Kartikeya (IAST: Kārttikēya) , also known as Murugan, Skanda,
Kumara, and Subrahmanya, is the
Hindu god of war. He is
the son of
Parvati and Shiva, brother of Ganesha, and a god whose life
story has many versions in Hinduism. An important deity around
South Asia since ancient times,
Kartikeya is particularly popular and
predominantly worshipped in South
Sri Lanka as
Kartikeya is an ancient god, traceable to the
Archaeological evidence from 1st-century CE and earlier, where he
is found with
Agni (fire), suggest that he was a significant
deity in early Hinduism. He is found in many medieval temples all
over India, such as at the
Ellora Caves and Elephanta Caves.
The iconography of
Kartikeya varies significantly; he is typically
represented as an ever-youthful man, riding or near a peacock, dressed
with weapons sometimes near a rooster. Most icons show him with one
head, but some show him with six heads reflecting the legend
surrounding his birth where six mothers symbolizing the six stars of
Pleiades cluster who took care of newly born baby Kartikeya.
He grows up quickly into a philosopher-warrior, destroys evil in the
form of demon Taraka, teaches the pursuit of ethical life and the
theology of Shaiva Siddhanta. He has inspired many poet-saints,
such as Arunagirinathar.
Murugan or Subrahmanya, is found as a primary deity in
temples wherever communities of the Tamil people live worldwide,
particularly in Sri Lanka, Mauritius, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore,
South Africa and Réunion. Three of the six richest and busiest
Tamil Nadu are dedicated to him. The
dedicated to him in
Sri Lanka attracts Tamils,
Sinhalese people and
the Vedda people. He is also found in other parts of India,
sometimes as Skanda, but in a secondary role along with Ganesha,
Parvati and Shiva.
1 Etymology and nomenclature
2 Textual references
2.2 In Tamil literature
2.4 Buddhism and Jainism
6.1 Within India
6.1.1 South India
6.1.2 East India
6.1.3 North India
6.2 Beyond India
6.2.2 Sri Lanka
10 External links
Etymology and nomenclature
Sculpture of the god Skanda, from Kannauj, North India, circa 8th
Kartikeya is known by numerous names in ancient and medieval texts of
the Indian culture. Most common among these are Murugan, Kumara,
Skanda, and Subrahmanya. Others include Aaiyyan, Cheyon, Senthil,
Vēlaṇ, Svaminatha ("ruler of the gods", from -natha king),
Saravanan ("born amongst the reeds"), Arumugam or Shanmuga
("six-faced"), Dandapani ("wielder of the mace", from -pani hand),
Guha (cave, secret) or Guruguha (cave-teacher), Kadhirvelan, Kandhan,
Vishakha and Mahasena. In ancient coins where the inscription has
survived along with his images, his names appear as Kumara, Brahmanya
or Brahmanyadeva. On some ancient Indo-Scythian coins, his names
appear in Greek script as Skanda, Kumara and Vishaka. In ancient
statues, he appears as Mahasena, Skanda and Vishakha.
Skanda is derived from skanḍr-, which means to "spill, ooze, leap,
attack". This root is derived from the legend of his unusual
birth. The legend, translates Lochtefeld, states "
Shiva and Parvati
are disturbed while making love, and
Shiva inadvertently spills his
semen on the ground". This semen incubates in River Ganges,
preserved by the heat of god Agni, and this fetus is born as baby
Kartikeya on the banks of Ganges. The "spill" epithet leads to the
name Skanda. Additionally
N. Gopala Pillai postulated that
Skanda derives from Alexander the Great.
Kartikeya means "of the Krittikas". This epithet is also linked to
his birth. After he appears on the banks of the River Ganges, he is
seen by the six of the seven brightest stars cluster in the night sky
called Krittikas in
Hindu texts (called
Pleiades in Greek texts).
These six mothers all want to take care of him and nurse baby
Kartikkeya. They argue. Baby Kartikkeya ends the argument by growing
five more heads to have a total of six heads so he can look at all six
moms, and let them each nurse one.
Another legend explains his various names as the result of competition
by many to seek and claim him. He loves everyone, and takes many names
and forms to be with them. For example, Kumara spends time with
goddess Ganga as her son, Skanda as the son of goddess Parvati,
Karttikeya as son of Shiva, while Guha as the son of fire god Agni.
There are ancient references which can be interpreted to be Kartikeya
Vedic texts, in the works of
Pāṇini (~500 BCE), in the
Patanjali and in Kautilya's Arthashastra. For
example, the term Kumara appears in hymn 5,2 of the Rig Veda.[note
1] The Kumara of verse 5.2.1 can be interpreted as Skanda, or just any
"boy". However, the rest of the verses depict the "boy" as
bright-colored, hurling weapons and other motifs that later have been
associated with Skanda. The difficulty with interpreting these to be
Skanda is that Indra,
Rudra are also depicted in similar
terms and as warriors.
Kartikeya with a
Kushan devotee, 2nd century CE.
The Skanda-like motifs found in
Rig Veda are found in other Vedic
texts, such as section 6.1-3 of the Shatapatha Brahmana. In these,
the mythology is very different for Kumara, as
Agni is described to be
the Kumara whose mother is
Ushas (goddess Dawn) and whose father is
Purusha. The section 10.1 of the Taittiriya
Sanmukha (six faced one), while the Baudhayana Dharmasutra mentions a
householder's rite of passage that involves prayers to Skanda with his
brother Ganapati (Ganesha) together. The chapter 7 of the
Chandogya Upanishad (~800–600 BCE) equates Sanat-Kumara (eternal
son) and Skanda, as he teaches sage
Narada to discover his own Atman
(soul, self) as a means to the ultimate knowledge, true peace and
According to Fred Clothey, the evidence suggests that Kartikeya
mythology had become widespread sometime around 200 BCE or after in
north India. The first clear evidence of Kartikeya's importance
emerges in the
Hindu Epics such as the
Ramayana and the Mahabharata
where his story is recited. In addition to textual evidence, his
importance is affirmed by the archeological, the epigraphical and the
numismatic evidence of this period. For example, he is found in
numismatic evidence linked to the Yaudheyas, a confederation of
warriors in north
India who are mentioned by ancient Pāṇini.
They ruled an area consisting of modern era Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan
Uttar Pradesh (extending into Garhwal region, Uttarakhand).
They struck coins bearing the image of Skanda, and these coins are
dated to be from before
Kushan Empire era started. During the
Kushan dynasty era, that included much of northwest Indian
subcontinent, more coins featuring
Kartikeya were minted. He is
also found on ancient Indo-Scythian coins, where his various names are
minted in Greek script.[note 3]
Coins of the
Yaudheyas feature Kartikeya, and these are dated to 1st
century CE Haryana, Punjab,
Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
Kartikeya was revered in major cultural centers of ancient India. For
example, he was a major god for the Ikshvakus, an Andhra dynasty, as
well as for the Gupta Empire. In south India, eight of the early
Pallava dynasty rulers (300-550 CE) were named after Skanda or Kumara,
suggesting the significance of
Kartikeya by then. Kalidasa's epic
Kumārasambhava features Kartikeya.
In Tamil literature
The Tolkāppiyam, one of the most ancient texts of the Tamil
literature, mentions cēyōṉ "the red one", who is identified with
Murugan, whose name is literally Murukaṉ "the youth"; the other gods
referred to in the
Tolkāppiyam are Māyōṉ "the dark one"
(identified with Vishnu), Vēntaṉ "the sovereign" (identified with
Korravai "the victorious" (identified with Kali) and
Varunan "the sea god". Extant
Sangam literature works, dated
between the third century BCE and the fifth century CE glorified
Murugan, "the red god seated on the blue peacock, who is ever young
and resplendent," as "the favoured god of the Tamils."
often identified as the mother of Murugan.
In the Tirumurukāṟtruuppaṭai, he is called Muruku and described
as a god of beauty and youth, with phrases such as "his body glows
like the sun rising from the emerald sea". It describes him with six
faces each with a function, twelve arms, his victory over evil, and
the temples dedicated to him in the hilly regions.
Kartikeya is mentioned in Shaiva Puranas. Of these, the Skanda Purana
is the largest Mahāpurāṇa, a genre of eighteen
texts. The text contains over 81,000 verses, and is part of
Shaivite literature, titled after Skanda, a son of
Parvati, who is also known as
Kartikeya and Murugan. While the
text is named after Skanda, he does not feature either more or less
prominently in this text than in other Shiva-related Puranas. The
text has been an important historical record and influence on the
Hindu traditions related to war-god Skanda. The earliest text
Skanda Purana likely existed by the 6th-century CE, but
Skanda Purana that has survived into the modern era exists in many
Buddhism and Jainism
Skanda Bodhisattva is the
Dharma protector in Mahayana Buddhism.
Above: Skanda's statue in
Anhui province, China.
According to Richard Gombrich, Skanda has been an important deity in
Theravada Buddhism pantheon, in countries such as
Sri Lanka and
Thailand. The Nikaya Samgraha describes Skanda Kumara as a guardian
deity of the land, along with Upulvan (Vishnu), Saman and
Vibhisana. Similarly, the 16th-century Siamese text Jinakalamali
mentions him as a guardian god. There are Buddhist Sinhala shrines
such as at
Kataragama dedicated to Skanda which have historically been
Hindu priests, which attracted Buddhist devotees and
enjoyed royal support. Since the 1950s, states Brian Morris, the
Kataragama shrine of Skanda has attracted over half a million
devotional pilgrims every year, most being Buddhists.
In Chinese Buddhism, Skanda has been portrayed as Weituo, a young
heavenly general, the guardian deity of local monasteries and the
protector of Buddhist dhamma. According to Henrik Sørensen,
this representation became common after the Tang period, and became
well established in the late Song period. Skanda was also adopted
by Korean Buddhism, and he appears in its woodblock prints and
According to Asko Parpola, the Jain deity Naigamesa, who is also
referred to as Hari-Naigamesin, is depicted in early Jain texts as
riding the peacock and as the leader of the divine army, both symbols
Kartikeya riding a peacock, by Raja Ravi Varma.
Ancient coins of the Yaudheyas, dated to 1st and 2nd century CE, show
Kartikeya as a warrior with either one or six heads.
Kushan coins show
him with one head. In general, single head is far more common
regardless of which dynasty minted them. The earliest statues
Punjab and Kashmir show him with either one or six
heads. The oldest sculptures such as those found in
Mathura show him
with one head, while six head iconography is dated to post-Gupta
Empire era. All
Kushan Empire era artwork show him with one head,
even though there are
Kushan deities such as a goddess who is shown
with multiple heads.
Kushan Empire era statues of Kartikeya, dated to 1st and
2nd-century CE, have been found at various sites in the Indian
subcontinent, particularly at
Mathura and Gandhara. They show him as a
warrior dressed in dhoti (sheet wrapped at waist, covering the legs),
armour like a warrior, spear in his right hand and a bird (rooster) in
his left. There is some difference between his ancient
Gandhara artwork. The
Gandhara arts show
him in more a Scythian dress, likely reflecting the local dress
culture prevalent in those times. Further, it is in the oldest
Gandharan statues where he is shown with a bird that looks like a
chicken or cock. According to Richard Mann, the bird may symbolize
Kartikeya's agility and maneuverability as a warrior god, and may be a
Parthian influence. His iconography symbolizes his attributes as a
hunter, warrior and philosopher.
Kartikeya iconography shows him as a youthful god, dressed as a
warrior, carrying the weapon called Vel. It is a divine spear, often
called sakti. He is sometimes depicted with many weapons including: a
sword, a javelin, a mace, a discus and a bow although more usually he
is depicted wielding the sakti or spear. His vahana (vehicle, mount)
is a peacock. He has either one head or six, depending on the region
Skanda statue are found in Southeast Asia. Above: 6th–8th century
Skanda from Prey Veng Province, Cambodia.
The Epic era literature of ancient
India recite numerous legends of
Kartikeya, often with his other names such as Skanda. For example, the
Vana Parva of the
Mahabharata dedicates chapters 223 to 232 to the
legends of Skanda, but depicts him as the son of
Agni and Svaha.
Ramayana dedicates chapters 36 and 37 to Skanda,
but describes him as the child of god
Agni and goddess Ganges.
The legends of
Kartikeya vary significantly, sometimes within the same
text. For example, while the
Vana Parva of the
Skanda as the son of Agni, the
Shalya Parva and the Anushasana Parva
of the same text presents Skanda's legend as the son of Maheshvara
(Shiva) and Parvati.
In Vana Parva, the circumstances behind Kartikeya's birth legend do
Shiva and Parvati. Rather it is deity
Agni who goes to
a hermitage of seven married Rishis (sages). He is sexually attracted
to all seven, but none reciprocate. Svaha is present there and she is
attracted to Agni, but
Agni is not. According to the legend, Svaha
takes the form of six of the wives, one by one, and sleeps with
Agni. She does not take the form of Arundhati, Vasistha's wife,
because of Arundhati's extraordinary virtuous powers. Svaha deposits
the semen of
Agni into the reeds of River Ganges, where it develops
and then is born as six headed Skanda.
A totally different legend in the later books of the
Parvati as the parents. They were having sex, but they are
Shiva inadvertently spills his semen on the ground.
Shiva's semen incubates in River Ganges, preserved by the heat of god
Agni, and this fetus is born as baby
Kartikeya on the banks of
Granite Karttikeya seated on a peacock from 12th-century Andhra
Some legend state that he was the elder son of Shiva, others make him
the younger brother of Ganesha. This is implied by another legend
connected to his birth. Devas have been beaten up by Asuras led by
Taraka, because Taraka had a boon from ascetic celibate yogi Shiva
that only Shiva's son can kill him. Devas learn about this boon, and
plan how to get
Shiva into a relationship. So they bring
the picture, have her seduce yogi Shiva, and wed
Parvati so that
Skanda can be born to kill Taraka.
According to Raman Varadara,
Kartikeya was originally a
Tamil deity, who was adopted by north Indians. He was the god of
war in the Dravidian legends, and became so elsewhere in the Indian
subcontinent too. In contrast,
G. S. Ghurye states that according
to the archeological and epigraphical evidence, the contemporary
Murugan, Subrahmanya and
Kartikeya is a composite of two influences,
one from south and one from north in the form of Skanda and
Mahasena. He as the warrior-philosopher god was the patron deity
for many ancient northern and western
Hindu kingdoms, and of the Gupta
Empire, according to Ghurye. After the 7th-century, Skanda's
importance diminished while his brother Ganesha's importance rose in
the west and north, while in the south the legends of Murugan
continued to grow. According to Norman Cutler,
Kartikeya-Murugan-Skanda of South and North
India coalesced over time,
but some aspects of the South Indian iconography and mythology for
Murugan have remained unique to Tamil Nadu.
Kartikeya's legends vary by region. For example, in the northern and
western Indian traditions
Kartikeya or Skanda is the perpetual
celibate bachelor who never marries, but in the Tamil legends he has
Valli and Devasena. Many of the major events in
Murugan's life take place during his youth, and legends surrounding
his birth are popular in Tamil Nadu. This has encouraged the worship
Murugan as a child-God, very similar to the worship of the child
Krishna in north India. Kartikeya's youth, beauty and bravery was much
celebrated in Sanskrit works like the Kathasaritsagara.
the birth of Kumara the subject of a lyrical epic, the
You who has form and who is formless,
you who are both being and non-being,
who are the fragrance and the blossom,
who are the jewel and its lustre,
who are the seed of life and life itself,
who are the means and the existence itself,
who are the supreme guru, come
and bestow your grace, O Guha [Murugan]
—Kantaranuputi 51, Arunagirinathar
(Translator: Kamil Zvelebil)
There is extensive
Hindu symbolism and theology associated with
Kartikeya. Regardless of the variance among the legends, his birth is
in difficult circumstances, he is born through a surrogate after being
left near a river. He is raised not by his natural mother but a host
of mothers, but later he is a part of his biological family. Kartikeya
symbolizes a union of polarities. He is handsome warrior and
described as a celibate yogi. He uses his creative martial abilities
to lead an army against Taraka and other demons, and described as a
philosopher-warrior. He is a uniter, championing the attributes
Shaivism and Vaishnavism.
His theology is most developed in the Tamil texts, and in the
Shaiva Siddhanta tradition. He is described as teyvam (abstract
neuter divinity, nirguna Brahman), as katavul (divinity in nature, in
everything), as tevan (masculine deity), and as iraivativam (concrete
manifestation of the sacred, saguna Brahman).
According to Fred Clothey, as
Murugan (also referred to as Murukan,
Cheyyon), he embodies the "cultural and religious whole that comprises
South Indian Shaivism". He is the philosopher and exponent of
Shaiva Siddhanta theology, as well as the patron deity of the Tamil
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Murugan with Deivaanai (on right of image) and
Valli (on left of
Murugan is worshiped primarily in areas with Tamil influences.
Subramanya is also a major deity among the Hindus of Kerala,
Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Rituals like
Uttara Kannada region of Karnataka.
Kataragama Sri Lanka
temple is another important
Murugan center.
Sri Lanka and India,
Murugan is popular with more elaborate
accounts of his mythology in the Tamil language, culminating in the
Tamil version of Skanda Purana, called Kandha Purānam. It was written
by Kacchiappa Sivachariyar (1350–1420 AD.) of Kumara Kottam in the
city of Kanchipuram. During His bachelorhood,
Murugan is also regarded
as Kumaraswami (or Bachelor God), Kumara meaning a bachelor and Swami
meaning God. Muruga rides a peacock and wields a bow in battle. The
Vel in Tamil is a weapon closely associated with him. The
Vel was given to him by his mother, Parvati, and embodies her energy
and power. His army's standard depicts a rooster. In the war,
Surapadman was split into two, and each half was granted a boon by
Murugan. The halves, thus turned into the peacock (his mount) and the
rooster his flag, which also "refers to the sun".
Batu Caves near Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia has a famous temple of Murugan.
Kartikeya worshipped during
Kartikeya is revered during the Kartik Puja festival, observed in
November in eastern states of India.[note 4] During
Durga Puja in
Kartikeya is featured as a son of
Durga (Parvati) and Shiva,
sitting along with his brother Ganesha.
Kartikeya idol made of black granite, represented in the traditional
Kalinga style. Parshwadebata niche from the Sobhaneswara Mahadeba
Temple at Niali, Odisha.
Kumara Purnima, which is celebrated by girls and newly married women
on the full moon day after Vijayadashami. It is dedicated to Kartikeya
in Odisha. The festivities bring girls together, they sing and dance,
and play a game called Puchi. The prayers on the day are aimed with
hopes of getting a husband similar to Kartikeya.
Durga Puja in
Odisha as well as in various Shiva
temples throughout the year. Kartik puja is celebrated in Cuttack
along with various other parts of the state during the last phases of
Hindu month of Kartik.
Kartikeya is the main deity at Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh.
The temple of
Kartikeya in Kugti village is visited every year by
thousands of devotees when the trek is opened in the month of
Murugan is revered by the Tamil Hindus in
Malaysia and other
South-East Asian countries such as
Singapore and Indonesia. Thaipusam
is one of the important festivals celebrated. Sri Subramanyar Temple
Batu Caves temple complex in
Malaysia is dedicated to Murugan. Batu
Caves in short also referred as 10th Caves or Hill for Lord Muruga as
there are 6 important holy shrines in
India and 4 more in Malaysia.
The 3 others in
Malaysia are:
Kallumalai Temple in Ipoh
Arulmigu Balathandayuthapani Temple, Penang
Sannasimalai Temple in Malacca
Karthikeya is worshipped by the Sinhalese as
Kataragama deviyo also by
Sri Lankan Tamils
Sri Lankan Tamils as Muruhan, a guardian deity of Sri Lanka. Numerous
temples exist throughout the island. He is a favourite deity of the
common folk everywhere and it is said he never hesitates to come to
the aid of a devotee when called upon. In the deeply Sinhalese south
of Sri Lanka, he is worshipped at the
Kataragama temple, where he is
known as Kathiravel or
Kataragama deviyo. Local legend holds that
Murugan alighted in
Kataragama and was smitten by Valli, one of the
local girls. After a courtship, they were married. This event is taken
to signify that
Murugan is accessible to all who worship and love him,
regardless of their birth or heritage. The Nallur Kandaswamy temple,
Maviddapuram Kandaswamy Temple
Maviddapuram Kandaswamy Temple and the Sella Channithy Temple near
Valvettiturai are the three foremost
Murugan temples in Jaffna. The
Chitravelayutha temple in Verukal on the border between Trincomalee
and Batticaloa is also noteworthy as is the Mandur Kandaswamy temple
in Batticaloa. The late medieval-era temple of the tooth in Kandy,
dedicated to the tooth relic of the Buddha, has a
shrine adjacent to it dedicated to the veneration of Skanda in the
Sinhalese tradition. Almost all Buddhist temples house a shrine room
Kataragama deviyo reflecting the significance of
The Sri Lankan
Nallur Kandaswamy temple
Nallur Kandaswamy temple (Jaffna) is dedicated to
By the 16th century, the
Kataragama temple had become synonymous with
Skanda-Kumara who was a guardian deity of Sinhala Buddhism. The
town was popular as a place of pilgrimage for Hindus from
Sri Lanka by the 15th century. The popularity of the deity at the
Kataragama temple was also recorded by the Pali chronicles of Thailand
such as Jinkalmali in the 16th century. There are number of legends
both Buddhist and
Hindu that attribute supernatural events to the very
locality. Scholars such as Paul Younger and Heinz Bechert
speculate that rituals practiced by the native priests of Kataragama
temple betray Vedda ideals of propitiation. Hence they believe the
area was of Vedda veneration that was taken over by the Buddhist and
Hindus in the medieval period.
Kartikeya-Subrahmaniya temples are popular in hilly regions such as
the Western Ghats. Above: the 12th-century Maruthamalai Temple in
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There are temples for
Kartikeya all over india of which Top familiar
ones are in Tamil nadu. The coverage should be expanded. More
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Murugan Temple, Swamimalai
Murugan Temple, Thiruchendur Murugan
Murugan Temple, Thiruthani
Murugan Temple are six temples dedicated to Kartikeya
as their primary deity.. These six temples in Tamilnadu, together
are referred to as Aru Padaiveedu(Tamil: Āṟupaṭai vīṭu), that
are mentioned in Thirumurugatrupadai, written by
Nakkeerar and in
Thirupugal, written by Arunagirinathar.[unreliable source?]
Other important shrines in Tamilnadu are Mayilam, Sikkal, Marudamalai,
Skandasramam, Kundrathur, Vadapalani, Kandakottam, Thiruporur,
Vallakottai, Viralimalai, Vayalur, Thirumalaikoil, Chennimalai,
Sivanmalai, Thindalmalai, Pachaimalai and Pavalamalai near
There are many temples dedicated to Subramanya in Kerala. Amongst them
are Atiyambur Sri Subramanya Temple in
Kanhangad Kasaragod, Subramanya
Swamy temple in Payyanur,
Panmana Subramanya Swamy temple in Panmana
and the Subramanya temple in Haripad. There are temples in Skandagiri,
Mopidevi and Mallam[disambiguation needed] in
Andhra Pradesh. In Karnataka,
Kukke Subramanya Temple
Kukke Subramanya Temple
worshipped as Subrahmanya where he is regarded as Lord of the
serpents. Malai Mandir, a prominent temple complex in
Delhi and Pehowa
Haryana are amongst the few temples dedicated to
Thaipusam festivities near the Batu Caves, Malaysia
The key temples in
Sri Lanka include the sylvan shrine in Kataragama
(Kadirgamam) in the south, the temple in Tirukovil in the east, the
shrine in Embekke in the
Kandy and the
Nallur Kandaswamy temple
Nallur Kandaswamy temple in
Jaffna. There are several temples dedicated to
Murugan in Malaysia,
the most famous being the
Batu Caves near
Kuala Lumpur which has a
42.7-m-high statue of
Murugan at the entrance, the largest Lord
Murugan statue in the world. The second largest
Murugan temple are
located on Langkat,
Indonesia which has 16 meter high and standing
outside of its temple named as Shri Raja Rajeshwari Amman Kovil
Temple. Sri Thandayuthapani Temple in
Singapore is a major Hindu
In the USA,
Murugan Temple in Concord, Northern California and
Murugan Temple of North America in Maryland, Washington DC region are
popular. Kanthasamy Temple in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Murugan
temple in Val-Morin, a suburb of the city of
Montreal are popular
temples in Canada. In the United Kingdom, Highgate Hill Murugan
Murugan Temple in Manor park, London, Shri Siva Murugan
Temple in Leicester and Skanda Vale are popular temples. In Australia,
Murugan temple in Parramatta (Mays Hill), Perth Bala Muruguan
temple in Mandogalup and Kundrathu Kumaran temple in Rockbank,
Melbourne are major temples. In New Zealand, there is a Thirumurugan
Auckland and a Kurinji Kumaran Temple in Wellington, both
dedicated to Murugan. Sri Sivasubramaniar Temple, located in the Sihl
Adliswil is the largest
Hindu temple in Switzerland.
^ कुमारं माता युवतिः
समुब्धं गुहा बिभर्ति न
ददाति पित्रे । अनीकमस्य न
मिनज्जनासः पुरः पश्यन्ति
निहितमरतौ ॥१॥ कमेतं त्वं
युवते कुमारं पेषी बिभर्षि
महिषी जजान । पूर्वीर्हि
गर्भः शरदो ववर्धापश्यं
जातं यदसूत माता ॥२॥
मिमानम् । ददानो अस्मा
सनुतश्चरन्तं सुमद्यूथं न
पुरु शोभमानम् । न ता
अगृभ्रन्नजनिष्ट हि षः
॥४॥ (...) Hymn 5.2, Wikisource;
English: "The youthful Mother keeps the Boy in secret pressed to her
close, nor yields him to the Father. But, when he lies upon the arm,
the people see his unfading countenance before them. [5.2.1] What
child is this thou carriest as handmaid, O Youthful One? The
Consort-Queen hath bome him. The Babe unborn increased through many
autumns. I saw him born what time his Mother bare him. [5.2.2] I saw
him from afar gold-toothed, bright-coloured, hurling his weapons from
his habitation, What time I gave him Amrta free from mixture. How can
the Indraless, the hymnless harm me? [5.2.3] I saw him moving from the
place he dwells in, even as with a herd, brilliantly shining. These
seized him not: he had been born already. They who were grey with age
again grow youthful. [5.2.4]
– Translated by Ralph T.H. Griffith, Wikisource
^ Verse 7.26.2 states Kumara is Skanda, but there are stylistic
differences between this verse and the rest of the chapter. This may
be because this verse was interpolated into the text at a later
^ Richard Mann states that Skanda-Kumara may be composite deity linked
to Greek deities pair called Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux), given the
numismatic overlap in their iconography and similar warrior-god
^ In the central, northern and western states,
Krishna and Radha are
revered during the Kartik Puja.
^ a b c d e f g Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 1-2.
^ James G. Lochtefeld 2002, p. 377.
^ a b c d e Asko Parpola 2015, p. 285.
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^ Richard D. Mann 2011, pp. 104-106 with footnotes.
^ a b Edward Thomas (1877). Jainism: Or, The Early Faith of Aṣoka.
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^ Richard D. Mann 2011, pp. 123-124.
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^ Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 49-53.
^ a b Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 49-51.
^ Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 46-51.
^ Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 48-50.
^ a b c Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 50-51.
^ Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 49-50.
^ The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Robert Hume, Oxford University
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^ The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Robert Hume, Oxford University
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^ Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 45-46.
^ a b c d Richard D. Mann 2011, pp. 101-105 with footnotes.
^ Benjamin Fleming; Richard Mann (2014). Material Culture and Asian
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^ Richard D. Mann 2011, pp. 101-103.
^ Ratna Navaratnam; Karttikeya, the divine child:the
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^ Journal of Tamil Studies, Volume 1. International Institute of Tamil
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^ Kanchan Sinha,
Kartikeya in Indian art and literature, Delhi:
Sundeep Prakashan (1979).
Korravai 2017-11-1. Britannica Online
^ The Smile of
Murugan on Tamil Literature of South India, by Kamil
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^ KK Kurukkal (1961), A Study of the Karttikeya Cult as reflected in
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^ Richard D. Mann 2011, p. 32 with footnote 24.
^ Angela Falco Howard (2006). Chinese Sculpture. Yale University
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^ a b Henrik Sørensen (2011). Charles Orzech; Henrik Sørensen;
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^ Doris Srinivasan 2007, pp. 333-336, 515-516.
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