga as her son, Skanda as the son of goddess Parvati, Karttikeya as son of Shiva, while Guha as the son of fire god Agni.[5] Textual references[edit] Ancient[edit] There are ancient references which can be interpreted to be Kartikeya in the Vedic
Vedic
texts, in the works of Pāṇini
Pāṇini
(~500 BCE), in the Mahabhasya of Patanjali
Patanjali
and in Kautilya's Arthashastra.[17] For example, the term Kumara appears in hymn 5,2 of the Rig Veda.[18][note 1] The Kumara of verse 5.2.1 can be interpreted as Skanda, or just any "boy". However, the rest of the verses depict the "boy" as bright-colored, hurling weapons and other motifs that later have been associated with Skanda. The difficulty with interpreting these to be Skanda is that Indra, Agni
Agni
and Rudra
Rudra
are also depicted in similar terms and as warriors.[19]

Kartikeya
Kartikeya
with a Kushan
Kushan
devotee, 2nd century CE.

The Skanda-like motifs found in Rig Veda
Rig Veda
are found in other Vedic texts, such as section 6.1-3 of the Shatapatha Brahmana.[20] In these, the mythology is very different for Kumara, as Agni
Agni
is described to be the Kumara whose mother is Ushas
Ushas
(goddess Dawn) and whose father is Purusha.[18] The section 10.1 of the Taittiriya Aranyaka
Aranyaka
mentions Sanmukha (six faced one), while the Baudhayana Dharmasutra mentions a householder's rite of passage that involves prayers to Skanda with his brother Ganapati (Ganesha) together.[21] The chapter 7 of the Chandogya Upanishad
Chandogya Upanishad
(~800–600 BCE) equates Sanat-Kumara (eternal son) and Skanda, as he teaches sage Narada
Narada
to discover his own Atman (soul, self) as a means to the ultimate knowledge, true peace and liberation.[22][23][note 2] According to Fred Clothey, the evidence suggests that Kartikeya mythology had become widespread sometime around 200 BCE or after in north India.[25] The first clear evidence of Kartikeya's importance emerges in the Hindu
Hindu
Epics such as the Ramayana
Ramayana
and the Mahabharata where his story is recited. In addition to textual evidence, his importance is affirmed by the archeological, the epigraphical and the numismatic evidence of this period. For example, he is found in numismatic evidence linked to the Yaudheyas, a confederation of warriors in north India
India
who are mentioned by ancient Pāṇini.[26] They ruled an area consisting of modern era Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
(extending into Garhwal region, Uttarakhand).[26] They struck coins bearing the image of Skanda, and these coins are dated to be from before Kushan
Kushan
Empire era started.[26] During the Kushan
Kushan
dynasty era, that included much of northwest Indian subcontinent, more coins featuring Kartikeya
Kartikeya
were minted.[26] He is also found on ancient Indo-Scythian coins, where his various names are minted in Greek script.[12][note 3]

Coins of the Yaudheyas
Yaudheyas
feature Kartikeya, and these are dated to 1st century CE Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and Uttar Pradesh.[28]

Kartikeya
Kartikeya
was revered in major cultural centers of ancient India. For example, he was a major god for the Ikshvakus, an Andhra dynasty, as well as for the Gupta Empire.[29] In south India, eight of the early Pallava dynasty
Pallava dynasty
rulers (300-550 CE) were named after Skanda or Kumara, suggesting the significance of Kartikeya
Kartikeya
by then.[30] Kalidasa's epic poem the Kumārasambhava features Kartikeya. In Tamil literature[edit] The Tolkāppiyam, one of the most ancient texts of the Tamil literature, mentions cēyōṉ "the red one", who is identified with Murugan, whose name is literally Murukaṉ "the youth"; the other gods referred to in the Tolkāppiyam are Māyōṉ "the dark one" (identified with Vishnu), Vēntaṉ "the sovereign" (identified with Indra) and Korravai "the victorious" (identified with Kali) and Varunan "the sea god".[31] Extant Sangam literature
Sangam literature
works, dated between the third century BCE and the fifth century CE glorified Murugan, "the red god seated on the blue peacock, who is ever young and resplendent," as "the favoured god of the Tamils."[32] Korravai is often identified as the mother of Murugan.[33] In the Tirumurukāṟtruuppaṭai, he is called Muruku and described as a god of beauty and youth, with phrases such as "his body glows like the sun rising from the emerald sea". It describes him with six faces each with a function, twelve arms, his victory over evil, and the temples dedicated to him in the hilly regions.[34] Puranas[edit] Kartikeya
Kartikeya
is mentioned in Shaiva Puranas. Of these, the Skanda Purana is the largest Mahāpurāṇa, a genre of eighteen Hindu
Hindu
religious texts.[35] The text contains over 81,000 verses, and is part of Shaivite literature,[36] titled after Skanda, a son of Shiva
Shiva
and Parvati, who is also known as Kartikeya
Kartikeya
and Murugan.[37] While the text is named after Skanda, he does not feature either more or less prominently in this text than in other Shiva-related Puranas.[37] The text has been an important historical record and influence on the Hindu
Hindu
traditions related to war-god Skanda.[37][38] The earliest text titled Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana
likely existed by the 6th-century CE,[39][40] but the Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana
that has survived into the modern era exists in many versions.[41] Buddhism and Jainism[edit]

Skanda Bodhisattva is the Dharma
Dharma
protector in Mahayana Buddhism.[42] Above: Skanda's statue in Anhui
Anhui
province, China.

According to Richard Gombrich, Skanda has been an important deity in Theravada Buddhism
Theravada Buddhism
pantheon, in countries such as Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Thailand. The Nikaya Samgraha describes Skanda Kumara as a guardian deity of the land, along with Upulvan (Vishnu), Saman and Vibhisana.[43] Similarly, the 16th-century Siamese text Jinakalamali mentions him as a guardian god. There are Buddhist Sinhala shrines such as at Kataragama
Kataragama
dedicated to Skanda which have historically been officiated by Hindu
Hindu
priests, which attracted Buddhist devotees and enjoyed royal support.[43] Since the 1950s, states Brian Morris, the Kataragama
Kataragama
shrine of Skanda has attracted over half a million devotional pilgrims every year, most being Buddhists.[44][45] In Chinese Buddhism, Skanda has been portrayed as Weituo, a young heavenly general, the guardian deity of local monasteries and the protector of Buddhist dhamma.[46][47] According to Henrik Sørensen, this representation became common after the Tang period, and became well established in the late Song period.[48] Skanda was also adopted by Korean Buddhism, and he appears in its woodblock prints and paintings.[48] According to Asko Parpola, the Jain deity Naigamesa, who is also referred to as Hari-Naigamesin, is depicted in early Jain texts as riding the peacock and as the leader of the divine army, both symbols of Kartikeya.[3] Iconography[edit]

The six-headed Kartikeya
Kartikeya
riding a peacock, by Raja Ravi Varma.

Ancient coins of the Yaudheyas, dated to 1st and 2nd century CE, show Kartikeya
Kartikeya
as a warrior with either one or six heads. Kushan
Kushan
coins show him with one head. In general, single head is far more common regardless of which dynasty minted them.[49] The earliest statues discovered in Punjab
Punjab
and Kashmir show him with either one or six heads. The oldest sculptures such as those found in Mathura
Mathura
show him with one head, while six head iconography is dated to post-Gupta Empire era.[50] All Kushan
Kushan
Empire era artwork show him with one head, even though there are Kushan
Kushan
deities such as a goddess who is shown with multiple heads.[16] The Kushan
Kushan
Empire era statues of Kartikeya, dated to 1st and 2nd-century CE, have been found at various sites in the Indian subcontinent, particularly at Mathura
Mathura
and Gandhara. They show him as a warrior dressed in dhoti (sheet wrapped at waist, covering the legs), armour like a warrior, spear in his right hand and a bird (rooster) in his left.[51][52] There is some difference between his ancient iconography in Mathura
Mathura
and Gandhara
Gandhara
artwork. The Gandhara
Gandhara
arts show him in more a Scythian dress, likely reflecting the local dress culture prevalent in those times. Further, it is in the oldest Gandharan statues where he is shown with a bird that looks like a chicken or cock.[53] According to Richard Mann, the bird may symbolize Kartikeya's agility and maneuverability as a warrior god, and may be a Parthian influence.[53] His iconography symbolizes his attributes as a hunter, warrior and philosopher.[54] Kartikeya
Kartikeya
iconography shows him as a youthful god, dressed as a warrior, carrying the weapon called Vel. It is a divine spear, often called sakti. He is sometimes depicted with many weapons including: a sword, a javelin, a mace, a discus and a bow although more usually he is depicted wielding the sakti or spear. His vahana (vehicle, mount) is a peacock. He has either one head or six, depending on the region or artist.[55][56] Legends[edit]

Skanda statue are found in Southeast Asia. Above: 6th–8th century Skanda from Prey Veng Province, Cambodia.[57]

The Epic era literature of ancient India
India
recite numerous legends of Kartikeya, often with his other names such as Skanda. For example, the Vana Parva
Vana Parva
of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
dedicates chapters 223 to 232 to the legends of Skanda, but depicts him as the son of Agni
Agni
and Svaha.[21] Similarly, Valmiki's Ramayana
Ramayana
dedicates chapters 36 and 37 to Skanda, but describes him as the child of god Agni
Agni
and goddess Ganges.[58] The legends of Kartikeya
Kartikeya
vary significantly, sometimes within the same text. For example, while the Vana Parva
Vana Parva
of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
describes Skanda as the son of Agni, the Shalya Parva
Shalya Parva
and the Anushasana Parva of the same text presents Skanda's legend as the son of Maheshvara (Shiva) and Parvati.[21] In Vana Parva, the circumstances behind Kartikeya's birth legend do not involve Shiva
Shiva
and Parvati.[59] Rather it is deity Agni
Agni
who goes to a hermitage of seven married Rishis (sages). He is sexually attracted to all seven, but none reciprocate. Svaha is present there and she is attracted to Agni, but Agni
Agni
is not. According to the legend, Svaha takes the form of six of the wives, one by one, and sleeps with Agni.[59] She does not take the form of Arundhati, Vasistha's wife, because of Arundhati's extraordinary virtuous powers. Svaha deposits the semen of Agni
Agni
into the reeds of River Ganges, where it develops and then is born as six headed Skanda.[59] A totally different legend in the later books of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
make Shiva
Shiva
and Parvati
Parvati
as the parents. They were having sex, but they are disturbed, and Shiva
Shiva
inadvertently spills his semen on the ground.[4] Shiva's semen incubates in River Ganges, preserved by the heat of god Agni, and this fetus is born as baby Kartikeya
Kartikeya
on the banks of Ganges.[4][14]

Granite Karttikeya seated on a peacock from 12th-century Andhra Pradesh.

Some legend state that he was the elder son of Shiva, others make him the younger brother of Ganesha. This is implied by another legend connected to his birth. Devas have been beaten up by Asuras led by Taraka, because Taraka had a boon from ascetic celibate yogi Shiva that only Shiva's son can kill him. Devas learn about this boon, and plan how to get Shiva
Shiva
into a relationship. So they bring Parvati
Parvati
into the picture, have her seduce yogi Shiva, and wed Parvati
Parvati
so that Skanda can be born to kill Taraka.[60] According to Raman Varadara, Murugan
Murugan
or Kartikeya
Kartikeya
was originally a Tamil deity, who was adopted by north Indians.[61] He was the god of war in the Dravidian legends, and became so elsewhere in the Indian subcontinent too.[61] In contrast, G. S. Ghurye states that according to the archeological and epigraphical evidence, the contemporary Murugan, Subrahmanya and Kartikeya
Kartikeya
is a composite of two influences, one from south and one from north in the form of Skanda and Mahasena.[62] He as the warrior-philosopher god was the patron deity for many ancient northern and western Hindu
Hindu
kingdoms, and of the Gupta Empire, according to Ghurye. After the 7th-century, Skanda's importance diminished while his brother Ganesha's importance rose in the west and north, while in the south the legends of Murugan continued to grow.[62][63] According to Norman Cutler, Kartikeya-Murugan-Skanda of South and North India
India
coalesced over time, but some aspects of the South Indian iconography and mythology for Murugan
Murugan
have remained unique to Tamil Nadu.[64] Kartikeya's legends vary by region. For example, in the northern and western Indian traditions Kartikeya
Kartikeya
or Skanda is the perpetual celibate bachelor who never marries, but in the Tamil legends he has two consorts, Valli
Valli
and Devasena.[61] Many of the major events in Murugan's life take place during his youth, and legends surrounding his birth are popular in Tamil Nadu. This has encouraged the worship of Murugan
Murugan
as a child-God, very similar to the worship of the child Krishna
Krishna
in north India. Kartikeya's youth, beauty and bravery was much celebrated in Sanskrit works like the Kathasaritsagara. Kalidasa
Kalidasa
made the birth of Kumara the subject of a lyrical epic, the Kumārasambhava.[58][65] Theology[edit]

Guha (Kartikeya)

You who has form and who is formless, you who are both being and non-being, who are the fragrance and the blossom, who are the jewel and its lustre, who are the seed of life and life itself, who are the means and the existence itself, who are the supreme guru, come and bestow your grace, O Guha [Murugan]

—Kantaranuputi 51, Arunagirinathar (Translator: Kamil Zvelebil)[66]

There is extensive Hindu
Hindu
symbolism and theology associated with Kartikeya. Regardless of the variance among the legends, his birth is in difficult circumstances, he is born through a surrogate after being left near a river. He is raised not by his natural mother but a host of mothers, but later he is a part of his biological family. Kartikeya symbolizes a union of polarities.[67] He is handsome warrior and described as a celibate yogi. He uses his creative martial abilities to lead an army against Taraka and other demons, and described as a philosopher-warrior.[4][1] He is a uniter, championing the attributes of both Shaivism
Shaivism
and Vaishnavism.[68] His theology is most developed in the Tamil texts,[8] and in the Shaiva Siddhanta
Shaiva Siddhanta
tradition.[4][1] He is described as teyvam (abstract neuter divinity, nirguna Brahman), as katavul (divinity in nature, in everything), as tevan (masculine deity), and as iraivativam (concrete manifestation of the sacred, saguna Brahman).[69] According to Fred Clothey, as Murugan
Murugan
(also referred to as Murukan, Cheyyon), he embodies the "cultural and religious whole that comprises South Indian Shaivism".[67] He is the philosopher and exponent of Shaiva Siddhanta
Shaiva Siddhanta
theology, as well as the patron deity of the Tamil language.[70][71][54] Worship[edit]

This section may require cleanup to meet's quality standards. The specific problem is: the section is not following NPOV. In addition to the Tamil POV, the section should present other POVs. More citations needed Please help improve this section if you can. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Within India[edit] South India[edit]

Murugan
Murugan
with Deivaanai (on right of image) and Valli
Valli
(on left of image).

Murugan
Murugan
is worshiped primarily in areas with Tamil influences. Subramanya is also a major deity among the Hindus of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Telangana. Rituals like Nagaradhane
Nagaradhane
are unique to Uttara Kannada
Uttara Kannada
region of Karnataka. Kataragama
Kataragama
Sri Lanka temple is another important Murugan
Murugan
center.[citation needed] In Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and India, Murugan
Murugan
is popular with more elaborate accounts of his mythology in the Tamil language, culminating in the Tamil version of Skanda Purana, called Kandha Purānam. It was written by Kacchiappa Sivachariyar (1350–1420 AD.) of Kumara Kottam in the city of Kanchipuram. During His bachelorhood, Murugan
Murugan
is also regarded as Kumaraswami (or Bachelor God), Kumara meaning a bachelor and Swami meaning God. Muruga rides a peacock and wields a bow in battle. The lance called Vel
Vel
in Tamil is a weapon closely associated with him. The Vel
Vel
was given to him by his mother, Parvati, and embodies her energy and power. His army's standard depicts a rooster. In the war, Surapadman was split into two, and each half was granted a boon by Murugan. The halves, thus turned into the peacock (his mount) and the rooster his flag, which also "refers to the sun".[citation needed] Batu Caves
Batu Caves
near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Malaysia
has a famous temple of Murugan. East India[edit]

Bengal

Kartikeya
Kartikeya
worshipped during Durga
Durga
Puja.

Kartikeya
Kartikeya
is revered during the Kartik Puja festival, observed in November in eastern states of India.[72][note 4] During Durga Puja
Durga Puja
in Bengal, Kartikeya
Kartikeya
is featured as a son of Durga
Durga
(Parvati) and Shiva, sitting along with his brother Ganesha.[74]

Odisha

Kartikeya
Kartikeya
idol made of black granite, represented in the traditional Kalinga style. Parshwadebata niche from the Sobhaneswara Mahadeba Temple at Niali, Odisha.

Kumara Purnima, which is celebrated by girls and newly married women on the full moon day after Vijayadashami. It is dedicated to Kartikeya in Odisha. The festivities bring girls together, they sing and dance, and play a game called Puchi. The prayers on the day are aimed with hopes of getting a husband similar to Kartikeya.[75] Kartikeya
Kartikeya
is worshipped during Durga Puja
Durga Puja
in Odisha
Odisha
as well as in various Shiva temples throughout the year. Kartik puja is celebrated in Cuttack along with various other parts of the state during the last phases of Hindu
Hindu
month of Kartik. North India[edit]

Himachal Pradesh

Kartikeya
Kartikeya
is the main deity at Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh. The temple of Kartikeya
Kartikeya
in Kugti village is visited every year by thousands of devotees when the trek is opened in the month of March–April.[76] Beyond India[edit] Malaysia[edit] Murugan
Murugan
is revered by the Tamil Hindus in Malaysia
Malaysia
and other South-East Asian countries such as Singapore
Singapore
and Indonesia. Thaipusam is one of the important festivals celebrated. Sri Subramanyar Temple at Batu Caves
Batu Caves
temple complex in Malaysia
Malaysia
is dedicated to Murugan. Batu Caves in short also referred as 10th Caves or Hill for Lord Muruga as there are 6 important holy shrines in India
India
and 4 more in Malaysia. The 3 others in Malaysia
Malaysia
are:[citation needed]

Kallumalai Temple in Ipoh Arulmigu Balathandayuthapani Temple, Penang Sannasimalai Temple in Malacca

Sri Lanka[edit] Karthikeya is worshipped by the Sinhalese as Kataragama
Kataragama
deviyo also by Sri Lankan Tamils
Sri Lankan Tamils
as Muruhan, a guardian deity of Sri Lanka. Numerous temples exist throughout the island. He is a favourite deity of the common folk everywhere and it is said he never hesitates to come to the aid of a devotee when called upon. In the deeply Sinhalese south of Sri Lanka, he is worshipped at the Kataragama
Kataragama
temple, where he is known as Kathiravel or Kataragama
Kataragama
deviyo. Local legend holds that Murugan
Murugan
alighted in Kataragama
Kataragama
and was smitten by Valli, one of the local girls. After a courtship, they were married. This event is taken to signify that Murugan
Murugan
is accessible to all who worship and love him, regardless of their birth or heritage. The Nallur Kandaswamy temple, the Maviddapuram Kandaswamy Temple
Maviddapuram Kandaswamy Temple
and the Sella Channithy Temple near Valvettiturai are the three foremost Murugan
Murugan
temples in Jaffna. The Chitravelayutha temple in Verukal on the border between Trincomalee and Batticaloa is also noteworthy as is the Mandur Kandaswamy temple in Batticaloa. The late medieval-era temple of the tooth in Kandy, dedicated to the tooth relic of the Buddha, has a Kataragama
Kataragama
deiyo shrine adjacent to it dedicated to the veneration of Skanda in the Sinhalese tradition. Almost all Buddhist temples house a shrine room for Kataragama
Kataragama
deviyo reflecting the significance of Murugan
Murugan
in Sinhala Buddhism.

The Sri Lankan Nallur Kandaswamy temple
Nallur Kandaswamy temple
(Jaffna) is dedicated to Murugan
Murugan
(Kartikeya).

By the 16th century, the Kataragama
Kataragama
temple had become synonymous with Skanda-Kumara who was a guardian deity of Sinhala Buddhism.[77] The town was popular as a place of pilgrimage for Hindus from India
India
and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
by the 15th century. The popularity of the deity at the Kataragama
Kataragama
temple was also recorded by the Pali chronicles of Thailand such as Jinkalmali in the 16th century. There are number of legends both Buddhist and Hindu
Hindu
that attribute supernatural events to the very locality.[77] Scholars such as Paul Younger and Heinz Bechert speculate that rituals practiced by the native priests of Kataragama temple betray Vedda ideals of propitiation. Hence they believe the area was of Vedda veneration that was taken over by the Buddhist and Hindus in the medieval period.[78] Temples[edit]

Kartikeya-Subrahmaniya temples are popular in hilly regions such as the Western Ghats. Above: the 12th-century Maruthamalai Temple in Coimbatore.

This section may require cleanup to meet's quality standards. The specific problem is: the section is not following NPOV. There are temples for Kartikeya
Kartikeya
all over india of which Top familiar ones are in Tamil nadu. The coverage should be expanded. More citations needed Please help improve this section if you can. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Palani Murugan
Murugan
Temple, Swamimalai Murugan
Murugan
Temple, Thiruchendur Murugan Temple, Thirupparamkunram Murugan
Murugan
Temple, Thiruthani Murugan
Murugan
Temple, Pazhamudircholai
Pazhamudircholai
Murugan
Murugan
Temple are six temples dedicated to Kartikeya as their primary deity.[79]. These six temples in Tamilnadu, together are referred to as Aru Padaiveedu(Tamil: Āṟupaṭai vīṭu), that are mentioned in Thirumurugatrupadai, written by Nakkeerar and in Thirupugal, written by Arunagirinathar.[80][81][unreliable source?] Other important shrines in Tamilnadu are Mayilam, Sikkal, Marudamalai, Skandasramam, Kundrathur, Vadapalani, Kandakottam, Thiruporur, Vallakottai, Viralimalai, Vayalur, Thirumalaikoil, Chennimalai, Sivanmalai, Thindalmalai, Pachaimalai and Pavalamalai near Gobichettipalayam. There are many temples dedicated to Subramanya in Kerala. Amongst them are Atiyambur Sri Subramanya Temple in Kanhangad
Kanhangad
Kasaragod, Subramanya Swamy temple in Payyanur, Panmana
Panmana
Subramanya Swamy temple in Panmana and the Subramanya temple in Haripad. There are temples in Skandagiri, Secunderabad, Biccavolu, Mopidevi
Mopidevi
and Mallam[disambiguation needed] in Andhra Pradesh. In Karnataka, Kukke Subramanya Temple
Kukke Subramanya Temple
Kartikeya
Kartikeya
is worshipped as Subrahmanya where he is regarded as Lord of the serpents. Malai Mandir, a prominent temple complex in Delhi
Delhi
and Pehowa temple in Haryana
Haryana
are amongst the few temples dedicated to Murugan
Murugan
in North India.

Thaipusam
Thaipusam
festivities near the Batu Caves, Malaysia

The key temples in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
include the sylvan shrine in Kataragama (Kadirgamam) in the south, the temple in Tirukovil in the east, the shrine in Embekke in the Kandy
Kandy
and the Nallur Kandaswamy temple
Nallur Kandaswamy temple
in Jaffna. There are several temples dedicated to Murugan
Murugan
in Malaysia, the most famous being the Batu Caves
Batu Caves
near Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
which has a 42.7-m-high statue of Murugan
Murugan
at the entrance, the largest Lord Murugan
Murugan
statue in the world. The second largest Murugan
Murugan
temple are located on Langkat, Indonesia
Indonesia
which has 16 meter high and standing outside of its temple named as Shri Raja Rajeshwari Amman Kovil Temple. Sri Thandayuthapani Temple in Singapore
Singapore
is a major Hindu temple. In the USA, Shiva
Shiva
Murugan
Murugan
Temple in Concord, Northern California and Murugan
Murugan
Temple of North America in Maryland, Washington DC region are popular. Kanthasamy Temple in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Murugan temple in Val-Morin, a suburb of the city of Montreal
Montreal
are popular temples in Canada. In the United Kingdom, Highgate Hill Murugan temple, Sri Murugan
Murugan
Temple in Manor park, London, Shri Siva Murugan Temple in Leicester and Skanda Vale are popular temples. In Australia, Sydney
Sydney
Murugan
Murugan
temple in Parramatta (Mays Hill), Perth Bala Muruguan temple in Mandogalup and Kundrathu Kumaran temple in Rockbank, Melbourne
Melbourne
are major temples. In New Zealand, there is a Thirumurugan Temple in Auckland
Auckland
and a Kurinji Kumaran Temple in Wellington, both dedicated to Murugan. Sri Sivasubramaniar Temple, located in the Sihl Valley in Adliswil
Adliswil
is the largest Hindu
Hindu
temple in Switzerland.[82] Notes[edit]

^ कुमारं माता युवतिः समुब्धं गुहा बिभर्ति न ददाति पित्रे । अनीकमस्य न मिनज्जनासः पुरः पश्यन्ति निहितमरतौ ॥१॥ कमेतं त्वं युवते कुमारं पेषी बिभर्षि महिषी जजान । पूर्वीर्हि गर्भः शरदो ववर्धापश्यं जातं यदसूत माता ॥२॥ हिरण्यदन्तं शुचिवर्णमारात्क्षेत्रादपश्यमायुधा मिमानम् । ददानो अस्मा अमृतं विपृक्वत्किं मामनिन्द्राः कृणवन्ननुक्थाः ॥३॥ क्षेत्रादपश्यं सनुतश्चरन्तं सुमद्यूथं न पुरु शोभमानम् । न ता अगृभ्रन्नजनिष्ट हि षः पलिक्नीरिद्युवतयो भवन्ति ॥४॥ (...) Hymn 5.2, Wikisource; English: "The youthful Mother keeps the Boy in secret pressed to her close, nor yields him to the Father. But, when he lies upon the arm, the people see his unfading countenance before them. [5.2.1] What child is this thou carriest as handmaid, O Youthful One? The Consort-Queen hath bome him. The Babe unborn increased through many autumns. I saw him born what time his Mother bare him. [5.2.2] I saw him from afar gold-toothed, bright-coloured, hurling his weapons from his habitation, What time I gave him Amrta free from mixture. How can the Indraless, the hymnless harm me? [5.2.3] I saw him moving from the place he dwells in, even as with a herd, brilliantly shining. These seized him not: he had been born already. They who were grey with age again grow youthful. [5.2.4] – Translated by Ralph T.H. Griffith, Wikisource ^ Verse 7.26.2 states Kumara is Skanda, but there are stylistic differences between this verse and the rest of the chapter. This may be because this verse was interpolated into the text at a later date.[24] ^ Richard Mann states that Skanda-Kumara may be composite deity linked to Greek deities pair called Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux), given the numismatic overlap in their iconography and similar warrior-god mythologies.[27] ^ In the central, northern and western states, Krishna
Krishna
and Radha are revered during the Kartik Puja.[73]

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 1-2. ^ James G. Lochtefeld 2002, p. 377. ^ a b c d e Asko Parpola 2015, p. 285. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m James G. Lochtefeld 2002, pp. 655-656. ^ a b c d Constance Jones & James D. Ryan 2006, p. 228. ^ a b G Obeyesekere (2004). Jacob Kẹhinde Olupona, ed. Beyond Primitivism: Indigenous Religious Traditions and Modernity. Routledge. pp. 272–274. ISBN 978-0-415-27319-0.  ^ T. A. Gopinatha Rao 1993, p. 40. ^ a b Mohan Lal 1992, p. 4339. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India
India
through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 80.  ^ Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 1, 22-25, 35-39, 49-58, 214-216. ^ Richard D. Mann 2011, pp. 104-106 with footnotes. ^ a b Edward Thomas (1877). Jainism: Or, The Early Faith of Aṣoka. Trübner & Company. pp. 60, 62 (see e.g. coin 11).  ^ Richard D. Mann 2011, pp. 123-124. ^ a b c Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 49, 54-55. ^ Gopala Pillai, N. (1937). Skanda: The Alexander Romance in India. Ninth All- India
India
Oriental Conference. Trivandrum. pp. 955–997.  ^ a b Doris Srinivasan 1997, pp. 302-303, 333-334. ^ Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 49-53. ^ a b Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 49-51. ^ Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 46-51. ^ Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 48-50. ^ a b c Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 50-51. ^ Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 49-50. ^ The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Robert Hume, Oxford University Press, pages 250-262 ^ The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Robert Hume, Oxford University Press, page 262 with footnote 3 ^ Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 45-46. ^ a b c d Richard D. Mann 2011, pp. 101-105 with footnotes. ^ Benjamin Fleming; Richard Mann (2014). Material Culture and Asian Religions: Text, Image, Object. Routledge. pp. 234–246. ISBN 978-1-135-01373-8.  ^ Richard D. Mann 2011, pp. 101-103. ^ Ratna Navaratnam; Karttikeya, the divine child:the Hindu
Hindu
testament of wisdom, 1973, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan ^ Fred W. Clothey 1978, p. 22. ^ Journal of Tamil Studies, Volume 1. International Institute of Tamil Studies. 1969. p. 131.  ^ Kanchan Sinha, Kartikeya
Kartikeya
in Indian art and literature, Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan (1979). ^ Korravai 2017-11-1. Britannica Online ^ The Smile of Murugan
Murugan
on Tamil Literature of South India, by Kamil Zvelebil (1973), E.J. Brill, pages 125-127 ^ Ganesh Vasudeo Tagare (1996). Studies in Skanda Purāṇa. Published by Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1260-3 ^ Hans Bakker 2014, pp. 4-6. ^ a b c Rocher 1986, pp. 114, 229-238. ^ KK Kurukkal (1961), A Study of the Karttikeya Cult as reflected in the Epics and the Puranas, University of Ceylon Review, Vol. 19, pages 131-138 ^ Richard D. Mann 2011, p. 187. ^ Hans Bakker 2014, pp. 1-3. ^ Doniger 1993, pp. 59-83. ^ Robert E. Buswell Jr.; Donald S. Lopez Jr. (2013). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. p. 452. ISBN 978-1-4008-4805-8.  ^ a b Richard Francis Gombrich; Gananath Obeyesekere (1988). Buddhism Transformed: Religious Change in Sri Lanka. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 176–180. ISBN 978-81-208-0702-0.  ^ Brian Morris (2006). Religion and Anthropology: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge University Press. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-0-521-85241-8.  ^ Kevin Trainor (2004). Buddhism: The Illustrated Guide. Oxford University Press. pp. 123–124. ISBN 978-0-19-517398-7.  ^ Richard D. Mann 2011, p. 32 with footnote 24. ^ Angela Falco Howard (2006). Chinese Sculpture. Yale University Press. pp. 373, 380–381. ISBN 0-300-10065-5.  ^ a b Henrik Sørensen (2011). Charles Orzech; Henrik Sørensen; Richard Payne, eds. Esoteric Buddhism and the Tantras
Tantras
in East Asia. BRILL Academic. pp. 124–125, 654–655 with footnotes. ISBN 90-04-18491-0.  ^ Richard D. Mann 2011, pp. 111-114. ^ Richard D. Mann 2011, pp. 113-114, 122-126. ^ Richard D. Mann 2011, pp. 122-126. ^ Doris Srinivasan 2007, pp. 333-335. ^ a b Richard D. Mann 2011, pp. 124-126. ^ a b S. Xavier Alphonse (1997). Kanthapura to Malgudi: Cultural Values and Assumptions in Selected South Indian Novelists in English. Prestige. p. 167. ISBN 978-81-7551-030-2. , Quote: "He [Skanda] has been hunter, warrior, philosopher. He is the teacher and inspiration of literature and arts. He is the eternal child, as old as time itself, yet as young as every new beginning. He is the handsome hero and lover, the wise Primordial One." ^ Richard D. Mann 2011, pp. 123-126 with footnotes. ^ Doris Srinivasan 2007, pp. 333-336, 515-516. ^ John Guy (2014). Lost Kingdoms: Hindu-Buddhist Sculpture of Early Southeast Asia. Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 176–178. ISBN 978-1-58839-524-5.  ^ a b Fred W. Clothey 1978, p. 51. ^ a b c Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 51-52. ^ Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 54-56. ^ a b c Raman Varadara 1993, pp. 113-114. ^ a b Govind Sadashiv Ghurye (1977). Indian Acculturation: Agastya and Skanda. Popular Prakashan. pp. 152–167.  ^ S. Devadas Pillai (1997). Indian Sociology Through Ghurye, a Dictionary. Popular Prakashan. pp. 159–160. ISBN 978-81-7154-807-1.  ^ Norman Cutler (2008). Gavin Flood, ed. The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. John Wiley & Sons. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-470-99868-7.  ^ Kālidāsa; C.R. Devadhar (Translator) (1985). Kumara-Sambhava of Kalidasa. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. iii–viii. ISBN 978-81-208-0012-0.  ^ Kamil Zvelebil (1973). The Smile of Murugan: On Tamil Literature of South India. BRILL Academic. p. 243. ISBN 90-04-03591-5.  ^ a b Fred W. Clothey 1978, p. 3. ^ Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 3-4. ^ Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 10-14. ^ James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 450. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8.  ^ Vijaya Ramaswamy (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Scarecrow Press. pp. 152–153. ISBN 978-0-8108-6445-0.  ^ Subhadra Sen Gupta (2001). Devi-devata: The Gods & Goddesses of India. Rupa & Company. pp. 194–195. ISBN 978-81-7167-530-2.  ^ Tracy Pintchman (2007). Women's Lives, Women's Rituals in the Hindu Tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-0-19-803934-1.  ^ Kinsley, David (1988). Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu
Hindu
Religious Traditions. University of California Press. p. 95. ISBN 0-520-06339-2.  ^ "Kumar utsav" (PDF). www.odisha.gov.in/. Govt of Odisha. Retrieved 18 October 2014.  ^ "Swami Kartikeya
Kartikeya
Temple (Kaylong Temple) Kugti". Bharmour View. Bharmour View.  ^ a b Pathmanathan, S (September 1999). "The guardian deities of Sri Lanka: Skanda-Murgan and Kataragama". The journal of the institute of Asian studies. The institute of Asian studies.  ^ Bechert, Heinz (1970). "Skandakumara and Kataragama: An Aspect of the Relation of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism in Sri Lanka". Proceedings of the Third International Tamil Conference Seminar. Paris: International Association of Tamil Research.  ^ Fred Clothey (1972), Pilgrimage Centers in the Tamil Cultus of Murukan, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Oxford University Press, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Mar., 1972), pp. 79-95 ^ "Welcome To LordMurugan.com Home Page".  ^ "Lord Muruga Names - 108 names of Lord Muruga with meanings".  ^ "Hinduismus :::: Religionen in der Schweiz / Religions en Suissse :::: Universität Luzern". 2 June 2009. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. 

Bibliography[edit]

Hans Bakker (2014). The World of the Skandapurāṇa. BRILL Academic. ISBN 978-90-04-27714-4.  Fred W. Clothey (1978). The Many Faces of Murukan̲: The History and Meaning of a South Indian God. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-90-279-7632-1.  Doniger, Wendy, ed. (1993). Purāṇa Perennis: Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu
Hindu
and Jaina Texts. Albany, New York: State University of New York. ISBN 0-7914-1382-9.  Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5.  Richard D. Mann (2011). The Rise of Mahāsena: The Transformation of Skanda-Kārttikeya in North India
India
from the Kuṣāṇa to Gupta Empires. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-21886-4.  Asko Parpola (2015). The Roots of Hinduism: The Early Aryans and the Indus Civilization. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-022691-6.  T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1993). Elements of Hindu
Hindu
iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0878-2.  Mohan Lal (1992). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-1221-3.  James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-3180-4.  Rocher, Ludo (1986). The Puranas. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3447025225.  Mani, Vettam. Puranic Encyclopedia. 1st English ed. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1975. G. V. Tagare, Dr. The Skanda-Purana (23 Vols.), Motilal Banarsidass. 2007. Kaur, Jagdish (1979). "Bibliographical Sources for Himalayan Pilgrimages and Tourism Studies: Uttarakhand". Tourism Recreation Research. 4 (1): 13–16. doi:10.1080/02508281.1979.11014968.  Doris Srinivasan (2007). On the Cusp of an Era: Art in the Pre-Kuṣāṇa World. BRILL Academic. ISBN 90-04-15451-5.  Doris Srinivasan (1997). Many Heads, Arms, and Eyes: Origin, Meaning, and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art. BRILL Academic. ISBN 90-04-10758-4.  Raman Varadara (1993). Glimpses of Indian Heritage. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7154-758-6. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Murugan.

Inuvil kanthan Temple Muruga in Sangam literature Mailam a Muruga Temple in the Cross Roads

v t e

Shaivism

History

History of Shaivism

Deities

Shiva

Sadyojata Vamadeva Aghora Tatpurusha Ishana

Nataraja Dakshinamurthy Harihara

Shakti

Ardhanarishvara Parvati

Ganesha Kartikeya Nandi

Texts

Shvetashvatara Upanishad Shivarahasya Purana Shiva
Shiva
Purana Shiva
Shiva
Sutras of Vasugupta

Mantra/ Stotra

Om Namah Shivaya Rudrashtakam Mahamrityunjaya Mantra Shiva
Shiva
Tandava Stotram Shiva
Shiva
Sahasranama Shiv Chalisa Shri Rudram Chamakam Shiva
Shiva
mahimna stotram

Philosophical Traditions

Shaiva Siddhanta Pashupata Shaivism Kashmir Shaivism Veera Shaivism Siddha
Siddha
Siddhanta Shiva
Shiva
Advaita Shaiva Smartas

Jyotirlingas

Bhimāśankara Ghuṣmeśvara Kedāranātha Viśveśvara Mallikārjuna Mahākāleśvara Nāgeśvara Omkāreśvara Rāmeśvara Somanātha Tryambakeśvara Vaidyanātha

Pancha Bhoota Stalam

Chidambaram Temple (Ether) Sri Kalahasti Temple (Air) Annamalaiyar Temple
Annamalaiyar Temple
(Fire) Thiruvanaikaval Temple (Water) Ekambareswarar Temple
Ekambareswarar Temple
(Earth)

Temples

Amarnath Brihadeeswarar Kailash Mansarovar Katasraj temple Lingaraj Temple Meenakshi Tirunelveli Panch Kedar

Kedarnath Tungnath Rudranath Madhyamaheshwar Kalpeshwar

Pancha Sabhai

Ratna Sabai Pon Sabai Velli Sabai Thamira Sabai Chitira Sabai

Tiruchengode Thirukutralam Vadakkum Nathan List of Shiva
Shiva
temples in India

Traditional Observances

Kanwar Yatra Lingam

Rasalingam

Maha Shivaratri Pradosha Shiva
Shiva
Puja Siddha Vibhuti Other names

Category

v t e

Hinduism
Hinduism
topics

Glossary

Philosophy

Concepts

Brahman Om Ishvara Atman Maya Karma Samsara

Purusharthas

Dharma Artha Kama Moksha

Niti

Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Dāna Damah Dayā Akrodha

Schools

Astika: Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Dvaita Advaita Vishishtadvaita

Nastika: Charvaka

Texts

Classification

Śruti Smriti

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad

Upanishads

Aitareya Kaushitaki Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Maitri Shvetashvatara Chandogya Kena Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

Vedanga

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Other

Bhagavad Gita Agamas Itihasas

Ramayana Mahabharata

Puranas Minor Upanishads Artha
Artha
Shastra Dharma
Dharma
Shastra

Manusmriti Nāradasmṛti Yājñavalkya Smṛti

Sutras Stotras Subhashita Tantras Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali

Deities

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Ishvara Devi Deva Saraswati Lakshmi Parvati Shakti Durga Kali Ganesha Kartikeya Rama Krishna Hanuman Prajapati Rudra Indra Agni Dyaus Bhumi Varuna Vayu

Practices

Worship

Temple Murti Puja Bhakti Japa Bhajana Naivedhya Yajna Homa Tapa Dhyana Tirthadana

Sanskaras

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Varnashrama

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Ashrama

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sanyassa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Raksha Bandhan Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
(Dasara)

Ganesh Chaturthi Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Pongal Makar Sankranti New Year

Bihu Gudi Padwa Pahela Baishakh Puthandu Vaisakhi Vishu Ugadi

Kumbha Mela Ratha Yatra Teej Vasant Panchami Others

Other

Svādhyāya Namaste Bindi Tilaka

Related

Hindu Denominations Law Calendar Criticism Gurus, saints, philosophers Hindu
Hindu
studies Iconography Mythology Nationalism

Hindutva

Persecution Pilgrimage sites Glossary Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

Category Portal

v t e

Murugan
Murugan
temples

Arupadaiveedu

Thiruparamkunram Thiruchendur Thiruavinankudi Swamimalai Thiruthani Pazhamudircholai

Others

Batu Caves Brickfields Chennimalai Haripad Kathirkamam Kukke Kundrakudi Malai Mandir Marudamalai Maviddapuram Nallur Pachaimalai Sikkal Thindalmalai Vadapalani Vallimalai Vayalur Viralimalai Waterfall Hilltop Clairwood Shree Siva Soobramoniar Temple

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 35257211 GN

.