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Coat of arms

Map of Kars
Kars
Oblast

Capital Kars

History

 •  Treaty of San Stefano 1878

 •  First Republic of Armenia 1918

Area

 •  1897 16,473 km2 (6,360 sq mi)

Population

 •  1897 290,654 

Density 17.6 /km2  (45.7 /sq mi)

Today part of Kars
Kars
Province Ardahan
Ardahan
Province Erzurum Province

Kars
Kars
Oblast (Russian: Карсская область, Karsskaya Oblast) was one of the oblasts of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
between 1878 and 1917. Its capital was the city of Kars, presently in the Republic of Turkey. The governorate bordered with the Ottoman Empire, Batum Oblast, Tiflis Governorate, Erivan Governorate, and from 1883 to 1903 the Kutais Governorate. It covered all of Turkey's present provinces of Kars
Kars
and Ardahan
Ardahan
and the northeastern part of Erzurum Province
Erzurum Province
as well as a small part of Armenia. According to the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
Census of 1897, the Oblast was populated with 25.3% Armenians, 21.9% Turks, 14.8% Kurds, 11.2% Caucasus Greeks, 10.3% Karapapaks, and 7.7% Russians.

Contents

1 History 2 Administrative division 3 Demographics

3.1 1892 3.2 1897

4 See also 5 References

History[edit] Kars
Kars
Oblast was created in 1878 from some of the lands conquered by Russia from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and transferred to Russia by the Treaty of San Stefano (1878). The lands of the Oblast had previously belonged to the Ottoman Kars
Kars
Eyalet and Samtskhe Province before 1845 and Erzurum Eyalet
Erzurum Eyalet
after 1845. [1] With the incorporation of the region into Russian Empire, a large portion (82,000 during 1878-81, according to Russian sources[1]) of the local Muslim population left for Ottoman territory. Instead new settlers (mostly Armenians, Caucasus Greeks
Caucasus Greeks
(i.e., Russianized, eastern Pontic Greeks
Pontic Greeks
from Armenia
Armenia
and Georgia) and Russians) [1] migrated to or were resettled in the newly conquered lands from Russia's other Transcaucasian provinces or from areas that still fell within the Ottoman Turkish side of the newly drawn border. Many of these Christian Orthodox communities had fought in or collaborated with the Russian imperial army as a means of recapturing territory from the Muslim Ottomans for Christian Orthodoxy.[1] The first ruler of the oblast held the title of nachalnik ("chief"), later the title became military governor. Nachalniks were Ivan Popko (Russian: Попко, Иван Диомидович) between 01.11.1877 and 08.06.1878, and Viktor Frankini (Russian: Франкини, Виктор Антонович),between 08.06.1878 and 27.10.1878. The first military governor of was Viktor Frankini (27.10.1878—01.04.1881). After the October Revolution
October Revolution
of 1917 and the disintegration of Russian Empire, the lands of its Kars
Kars
Oblast were controlled for a short while by First Republic of Armenia
First Republic of Armenia
and, in its northeastern part, by the Democratic Republic of Georgia. In any event Turkish forces soon invaded the area, forming an unrecognized puppet government, before the lands were taken back by the First Republic of Armenia. Incorporation of most of the lands of the former Kars
Kars
Oblast into Turkey
Turkey
was confirmed by the Treaty of Kars
Kars
(1921), signed by the unrecognized Turkish state and the Soviet Union. Administrative division[edit] Since 1881, Kars
Kars
Oblast consisted of four okrugs (districts):

Kars
Kars
(Карсский округ) Ardahan
Ardahan
(Ардаганский округ) Kaghzvan (Кагызманский округ) Oltu
Oltu
(Ольтинский округ)

Two more okrugs, Zarushat (Заришат) and Shoragyal (Шорагял; also spelt Shuregel) existed in 1878-81. Demographics[edit] 1892[edit]

An 1883 map including Kars
Kars
Oblast and adjacent provinces of Russian and Ottoman Empires

Ethnographic map of the Kars
Kars
Oblast, 1902 (according to the census of 1886)

In 1892, the population of Kars
Kars
Oblast was estimated as 200,868. The ethnic composition, and religious affiliation of ethnic groups, was reported as follows:[1]

Turks (this number also included a some Adjarians): 24% (Sunni Muslims) Armenians: 21.5% Kurds: 15% Muslim Karapapaks: 14% ( Sunni
Sunni
and some Shi'a) Alevi
Alevi
Karapapaks (reported as 'Turkmen'): 5% Yazidis Caucasus Greeks
Caucasus Greeks
or eastern Pontic Greeks
Pontic Greeks
from Georgia and northeastern Anatolia: 13.5% (Orthodox Christians) Russians: 7% (mostly "sectarians", i.e. Spiritual Christian Pryguny, Molokans, Doukhobors, etc.)

The religious composition of the population was reported as follows:

Orthodox Christians: 14% Spiritual Christians (Pryguny, Molokans, Doukhobors, etc.): 5% Armenian Apostolic Church: 21% Other Christian churches: 0.75% Muslims: 53%, among which:

Sunni: 46% Shi'a: 7%

Alevi
Alevi
(reported as "Ali Illahi"): 5% Yazidism: 1.25%

1897[edit]

Kars
Kars
1897 Census

The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
Census of 1897 counted 290,654 residents in Kars Oblast, including 160,571 men and 130,083 women. This number may perhaps imply that the 200,868 estimate for 1892 given by Brockhaus is too low, or that a large-scale migration from other provinces of the empire took place in between. The following breakdown of the population by the mother tongue was reported:[2]

Turkic: 104,457, including:

Tatar: 2,347 Bashkir: 207 Turkish: 63,547 Karapapak: 29,879 Turkmen ( Alevi
Alevi
Karapapak): 8,442

Armenian: 73,406 Kurdish: 42,968 Caucasus Greeks: 32,593 East Slavic: 27,856, including:

Russian: 22,327 Ukrainian: 5,279 Belarusian: 250

Polish: 3243 Jewish
Jewish
( Yiddish
Yiddish
etc.): 1,138 Lithuanian: 892 Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
('Assyrian'): 585 Persian: 568 Georgian: 543 Ossetian: 520 Estonian: 455 Lezgin: 448 German: 430

The 30,000 excess population of male over females was mainly attributed to the "European" ethnic groups. Viz., among the 27,856 speakers of Russian, Ukrainian, and Belarusian, 19,910 men and 7,946 women were recorded. The Polish, and Lithuanian speakers were almost exclusively (99%) male as well; Germans and Jews, 80 to 90% males. This preponderance of males in the "European" ethnic groups (reported, usually to a lesser extent, in neighboring governorates as well) may indicate presence of a large numbers of soldiers or exiled persons in the region. Ethnic groups in Kars
Kars
Oblast according to 1897 Russian census[3]

Okrug (district) Armenians Turks Kurds Caucasus Greeks Karapapak Russians Turkmens Ukrainians Poles Tatars (Azerbaijani)

TOTAL 25,3% 21,9% 14,8% 11,2% 10,3% 7,7% 2,9% 1,8% 1,1% …

Ardahan 2,9% 42,6% 19,1% 11,9% 12,0% 3,0% 6,6% … … …

Kaghizman 36,5% 8,7% 29,9% 12,2% … 4,4% 1,1% 2,4% 1,5% 1,5%

Kars 34,8% 7,9% 6,8% 11,0% 16,4% 12,6% 1,8% 2,5% 1,6% 1,1%

Olti 9,9% 62,6% 11,1% 8,6% … 2,8% 3,2% … … …

See also[edit]

Russian Armenia First Republic of Armenia

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Карсская область ( Kars
Kars
Oblast) in Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian) ^ Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. Распределение населения по родному языку и регионам (Census 1897) ^ Демоскоп Weely - Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. Распределение населения по родному языку и уездам. Российской Империи кроме губерний Европейской России

v t e

Subdivisions of the Russian Empire

Governorates (List)

Azov¹ *Altai² Arkhangelsk Archangelgorod Astrakhan Belgorod Bessarabia Bratslav Byelorussia Caucasus Chernigov Grodno Finland Iziaslav Ingermanland Irkutsk Kazan Kaluga Kiev (1708) Kiev Kharkov Kherson Kholm Kovno Kolyvan Kostroma Kursk Lithuania Little Russia (1764) Little Russia (1796) Minsk Mogilev Moscow Nikolayev Nizhny Novgorod Novhorod-Siverskyi Novgorod Novorossiysk Olonets Orenburg Oryol Penza Perm *Petrograd² Podolia Polotsk Poltava Pskov Ryazan Samara Saint Petersburg Saratov Siberia Simbirsk Sloboda Ukraine Slonim Smolensk Stavropol Taurida Tambov Tver Tobolsk Tomsk Tula Ufa Vilna Vitebsk Vladimir Voznesensk Vologda Volhynian Voronezh Vyatka Vyborg Yaroslavl Yekaterinoslav Yeniseysk

Oblasts

Amur Belostok Bessarabia Don Voisko Zabaikalskaya Kamchatka Caspian Kwantung Orenburg Kirgiz Omsk Primorskaya Sakhalin Taurida Tarnopol Turgay Ural Yakut

Oblasts of Stepnoy Krai

Akmolinsk Siberia Kirgiz Semipalatinsk Oblast

Oblasts of Turkestan Krai

Transcaspian Samarkand Semirechye Oblast Syr-Darya Oblast Turkestan Fergana

Caucasus Viceroyalty

Baku Governorate Black Sea Governorate Derbent Governorate Elizavetpol Governorate Erivan Governorate Georgia-Imeretia Governorate Georgia Governorate Kutais Governorate Shemakha Governorate Tiflis Governorate Armenian Oblast Batum Oblast Dagestan Oblast Imeretia Oblast Kars
Kars
Oblast Kuban Oblast Terek Oblast Black Sea Okrug Sukhum Okrug Zakatal Okrug Ozurget Uyezd

Baltic Governorates³

Courland Livonia Reval Riga Estonia

Governorates of Finland

Abo-Byorneborg Vaza Vyborg Kuopio Nyuland Sankt Mikhel Tavastgus Uleoborg

Governorates of Poland

Avgustov Varshava Kalish Kelets Krakov Lomzha Lyublin Mazovia Petrokov Plotsk Podlasie Radom Sandomir Sedlets Suvalki

Governorates of Galicia

Lvov Peremyshl Tarnopol Chernovtsy

Territories and dependencies

Bukeyev Horde Emirate of Bukhara Kokand Khanate Russian America Uriankhayskiy Krai Khanate of Khiva Zeravshan Okrug

¹ Italics indicates renamed or abolished governorates, oblasts, etc on 1 January 1914. ² An asterisk (*) indicates governorates formed or created with renaming after 1 January 1914. ³ Ostsee or Baltic general-governorship was abolished in 1876.

Coordinates: 40°36′25″N 43°05′35″E / 40.6069°N 43.0931°E

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