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Karbala
Karbala
(Arabic: كَرْبَلَاء‎, Karbalā’, Persian: کربلاء) is a city in central Iraq, located about 100 km (62 mi) southwest of Baghdad, and a few miles east of Lake Milh.[2][3] Karbala
Karbala
is the capital of Karbala
Karbala
Governorate, and has an estimated population of 0.7 million people (2015). The city, best known as the location of the Ma'rakat Karbalā’ (Arabic: مَعرَكة كَـربَـلَاء‎, Battle of Karbala) in 680 CE, or the Masjidayn (Arabic: مَـسـجِـدَيـن‎, two Mosques) of Imam
Imam
Husayn and Abbas,[4][5] is considered as a holy city for Shi'ite Muslims as Mecca, Medina
Medina
and Jerusalem. Tens of millions of Shi'ite Muslims visit the site twice a year, rivaling Mecca
Mecca
as a place of pilgrimage.[6][7][8][9] The martyrdom of Imam Husayn ibn Ali
Husayn ibn Ali
is commemorated annually by millions of Shi'ites.[10][11][12][13] Up to 8 million pilgrims visit the city to observe ‘Āshūrā’ (Arabic: عَـاشُـورَاء‎, "Tenth Day" of the month of Muharram
Muharram
), which marks the anniversary of Imam Husayn's death, but the main event is the Arba‘īn
Arba‘īn
(Arabic: أَربَـعِـيـن‎, 40th day after Ashura), where up to 30 million visit the holy graves. Most of the pilgrims travel on foot from all around Iraq
Iraq
and more than 56 countries.[14][15]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 History

3.1 Battle of Karbala 3.2 Early modern

4 Main sights 5 Religious beliefs

5.1 Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the Quran 5.2 Ahadith

6 Culture

6.1 Sports 6.2 Media 6.3 University 6.4 Indian subcontinent

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Etymology[edit] According to Shi'ite belief, the archangel Gabriel
Gabriel
narrated the true meaning of the name Karbalā’ to Muhammad: a combination of karb (Arabic: كَـرب‎, the land which will cause many agonies) and balā’ (Arabic: بَـلاء‎, afflictions)."[16] Geography[edit] Climate[edit] Karbala
Karbala
experiences a Semi-arid climate
Semi-arid climate
with extremely hot, dry summers and cool winters. Almost all of the yearly precipitation is received between November and April, though no month is truly wet.

Climate data for Karbala

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 15.7 (60.3) 18.8 (65.8) 23.6 (74.5) 30.6 (87.1) 36.9 (98.4) 41.5 (106.7) 43.9 (111) 43.6 (110.5) 40.2 (104.4) 33.3 (91.9) 23.7 (74.7) 17.6 (63.7) 30.78 (87.42)

Average low °C (°F) 5.4 (41.7) 7.0 (44.6) 11.2 (52.2) 17.1 (62.8) 22.5 (72.5) 26.3 (79.3) 28.8 (83.8) 28.2 (82.8) 24.3 (75.7) 19.0 (66.2) 11.6 (52.9) 6.9 (44.4) 17.36 (63.24)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 17.6 (0.693) 14.3 (0.563) 15.7 (0.618) 11.5 (0.453) 3.5 (0.138) 0.1 (0.004) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.3 (0.012) 4.1 (0.161) 10.5 (0.413) 15.3 (0.602) 92.9 (3.657)

Average precipitation days 7 5 6 5 3 0 0 0 0 4 5 7 42

Source: World Meteorological Organisation
World Meteorological Organisation
(UN)[17]

History[edit] Battle of Karbala[edit] Main article: Battle of Karbala

Destruction of the Tomb of Husain at Kerbela on the orders of Caliph al-Mutawakkil.

Karbala's prominence in Shia
Shia
traditions is the result of the Battle of Karbala, fought on the site of the modern city on October 10, 680 AD (10 Muharram
Muharram
61 AH). Both Imam
Imam
Hussein ibn Ali
Hussein ibn Ali
and his brother Abbas ibn Ali were buried by the local Banī Asad tribe, at what later became known as the Mashhad Al-Hussein. The battle itself occurred as a result of Husain's refusal of Yazid I's demand for allegiance to his caliphate. The Kufan governor, Ubaydallah ibn Ziyad, sent thirty thousand horsemen against Imam
Imam
Hussein as he traveled to Kufa. The horsemen, under 'Umar ibn Sa'd, were ordered to deny Imam
Imam
Hussein and his followers water in order to force Imam
Imam
Hussein to agree to give an oath of allegiance. On the 9th of Muharram, Imam
Imam
Hussein refused, and asked to be given the night to pray. On 10 Muharram, Imam
Imam
Hussein ibn Ali prayed the morning prayer and led his troops into battle along with his brother Abbas. Many of Hussein's followers, including all of his present sons Ali Akbar, Ali Asghar (six months old) and his nephews Qassim, Aun and Muhammad
Muhammad
were killed.[18] In 63 AH (682 AD), Yazid ibn Mu'awiya released the surviving members of Imam
Imam
Hussein's family from prison. On their way to the Mecca, they stopped at the site of the battle. There is record of Sulayman ibn Surad going on pilgrimage to the site as early as 65 AH (685 CE). The city began as a tomb and shrine to Hussein and grew as a city in order to meet the needs of pilgrims. The city and tombs were greatly expanded by successive Muslim rulers, but suffered repeated destruction from attacking armies. The original shrine was destroyed by the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliph Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
in 850 but was rebuilt in its present form around 979, only to be partly destroyed by fire in 1086 and rebuilt yet again. Early modern[edit] See also: Wahhabi
Wahhabi
sack of Karbala Like Najaf, the city suffered from severe water shortages that were only resolved in the early 18th century by building a dam at the head of the Husseiniyya Canal. In 1737, the city replaced Isfahan in Iran as the main centre of Shia
Shia
scholarship. In the mid-eighteenth century it was dominated by the dean of scholarship, Yusuf Al Bahrani, a key proponent of the Akhbari
Akhbari
tradition of Shia
Shia
thought, until his death in 1772,[19] after which the more state-centric Usuli
Usuli
school became more influential. The Wahhabi sack of Karbala
Wahhabi sack of Karbala
occurred in 21 April 1802 (1216 Hijri) (1801[20]), under the rule of Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad
Muhammad
the second ruler of the First Saudi State, when 12,000 Wahhabis from Najd
Najd
attacked the city of Karbala.[21] The attack was coincident with the anniversary of Ghadir Khum event,[22] or 10 Muharram.[23] Wahhabis killed 2000[23]-5000[22] of the inhabitants and plundered the tomb of Husayn ibn Ali, grandson of Muhammad
Muhammad
and son of Ali bin Abi Talib,[23] and destroyed its dome. Then they seized a large amount of spoils including golds, Persian carpets, money, pearl and guns accumulated in the tomb most of them donations. The attack lasted for 8 hours and Wahhabis left the city with more than 4,000 camels carrying their plunder.[24] After the First Saudi State
First Saudi State
invasion, the city enjoyed semi-autonomy during Ottoman rule, governed by a group of gangs and mafia variously allied with members of the 'ulama. In order to reassert their authority, the Ottoman army laid siege to the city. On January 13, 1843 Ottoman troops entered the city. Many of the city leaders fled leaving defense of the city largely to tradespeople. About 3,000 Arabs were killed in the city, and another 2,000 outside the walls (this represented about 15% of the city's normal population). The Turks lost 400 men.[25] This prompted many students and scholars to move to Najaf, which became the main Shia
Shia
religious centre.[26] Between 1850 and 1903, Karbala
Karbala
enjoyed a generous influx of money through the Awadh Bequest. The Shia
Shia
ruled Indian Province of Awadh, known by the British as Oudh, had always sent money and pilgrims to the holy city. The Oudh money, 10 million rupees, originated in 1825 from the Awadh
Awadh
Nawab Ghazi-ud-Din Haider. One third was to go to his wives, and the other two thirds went to holy cities of Karbala
Karbala
and Najaf. When his wives died in 1850, the money piled up with interest in the hands of the British East India Company. The EIC sent the money to Karbala
Karbala
and Najaf
Najaf
per the wives' wishes, in the hopes of influencing the Ulama
Ulama
in Britain's favor. This effort to curry favor is generally considered to have been a failure.[27]

Mosque
Mosque
in Karbala
Karbala
(1932)

Karbala's development was strongly influenced by the Persians, who were the dominant community for many years (making up 75%[citation needed]of the city's population by the early 20th century). The Kammouna family were custodians of the shrines for many years and effectively ran the city until it fell under the control of the British Empire
British Empire
in 1915. While the Kammouna family surrendered rule over to the British and sought to work for and with the British, many notable Karbala
Karbala
clans continues to oppose the foreign invasion. One such clan is the historically well-known Karbala
Karbala
clan of Awad who has been inhabitants of the city for some 500 years.[28] They, alongside others, fought directly against the British. According to the writings of Gertrude Bell,[29] some of the Awad clan's sheiks were banished after the control of the city for many years before returning to re-establish their land and community prestige.[30] The Awad Clan has historically been noted as one of the only clans in Karbala
Karbala
to actively oppose the British control and remain an influential family in the city to this day. The association of the city with Shia
Shia
religious traditions led to it being treated with suspicion by Iraq's Sunni
Sunni
rulers. Under Saddam Hussein's rule, Shia
Shia
religious observances in the city were greatly restricted and many non-Iraqi Shia
Shia
were not permitted to travel there at all. In March 1991, the city was badly damaged and many killed when a rebellion by local Shia
Shia
was put down with great brutality by Saddam's regime. The shrines and surrounding Shia
Shia
houses, cemeteries, and hospitals became riddled with machine gun fire and military shelling. By April 1991, Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
began an intense demolition project around the shrines in order to create a concrete perimeter. This "sanitary zone" created a wide open space in between and around the shrines. The shrines were rebuilt by 1994.[31] After the United States Military Forces invaded Iraq
Iraq
in 2003, the administration allowed for foreign Shia
Shia
pilgrims to an unrestricted Ashura
Ashura
pilgrimage in decades. Tens of thousands of Shia
Shia
Muslims from other countries rushed to US embassies to get visit visas to attend Ashura
Ashura
in Karbala. The 2004 pilgrimage was the largest for decades, with over a million people attending from all over the world but mainly Iraqis. It was marred by bomb attacks on March 2, 2004, now known as the Ashoura massacre, which killed and wounded hundreds despite tight security in the city. A big Shia
Shia
festival passed off peacefully amid fears of possible violence that brought thousands of troops and police into the city. Hundreds of thousands of Shia
Shia
pilgrims who had come together to celebrate the Shaabaniya ritual began leaving the southern city after September 9, 2006 climax ended days of chanting, praying and feasting. Heavy presence by police and Iraqi troops seemed to have kept out suicide bombers who have disrupted previous rituals. On April 14, 2007, a car bomb exploded about 600 ft (180 m) from the shrine, killing 47[32] and wounding over 150. On January 19, 2008, 2 million Iraqi Shia
Shia
pilgrims marched through Karbala
Karbala
city, Iraq
Iraq
to commemorate Ashura. 20,000 Iraqi troops and police guarded the event amid tensions due to clashes between Iraqi troops and Shia
Shia
Muslims which left 263 people dead (in Basra
Basra
and Nasiriya).[33] Main sights[edit]

Imam
Imam
Hussein Camp

Al Abbas Mosque Imam
Imam
Husayn Shrine Karbala
Karbala
International Airport: The foundation stone of Karbala International Airport was laid by Shaikh Abdul-Mahdi al-Karbala'i, a representative of Grand Ayatollah Ali as-Sistani, and Chief Cleric of Imam
Imam
Hussein Holy Shrine. It is being constructed by the United Kingdom's Copperchase Ltd., and designed by the French ADBI Company. The airport is located between Karbala
Karbala
and Najaf, about 35 km (22 miles) south of Karbala. At 4.5 km (2.8 miles), the airport's runway is the longest of its kind in Iraq. It will operate for the sole purpose of serving the pilgrims of the Mosques of Imam
Imam
Hussein and Abbas. By the end of 2018, the airport is expected to be operational.[34][35][36] Ruins of Mujada, about 40 km (25 miles) to the west of the city[37][38]

Religious beliefs[edit] Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the Quran[edit] See also: Dhul-Kifl, Harut and Marut, Idris (prophet), Noah in Islam, and Tower of Babel in Islamic tradition

A map of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the 3rd millennium BCE, showing Nineveh
Nineveh
(the qaryah (Arabic: قَـريَـة‎, town) of Yunus)),[39][40][41] Qattara (or Karana), Dūr-Katlimmu, Assur, Arrapha, Terqa, Nuzi, Mari, Eshnunna, Dur-Kurigalzu, Der, Sippar, Babylon, Kish, Susa, Borsippa, Nippur, Isin, Uruk, Larsa
Larsa
and Ur, from north to south. Note the relative proximity of Babylon
Babylon
and Sippar
Sippar
to Lake Milh, which is near Karbala.[2][3]

Some Shi'ites consider this verse of the Quran
Quran
to refer to Iraq, land of the Shi'ite sacred sites of Kufah,[42][43] Najaf, Karbala, Kadhimiyyah[a] and Samarra,[45][46] since the Monotheistic preachers Ibrāhīm (Arabic: إِبـرَاهِـيـم‎, Abraham) and Lūṭ (Arabic: لُـوط‎, Lot),[47] who are regarded as Prophets in Islam,[48] are believed to have lived in the ancient Iraqi city of Ur,[49] before going to Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
(Arabic: الأَرض الـمُـبَـارَكَـة‎, "The Blessed Land ").[50]

But we delivered him (Ibrahim) and Lut (from their Polytheistic opponents), and directed them to the land which we have blessed for the Worlds. — Qur'an, [Quran 21:71]

Aside from the story of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot in Polytheistic[51] Mesopotamia,[49][50] there are passages in the Quran
Quran
about Al-Jūdiyy Al-Munzal Al-Mubārak (Arabic: الـجُـودِيّ الـمُـنـزَل الـمُـبَـارَك‎, The Judi the 'blessed' landing-place),[52][53][54] Babil[55][56] and Qaryaṫ Yūnus (Arabic: قَـريَـة يُـونُـس‎, "Town of Jonah").[39][40][41] Ahadith[edit] There are many Shi'ite traditions which narrate the status of Karbala:

"Karbala, where your grandson and his family will be killed, is the most blessed and sacred land on Earth, and it is one of the valleys of Paradise."[57] — The archangel Gabriel

"God chose the land of Karbala
Karbala
as a safe and blessed sanctuary, twenty-four thousand years before He created the land of the Ka'bah and chose it as a sanctuary. Verily it [Karbala] will shine among the gardens of Paradise, like a shining star shines among the stars for the people of Earth."[58] — ‘Alī Zaynul-‘Ābidīn

"Not one night passes in which Gabriel
Gabriel
and Michael do not go to visit him [Husayn]."[59] — Ja‘far as-Sādiq

Also there are many Sunni
Sunni
traditions which narrate the status of Husayn:

Abu Huraira narrated: "The Prophet looked toward Ali, Hasan, Husain, and Fatimah, and then said: "I am in war with those who will fight you, and in peace with those who are peaceful to you.""[60][61] "The Messenger of Allah said: "Husain is from me and I am from Husain.""[62][63] "The Messenger of Allah said: "He who loves Al-Hasan and Al-Husain, has loved me, and he who makes them angry has made me angry.""[64][65][66][67]

Thus the tomb of the martyred Imam
Imam
has acquired this great significance in Shi'ite tradition because the Imam
Imam
and his fellow martyrs are seen as models of jihad in the way of God. Shi'ites believe that Karbala
Karbala
is one of the holiest places on Earth according to the following traditions (among others):

The angel Gabriel
Gabriel
narrated to Muhammad
Muhammad
that:[16]

Karbala, where your grandson and his family will be martyred, is one of the most blessed and the most sacred lands on Earth, and it is one of the valleys of Paradise.

The fourth Shi'ite Imam, that is Zayn al-Abidin
Zayn al-Abidin
narrated:[68]

God chose the land of Karbalā’ as a safe and blessed sanctuary twenty-four thousand years before He created the land of the Ka'bah and chose it as a sanctuary. Verily it (Karbala) will shine among the gardens of Paradise like a shining star shines among the stars for the people of Earth.

In this regard, Imam
Imam
Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
narrates, 'Allah, the Almighty, has made the dust of my ancestor's grave - Imam
Imam
Husain (a.s.) as a cure for every sickness and safety from every fear.'[69] It is narrated from Imam
Imam
Ja'far that: "The earth of the pure and holy grave of Hussein ibn ‘Ali (a.s) is a pure and blessed musk. For those who consume it, it is a cure for every ailment, and if our enemy uses it then he will melt the way fat melts, when you intend to consume that pure earth recite the following supplication"[70] The famous quote: "Every day is Ashura, every land is Karbala."

Culture[edit] Sports[edit] Karbalaa FC
Karbalaa FC
is a football club based in Karbala. Media[edit] There are many references in books in films to "Karbala", generally referring to Hussein's death at the Battle of Karbala. Hussein is often depicted on a white horse impaled by arrows. There are films and documentaries about the events of Karbala
Karbala
in both animated and realistic form (see external links "Karbala: When the Skies Wept Blood"; "Safar-e-Karbala"). Video footage of the actual city exists in a British documentary entitled "Saddam's Killing Fields."[71] The documentary shows the March 1991 destruction of the city by Saddam's army through the video camera of two brothers who lived in the city. University[edit] Main article: Ahlulbait University College Hawza
Hawza
are the Islamic education institutions that are run collectively by mujtahid or Allamas to teach Shia
Shia
Muslims and guide them through the rigorous journey of becoming and Alim. In terms of the hawaz in Karbala, After the death of a renowned Alama, the Sayyid Muhammad, the leadership in terms of teacher shifted to taqlid to mujtahid. This was a significant factor that lead to the leadership of Ulama
Ulama
to reside in Karbala
Karbala
and as well as Najaf. Initially Karbala's hawza (Islamic education institution) consisted mostly of Iranians and Turkish Ulama. After the death of Sharif-ul- Ulama
Ulama
Mazandarani in 1830 and the repression of the shia population by the Ottomans in 1843 both played an important role in the relocation of many Ulamas and thus Najaf becoming the center of Shia
Shia
Islamic leadership in education.[72] As of now, there are two universities in Karbala. University of Karbala, which was inaugurated on March 1, 2002, is one of the top most universities in Iraq
Iraq
regarding academic administration, human resources, and scientific research.[73] The Ahlulbait International University was founded in September 2003 by Dr. Mohsen Saleh Mohammed Baqir al-Qazwini. The university has three major focuses: Faculty of Law, Arts, and Islamic Law. Other majors of education such as medicine, agriculture, informatics etc. are still in the developing stages.[74] Warith al-Anbiya University in Karbala, has recently been established under a project of Imam
Imam
Hussein Holy Shrine, having the faculties of engineering, administration, economics, law and pathology, which is ready to receive students for the first academic year 2017-2018.[75] Indian subcontinent[edit] In the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
Karbala
Karbala
apart from meaning the city of Karbala
Karbala
(which is usually referred to as Karbala-e-Mualla meaning Karbala
Karbala
the exalted), also means local grounds where commemorative processions end and/or ta'zīya are buried during Ashura
Ashura
or Arba'een, usually such grounds will have shabeeh (copy) of Rauza or some other structures.[76][77] In South Asia where ta'zīya refer to specifically to the miniature mausoleums used in processions held in Muharram. It all started from the fact that the great distance of India from Karbala
Karbala
prevented Indian Shi'is being buried near the tomb of Imam
Imam
Husayn or making frequent pilgrimages(ziyarat) to the tomb. This is the reason why Indian Shi'is established local karbalas on the subcontinent by bringing soil from Karbala
Karbala
and sprinkling it on lots designated as future cemeteries. Once the karbalas were established on the subcontinent, the next step was to bring Husayn's tomb-shrine to India. This was established by building replicas of Husayn's mausoleum called ta'zīya to be carried in Muharram
Muharram
processions. Thousands of ta'zīyas in various shapes and sizes are made every year for the months of mourning of Muharram
Muharram
and Safar; and are carried in processions and may be buried at the end of Ashura
Ashura
or Arbain.[78] See also[edit]

Battle of Karbala 1991 Uprising in Karbala 2003 Karbala
Karbala
bombings 2004 Iraq
Iraq
Ashura
Ashura
bombings 2007 Karbala
Karbala
bombings Arba'een Ashura Karbala, Iran Karbala, Fars Karbala, Zanjan

Notes[edit]

^ Kadhimyyah used to be a township of its own, but is now a part of the city of Baghdad.[44]

References[edit]

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Int'l Airport". Imam Hussein Holy Shrine. Retrieved January 25, 2017.  ^ منارة موجدة «مَعلَمٌ حددت وظيفته تسميته». Al-Shirazi. Retrieved January 5, 2018. ^ الآثار منارة موجدة. Holy Karbala. Retrieved January 5, 2018. ^ a b Quran 10:98 (Translated by Yusuf Ali) ^ a b Summarized from the book of story of Muhammad
Muhammad
by Ibn Hisham Volume 1 pg.419–421 ^ a b "Three Day Fast of Nineveh". Syrian orthodox Church. Archived from the original on 2012-10-25. Retrieved 1 February 2012.  ^ Tabatabaei, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Suny Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-87395-272-9.  ^ al-Qummi, Ja'far ibn Qūlawayh (2008). Kāmil al-Ziyārāt. Translated by Sayyid Mohsen al-Husaini al-Mīlāni. Shiabooks.ca Press. pp. 66–67.  ^ "Kadhimiya". Encyclopaedia of Iranian Architectural History (in Persian). Archived from the original on 3 October 2015.  ^ "History of the Shrine of Imam
Imam
Ali al-Naqi & Imam
Imam
Hasan Al-Askari, Peace Be Upon Them". Al-Islam.org. Archived from the original on 23 February 2006. Retrieved 23 February 2006.  ^ "Unesco names World Heritage sites". BBC News. 2007-06-28. Retrieved 2010-05-23.  ^ Quran 26:160–174 ^ Wheeler, Brannon M. (2002). Prophets in the Quran: an introduction to the Quran
Quran
and Muslim exegesis. Comparative Islamic studies. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 1–393. ISBN 978-0-8264-4957-3.  ^ a b History of Islam by Professor Masudul Hasan ^ a b Quran 21:51–75 ^ Jacobsen, Thorkild. "Mesopotamian religion". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ Quran 11:44 (Translated by Yusuf Ali) ^ Quran 23:23–30 ^ J. P. Lewis, Noah and the Flood: In Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Tradition, The Biblical Archaeologist, December 1984, p.237 ^ Quran 2:102 (Translated by Yusuf Ali) ^ Morris Jastrow, Ira Maurice Price, Marcus Jastrow, Louis Ginzberg, and Duncan B. MacDonald; "Babel, Tower of", Jewish Encyclopedia; Funk & Wagnalls, 1906. ^ al-Qummi, Ja'far ibn Qūlawayh (2008). "Addendum before chapter 89". Kāmil al-Ziyārāt. Translated by Sayyid Mohsen al-Husaini al-Mīlāni. Shiabooks.ca Press. p. 545.  ^ al-Qummi, Ja'far ibn Qūlawayh (2008). "88". Kāmil al-Ziyārāt. Translated by Sayyid Mohsen al-Husaini al-Mīlāni. Shiabooks.ca Press. p. 534.  ^ al-Qummi, Ja'far ibn Qūlawayh (2008). "88". Kāmil al-Ziyārāt. Translated by Sayyid Mohsen al-Husaini al-Milani. Shiabooks.ca Press. p. 536.  ^ Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p699 ^ Sunan Ibn Majah, v1, p52 ^ Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v4, p172 ^ Fadha'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Hanbal, v2, p772, Tradition #1361 ^ Sunan Ibn Majah, ^ Al-Mustadrak, by Al-Hakim, from Abu Hurairah ^ Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, as quoted in: ^ al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 11, section 3, p292 ^ al-Qummi, Ja'far ibn Qūlawayh (2008). Kāmil al-Ziyārāt. Translated by Sayyid Mohsen al-Husaini al-Mīlāni. Shiabooks.ca Press. p. 534.  ^ Amali by Shaykh Tusi, vol. 1 pg. 326 ^ Mustadrakul Wasail, vol. 10, pg 339-40 tradition 2; Jadid Makarimul Akhlaq pg.189; Beharul Anwaar vol. 101, tradition 60 ^ "YouTube".  ^ Litvak, Meir (1998). Shi'i Scholars of Nineteenth Century: The Ulama of Najaf
Najaf
and Karbala. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. pp. 51–141. ISBN 0-521-62356-1.  ^ " Karbala
Karbala
University: A General View". University of Karbala. Archived from the original on 2017-10-10. Retrieved 2017-04-21.  ^ "Founder of University". University of Ahlulbait. Archived from the original on 2012-08-27. Retrieved 2017-04-21.  ^ Ali Tekmaji (September 20, 2017). " Karbala
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opens new advanced academic university". Imam
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Hussein Holy Shrine (International Media). Retrieved September 23, 2017.  ^ (Re-)defining Some Genre-Specific Words: Evidence from some English Texts about Ashura, Muhammad-Reza Fakhr-Rohani, University of Qom, Iran ^ A citation from Fruzzetti, "Muslim Rituals," for this use of Karbala is as follows: "The Muslims then proceed to 'Karbala' to bury the flowers which were used to decorate the tazziyas, the tazziyas themselves being kept for the next year's celebration." (pp. 108-109). ^ Behrens-Abouseif, Doris; Vernoit, Stephen. Islamic Art in the 19th Century: Tradition, Innovation, And Eclecticism. BRILL. ISBN 9004144420. Retrieved 12 August 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

Published in the 19th century

Louis de Sivry, ed. (1859). "Karbala". Dictionnaire geographique, historique, descriptif, acheologique des pèlerinages anciens et modernes (in French). Paris. 

Published in the 20th century

"Kerbela", The Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424 

Published in the 21st century

C. Edmund Bosworth, ed. (2007). "Karbala". Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill.  Michael R.T. Dumper; Bruce E. Stanley, eds. (2008), "Karbala", Cities of the Middle East and North Africa, Santa Barbara, USA: ABC-CLIO 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Karbala.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Karbala.

Shia
Shia
Shrines of Karbala
Karbala
- Sacred Destinations Shia
Shia
Karbala
Karbala
Poetry Karbala
Karbala
- A Lesson for Mankind Karbala
Karbala
Quotes and Sayings Karbala
Karbala
and Martyrdom Karbala
Karbala
- The Facts and the Fairy-tales

Coordinates: 32°37′N 44°02′E / 32.617°N 44.033°E / 32.617; 44.033

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 157167

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