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The Kara-Khanid Khanate (Persian: آل افراسیاب‎, translit. Āl-i Afrāsiyāb, lit. 'House of Afrisyab') was a Turkic dynasty that ruled in Transoxania
Transoxania
in Central Asia, ruled by a dynasty known in literature as the Karakhanids (also spelt Qarakhanids) or Ilek Khanids.[6] Both the dynastic names of Karakhanids and Ilek Khanids refer to royal titles with Kara Kağan being the most important Turkish title up till the end of the dynasty.[7] The Khanate conquered Transoxania
Transoxania
in Central Asia
Central Asia
and ruled it between 999–1211.[8][9] Their arrival in Transoxania
Transoxania
signaled a definitive shift from Iranian to Turkic predominance in Central Asia,[10] yet the Kara-khanids gradually assimilated the Perso-Arab Muslim culture, while retaining some of their native Turkish culture.[1] Their capitals included Kashgar, Balasagun, Uzgen
Uzgen
and Samarkand. The Khanate eventually split into two – the Eastern and Western Khanates. They then came under the suzerainty of the Seljuks, followed by the Kara-Khitans, before the dynasty was extinguished by the Khwarezmians. Their history is reconstructed from fragmentary and often contradictory written sources, as well as studies on their coinage.[11]

Contents

1 Names 2 History

2.1 Origin

2.1.1 Early history 2.1.2 Formation of the Kara-Khanid Khanate

2.2 Conquest of Transoxiana 2.3 Conquest of western Tarim Basin 2.4 Division of the Kara-Khanid Khanate 2.5 Seljuk suzerainty 2.6 Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
Invasion 2.7 Downfall

3 Culture 4 Legacy 5 Kara-Khanid dynasty 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography

Names The name of the royal clan is not actually known and the term Karakhanid in English is artificial — it was derived from Qara Khan or Qara Khaqan (Persian: قراخان‎, translit. Qarākhān, the word "Kara" means "black" and also "courageous" from Old Turkic 𐰴𐰺𐰀), which was the foremost title of the rulers of the dynasty,[12] and was devised by European Orientalists in the 19th century to describe both the dynasty and the Turks ruled by it.[10] Arabic
Arabic
Muslim sources called this dynasty al-Khaqaniya ("That of the Khaqans") or al Muluk al-Khaniyya al-Atrak (The Khanal kings of the Turks), while Persian sources often preferred the term Al-i Afrasiyab (Persian: آل افراسیاب‎, translit. Āl-i Afrāsiyāb, lit. 'House of Afrisyab') on the basis of the legendary kings of pre-Islamic Transoxania,[10] although they are also referred to as Ilek Khanids or Ilak Khanids ( (Persian: ایلک خانیان‎, translit. Ilak-Khānīyān) in Persian.[1] Chinese sources refer to them as Halahan or Heihan (Chinese: 黑汗, literally "Black Khan") or Dashi (Chinese: 大食, a term for Arabs that extends to Muslims in general).[13][14] History Origin The Kara-Khanid Khanate was a confederation formed some time in the 9th century by Karluks, Yagmas, Chigils, and other peoples living in Zhetysu, Western Tian Shan
Tian Shan
(modern Kyrgyzstan), and Western Xinjiang around Kashgar.[10] Early history See also: Timeline of the Karluks The Karluks
Karluks
were a nomadic people from the western Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
who moved to Zhetysu. In 742, the Karluks
Karluks
were part of an alliance led by the Basmyl and Uyghurs
Uyghurs
that rebelled against the Göktürks.[15] In the realignment of power that followed, the Karluks
Karluks
were elevated from a tribe led by an el teber to one led by a yabghu, which was one of the highest Turkic dignitaries and also implies membership in the Ashina clan in whom the "heaven-mandated" right to rule resided. The Karluks
Karluks
and Uyghurs
Uyghurs
later allied themselves against the Basmyl, and within two years they toppled the Basmyl khagan. The Uyghur yabghu became khagan and the Karluk leader yabghu. This arrangement lasted less than a year. Hostilities between the Uyghur and Karluk forced the Karluk to migrate westward into the western Turgesh
Turgesh
lands.[16] By 766 the Karluks
Karluks
had forced the submission of the Turgesh
Turgesh
and they established their capital at Suyab
Suyab
on the Chu River. The Karluk confederation by now included the Chigil and Tukshi tribes who may have been Türgesh tribes incorporated into the Karluk union. By the mid-9th century, the Karluk confederation had gained control of the sacred lands of the Western Türks after the destruction of the Uyghur Khaganate by the Old Kirghiz
Old Kirghiz
Control of sacred lands, together with their affiliation with the Ashina clan, allowed the Khaganate to be passed on to the Karluks
Karluks
along with domination of the steppes after the previous Khagan
Khagan
was killed in a revolt.[17] During the 9th century southern Central Asia
Central Asia
was under the rule of the Samanids, while the Central Asian steppe was dominated by Turkic nomads such as the Pechenegs, the Oghuz Turks, and the Karluks. The domain of the Karluks
Karluks
reached as far north as the Irtysh and the Kimek confederation, with encampments extending to the Chi and Ili rivers, where the Chigil and Tukshi tribes lived, and east to the Ferghana valley and beyond. The area to the south and east of the Karluks
Karluks
was inhabited by the Yagma.[18] The Karluk center in the 9th and 10th centuries appears to have been at Balasagun
Balasagun
on the Chu River. In the late 9th century the Samanids
Samanids
marched into the steppes and captured Taraz, one of the headquarters of the Karluk khagan, and a large church was transformed into a mosque. Formation of the Kara-Khanid Khanate

Tomb of Sultan Satuk Bughra Khan, the first Muslim khan, in Artush, Xinjiang

During the 9th century, the Karluk confederation (including the Türgesh descended Chigil and Tukshi tribes) and the Yaghma, possible descendants of the Toquz Oghuz, joined force and formed the first Karluk-Karakhanid khaganate. The Chigils appear to have formed the nucleus of the Karakhanid army. The date of its foundation and the name of its first khan is uncertain, but according to one reconstruction, the first Karakhanid ruler was Bilge Kul Qadir Khan.[19] The rulers of the Karakhanids were likely to be from the Chigil and Yaghma tribes – the Eastern Khagan
Khagan
bore the title Arslan Qara Khaqan (Arslan "lion" was the totem of the Chigil) and the Western Khagan
Khagan
the title Bughra Qara Khaqan (Bughra "male camel" was the totem of the Yaghma). The names of animals were a regular element in the Turkish titles of the Karakhanids: thus Aslan (lion), Bughra (camel), Toghan (falcon), Böri (wolf), and Toghrul or Toghrïl (a bird of prey).[11] Under the Khagans were four rulers with the titles Arslan Ilig, Bughra Ilig, Arslan Tegin
Tegin
and Bughra Tegin.[19] The titles of the members of the dynasty changed with their changing position, normally upwards, in the dynastic hierarchy. In the mid-10th century the Kara-Khanids converted to Islam
Islam
and adopted Muslim names and honorifics, but retained Turkic regnal titles such as Khan, Khagan, Ilek (Ilig) and Tegin.[11][20] Later they adopted Arab titles sultan and sultān al-salātīn (sultan of sultans). According to the Ottoman historian known as Munajjim-bashi, a Karakhanid prince named Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan
Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan
was the first of the khans to convert. After conversion, he obtained a fatwa which permitted him in effect to kill his presumably still pagan father, after which he conquered Kashgar
Kashgar
(of the old Shule Kingdom).[21] Later in 960, according to Muslim historians Ibn Miskawaih and Ibn al-Athir, there was a mass conversion of the Turks (reportedly "200,000 tents of the Turks"), circumstantial evidence suggests these were the Karakhanids.[21] Conquest of Transoxiana The grandson of Satuk Bughra Khan, Hasan (or Harun) b. Sulayman (title: Bughra Khan) attacked the Samanids
Samanids
in the late 10th century. Between 990-992, Hasan took Isfijab, Ferghana, Ilaq, Samarkand, and the Samanid
Samanid
capital Bukhara.[22] However, Hasan Bughra Khan died in 992 due to an illness,[22] and the Samanids
Samanids
returned to Bukhara. Hasan's cousin Ali b. Musa (title: Kara Khan or Arslan Khan) resumed the campaign against the Samanids, and by 999 Ali's son Nasr had taken Chach, Samarkand, and Bukhara.[11] The Samanid
Samanid
domains were divided between the Ghaznavids, who gained Khorasan and Afghanistan, and the Karakhanids, who received Transoxiana. The Oxus River
Oxus River
thus became the boundary between the two rival empires. The Karakhanid state was divided into appanages, as was common of Turkic and Mongol
Mongol
nomads. The Karakhanid appanages were associated with four principal urban centers, Balasagun
Balasagun
(then the capital of the Karakhanid state) in Zhetysu, Kashgar
Kashgar
in Xinjiang, Uzgen
Uzgen
in Fergana, and Samarkand
Samarkand
in Transoxiana. The dynasty's original domains of Zhetysu
Zhetysu
and Kasgar and their khans retained an implicit seniority over those who ruled in Transoxiana and Fergana.[10] The four sons of Ali (Ahmad, Nasr, Mansur, Muhammad) each held their own independent appanage within the Karakhanid state. Nasr, the conqueror of Transoxiana, held the large central area of Transoxiana ( Samarkand
Samarkand
and Bukhara), Fergana
Fergana
(Uzgen) and other areas, although after his death his appanage was further divided. Ahmad
Ahmad
held Zhetysu
Zhetysu
and Chach and became the head of the dynasty after the death of Ali. The brothers Ahmad
Ahmad
and Nasr conducted different policies towards the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
in the south – while Ahmad
Ahmad
tried to form alliance with Mahmud of Ghazna, Nasr attempted to expand unsuccessfully into the territory of the Ghaznavids.[11] Ahmad
Ahmad
was succeeded by Mansur, and after the death of Mansur, the Hasan Bughra Khan branch of the Karakhanids became dominant. Hasan's sons Muhammad Toghan Khan II, and Yusuf Kadir Khan who held Kashgar, became in turn the head of the Karakhanid dynasty. The two families, i.e. the descendents of Ali Arslan Khan and Hasan Bughra Khan, would eventually split the Karakhanid Khanate in two. In 1017–1018, the Karakhanids repelled an attack by a large mass of nomadic Turkish tribes in what was described in Muslim sources as a great victory.[23] Conquest of western Tarim Basin

Part of a series on the

History of Xinjiang

Ancient period

Yuezhi Xiongnu Han protectorate Kingdom of Khotan Former Liang Former Qin Later Liang Western Liang Gaochang Turkic Khaganate Western Regions Western Turkic Khaganate

Medieval period

Tang protectorate Tibetan Empire Uyghur Khaganate Kara-Khanid Khanate Kingdom of Qocho Qara Khitai Mongol
Mongol
Empire Yuan dynasty Chagatai Khanate Kara Del Moghulistan Yarkent Khanate Dzungar Khanate Kumul Khanate Qing rule

Modern period

Republic of China First East Turkestan
Turkestan
Republic Second East Turkestan
Turkestan
Republic People's Republic of China

v t e

The Islamic conquest of the Buddhist cities east of Kashgar
Kashgar
began when the Turkic Karakhanid Satuq Bughra Khan converted to Islam
Islam
in 934 and then captured Kashgar. Satuq Bughra Khan and his son directed endeavors to proselytize Islam
Islam
among the Turks and engage in military conquests.[24] In the mid-10th century, Satuq's son Musa began to put pressure on Khotan, and a long period of war between Kashgar
Kashgar
and Khotan ensued.[25] Satok Bughra Khan's nephew or grandson Ali Arslan was said to have been killed by Buddhists during the war;[26] during the reign of Ahmad
Ahmad
b. Ali, the Karakhanids also engaged in wars against the non-Muslims to the east and northeast.[27] Muslim accounts tell the tale of the four imams from Mada'in city (possibly in modern-day Iraq) who travelled to help Yusuf Qadir Khan, the Qarakhanid leader, in his conquest of Khotan, Yarkand, and Kashgar. The "infidels" were said to have been driven towards Khotan, however the four Imams were killed.[28] In 1006, Yusuf Kadr Khan of Kashgar
Kashgar
conquered the Kingdom of Khotan, ending Khotan's existence as an independent state.[29] The conquest of the western Tarim Basin which includes Khotan and Kashgar
Kashgar
is significant in the eventual Turkification and Islamification of the entire Tarim Basin, and modern Uyghurs
Uyghurs
identify with the Karakhanids even though the name "Uyghur" was taken from the Manichaean
Manichaean
Uyghur Empire
Uyghur Empire
and the Buddhist Qocho state (Uyghuristan).[30][31] Division of the Kara-Khanid Khanate Early in the 11th century the unity of the Karakhanid dynasty was fractured by frequent internal warfare that eventually resulted in the formation of two independent Karakhanid states. A son of Hasan Bughra Khan, Ali Tegin, seized control of Bukhara
Bukhara
and other towns. He expanded his territory further after the death of Mansur. he son of Nasr, Böritigin, later waged war against the sons of Ali Tegin, and won control of large part of Transoxania, and made Samarkand
Samarkand
the capital. In 1041, another son of Nasr b. Ali, Muhammad 'Ayn ad-Dawlah (reigned 1041–52) took over the administration of the western branch of the family that eventually led to a formal separation of the Khara-Khanid Khanate. Ibrahim Tamghach Khan was considered by Muslim historians as a great ruler, and he brought some stability to Western Karakhanids by limiting the appanage system that caused much of the internal strife in the Kara-Khanid Khanate.[11] The Hasan family remained in control of the Eastern Khanate. The Eastern Khanate had its capital at Balasaghun and later Kashgar. The Fergana- Zhetysu
Zhetysu
areas became the border between the two states and were frequently contested. When the two states were formed, Fergana fell into realm of the Eastern Khanate, but was later captured by Ibrahim and became part of Western Khanate. Seljuk suzerainty In 1040, the Seljuk Turks
Seljuk Turks
defeated the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
at the Battle of Dandanaqan and entered Iran. Conflict with the Karakhanids broke out and initially the Karakhanids were able to withstand the Seljuk aggression, even briefly taking control of Seljuk towns in Greater Khorasan. the Karakhanids, however, developed serious conflicts with the religious classes (the ulama). In 1089, during the reign of Ibrahim's grandson Ahmad
Ahmad
b. Khidr, at the request of the ulama of Transoxiana, the Seljuks entered and took control of Samarkand, together with the domains belonging to the Western Khanate. The Western Karakhanids Khanate became a vassal of the Seljuks for half a century, and the rulers of the Western Khanate were largely whomever the Seljuks chose to place on the throne. Ahmad
Ahmad
b. Khidr was returned to power by the Seljuks, but in 1095, the ulama accused Ahmad
Ahmad
of heresy and managed to secure his execution.[11] The Karakhanids of Kashgar
Kashgar
also declared their submission following a Seljuk campaign into Talas and Zhetysu, but the Eastern Khanate was a Seljuk vassal for only a short time. At the beginning of the 12th century they invaded Transoxiana and even occupied the Seljuk town of Termez for a time.[11] Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
Invasion

The restored mausoleum of Ayshah bibi
Ayshah bibi
near Taraz.

The Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
host which invaded Central Asia
Central Asia
was composed of remnants from the defunct Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
which was annihilated by the Jurchens in 1125. The Khitan noble Yelu Dashi
Yelu Dashi
recruited warriors from various tribes and formed a great host which moved westward to rebuild the Khitan nation. Yelu occupied Balasagun
Balasagun
on the Chu River, then defeated the Western Karakhanids in Khujand
Khujand
in 1137.[32] In 1141 Qara Khitai became the dominant force in the region after they dealt a devastating blow to the Seljuk Sultan Ahmad Sanjar
Ahmad Sanjar
at the Battle of Qatwan near Samarkand.[10] Several military commanders of Karakhanid lineages such as the father of Osman of Khwarezm
Khwarezm
fled from Karakhanid lands in the wake of the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
invasion. Despite losing to the Qara Khitai, the Karakhanid dynasty remained in power as their vassals. The Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
themselves stayed at Zhetysu near Balasagun, and allowed some of the Karakhanids to continue to rule as their tax collectors in Samarkand
Samarkand
and Kashgar. Under the Qara Khitai the Karakhanids functioned as administrators for sedentary Muslim populations. While the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
were Buddhists ruling over a largely Muslim population, they were considered fair-minded rulers whose reign was marked by religious tolerance.[10] Islamic religious life continued uninterrupted and Islamic authority persevered under the Qara Khitai. Kashgar
Kashgar
became a Nestorian metropolitan see and Christian gravestones in the Chu valley appeared beginning in this period.[32] However, Kuchlug, a Naiman who usurped the throne of the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
Dynasty, instituted anti-Islamic policies on the local populations under his rule.[33] Downfall The decline of the Seljuks following their defeat by the Qara Khitans allowed the Khwarazmian dynasty, then a vassal of the Qara Khitai, to expand into former Seljuk territory. In 1207, the citizens of Bukhara revolted against the sadrs (leaders of the religious classes), which the Khwarezm-Shah
Khwarezm-Shah
'Ala' ad-Din Muhammad
'Ala' ad-Din Muhammad
used as a pretext to conquer Bukhara. Muhammad then formed an alliance with the Western Karakhanid ruler Uthman (who later married Muhammad's daughter) against the Qara Khitai. In 1210, the Khwarezm-Shah
Khwarezm-Shah
took Samarkand
Samarkand
after the Qara Khitai retreated to deal with the rebellion from the Naiman Kuchlug, who had seized the Qara Khitans' treasury at Uzgen.[11] The Khwarezm-Shah
Khwarezm-Shah
then defeated the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
near Talas. Muhammad and Kuchlug
Kuchlug
had, apparently, agreed to divide up the Qara Khitan's empire.[34] In 1212, the population of Samarkand
Samarkand
staged a revolt against the Khwarezmians, a revolt which Uthman supported, and massacred them. The Khwarezm-Shah
Khwarezm-Shah
returned, recaptured Samarkand
Samarkand
and executed Uthman. He demanded the submission of all leading Karakhanids, and finally extinguished the Western Karakhanid state. In 1211, Kuchlug
Kuchlug
seized the throne of the Qara Khitai. Earlier that same year the last of the Karakhanids in the Eastern Karakhanid state was killed in a revolt in Kashgar, putting an end to Eastern Karakhanid state.[35] In 1218, Kuchlug
Kuchlug
was killed by the Mongol
Mongol
army, and the territories of the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
were annexed. The destruction of the Khwarezmian Empire soon followed.

Culture

11th–12th-century Karakhanid mausolea in Uzgen, Kyrgyzstan.

The takeover by the Karakhanids did not change the essentially Iranian character of Central Asia, though it set into motion a demographic and ethnolinguistic shift. During the Karakhanid era, the local population began using Turkic in speech – initially the shift was linguistic with the local people adopting the Turkic language.[36] While Central Asia became Turkicized over the centuries, culturally the Turks came close to being Persianized or, in certain respects, Arabicized.[10] Nevertheless, the official or court language used in Kashgar
Kashgar
and other Karakhanid centers, referred to as "Khaqani" (royal), remained Turkic. The language was partly based on dialects spoken by the Turkic tribes that made up the Karakhanids and possessed qualities of linear descent from Kök and Uyghur Turkic. The Turkic script was also used for all documents and correspondence of the khaqans, according to Dīwānu l-Luġat al-Turk.[37]

The Kalyan minaret
Kalyan minaret
in Bukhara

The Dīwānu l-Luġat al-Turk (Dictionary of Languages of the Turks) was written by a prominent Karakhanid historian, Mahmud al-Kashgari, who may have lived for some time in Kashgar
Kashgar
at the Karakhanid court. He wrote this first comprehensive dictionary of Turkic languages
Turkic languages
in Arabic
Arabic
for the Caliphs of Baghdad in 1072–76. Another famous Karakhanid writer was Yusuf Balasaghuni, who wrote Kutadgu Bilig (The Wisdom of Felicity), the only known literary work written in Turkic from the Karakhanid period.[37] Kutadgu Bilig is a form of advice literature known as mirrors for princes.[38] The Turkic identity is evident in both of these pieces of work, but they also showed the influences of Persian and Islamic culture.[39] However, the court culture of the Karakhanids remained almost entirely Persian.[39] The two last western khaqans also wrote poetry in Persian.[1] Islam
Islam
and its civilization flourished under the Karakhanids. The earliest example of madrasas in Central Asia
Central Asia
was founded in Samarkand by Ibrahim Tamghach Khan. Ibrahim also founded a hospital to care for sick as well as providing shelter for the poor.[11] His son Nasr Shams al-Mulk built ribats for the caravanserais on the route between Bukhara
Bukhara
and Samarkand, as well as a palace near Bukhara. Some of the buildings constructed by the Karakhanids still survive today, including the Kalyan minaret
Kalyan minaret
built by Mohammad Aslan Khan beside the main mosque in Bukhara, and three mausolea in Uzgend. The early Karakhanid rulers, as nomads, lived not in the city but in an army encampment outside the capital, and while by the time of Ibrahim the Karakhanids still maintained a nomadic tradition, their extensive religious and civil constructions showed that the culture and traditions of the settled population of Transoxiana had become assimilated.[11] Legacy Kara-Khanid is arguably the most enduring cultural heritage among coexisting cultures in Central Asia
Central Asia
from the 9th to the 13th centuries. The Karluk-Uyghur dialect spoken by the nomadic tribes and turkified sedentary populations under Kara-Khanid rule formed two major branches of the Turkic language family, the Chagatay and the Kypchak. The Kara-Khanid cultural model that combined nomadic Turkic culture with Islamic, sedentary institutions spread east into former Kara-Khoja and Tangut territories and west and south into the subcontinent, Khorasan (Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and Northern Iran), Golden Horde
Golden Horde
territories (Tataristan), and Turkey. The Chagatay, Timurid, and Uzbek states and societies inherited most of the cultures of the Kara-Khanids and the Khwarezmians
Khwarezmians
without much interruption. Kara-Khanid dynasty

Bilge Kul Qadir Khan (840–893) Bazir Arslan Khan (893–920) Oghulcak Khan (893–940) Satuk Bughra Khan 920–958, in 932 adopted Islam,[40] in 940 took power over Karluks Musa Bughra Khan 956–958 Suleyman Arslan Khan 958–970

970–998 Ali Arslan Khan – Great Qaghan 998–1017 Ahmad
Ahmad
Arslan Qara Khan, son of 1 1017–1024 Mansur Arslan Khan, son of 1 1024–1026 Muhammad Toghan Khan, son of Hasan b. Sulayman 1026–32 Yusuf Qadir Khan, son of Hasan b. Sulayman 1020–1034 Ali Tigin Bughra Khan
Ali Tigin Bughra Khan
– Great Qaghan in Samarkand, son of Hasan b. Sulayman

Ebu Shuca Sulayman 1034–1042

Western Karakhanids

Muhammad Arslan Qara Khan c. 1042–c. 1052 Tamghach Khan Ibrahim
Tamghach Khan Ibrahim
(also known as Böritigin) c. 1052–1068 Nasr Shams al-Mulk 1068–1080: married Aisha, daughter of Alp Arslan.[41] Khidr 1080–1081 Ahmad
Ahmad
1081–1089 Ya'qub Qadir Khan 1089–1095 Mas'ud 1095–1097 Sulayman Qadir Tamghach 1097 Mahmud Arslan Khan 1097–1099 Jibrail Arslan Khan 1099–1102 Muhammad Arslan Khan 1102–1129 Nasr 1129 Ahmad
Ahmad
Qadir Khan 1129–1130 Hasan Jalal ad-Dunya 1130–1132 Ibrahim Rukn ad-Dunya 1132 Mahmud 1132–1141 Ibrahim Tabghach Khan 1141–1156 Ali Chaghri Khan 1156–1161 Mas'ud Tabghach Khan 1161–1171 Muhammad Tabghach Khan 1171–1178 Ibrahim Arslan Khan 1178–1204 Uthman Ulugh Sultan 1204–1212

Eastern Karakhanids

Ebu Shuca Sulayman 1042–1056 Muhammad bin Yusuph 1056–1057 İbrahim bin Muhammad Khan 1057–1059 Mahmud 1059–1075 Umar
Umar
1075 Ebu Ali el-Hasan 1075–1102 Ahmad
Ahmad
Khan 1102–1128 İbrahim bin Ahmad
Ahmad
1128–1158 Muhammad bin İbrahim 1158–? Yusuph bin Muhammad ?–1205 Ebul Feth Muhammad 1205–1211

See also

Khanate Göktürks Uyghur Khaganate Uyghur people Karluks Chigils Yaghmas List of Sunni Muslim dynasties History of the central steppe

References

^ a b c d Michal Biran (March 27, 2012). "ILAK-KHANIDS". Encyclopedia Iranica.  ^ V.V. Barthold, Four Studies on the History of Central Asia, (E.J. Brill, 1962), 99. ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364.  ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280.  ^ Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162.  ^ Qara-khanids, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Vol.1, Ed. Jamie Stokes, (Infobase Publishing, 2009), 578. ^ Asimov 1998, p. 120. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Grousset 2004. ^ a b c d e f g h Soucek 2000. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Asimov 1998, p. 119-144. ^ Golden 1990, p. 354. ^ Biran, Michal (2016). "Karakhanid Khanate". In John M. MacKenzie. The Encyclopedia of Empire (PDF). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN 978-1118440643.  ^ Biran, Michal (2001). "Qarakhanid Studies: A View from the Qara Khitai Edge". Cahiers d’Asie centrale. 9: 77–89.  ^ Beckwith 2009, p. 142. ^ Golden 1990, p. 349. ^ Golden 1990, p. 350-351. ^ Golden 1990, p. 348. ^ a b Golden 1990, p. 355-356. ^ Asia Research Institute Working Paper Series No.44 A History of Uighur Religious Conversions (5th-16th Centuries) by Li Tang ^ a b Golden 1990, p. 357. ^ a b The Samanids, Richard Nelson Frye, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 4, ed. R. N. Frye, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 156-157. ^ Golden 1990, p. 363. ^ Hansen 2012, p. 226. ^ Millward 2009, p. 55-56. ^ Trudy Ring; Robert M. Salkin; Sharon La Boda (1994). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. pp. 457–. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6.  ^ Moriyasu 2004, p. 207. ^ Thum 2012, p. 633. ^ Aurel Stein, Ancient Khotan, Clarendon Press, pg 181. ^ Millward 2009, p. 52-56. ^ Starr 2015, p. 42. ^ a b Asimov 1998. ^ Biran 2005, p. 194-196. ^ Golden 1990, p. 370. ^ Biran 2005, p. 81. ^ Golden 2011. ^ a b Larry Clark (2010), "The Turkic script and Kutadgu Bilig", Turkology in Mainz, Otto Harrasowitz GmbH & Co, p. 96, ISBN 978-3-447-06113-1  ^ Scott Cameron Levi; Ron Sela (2010). "Chapter 13 - Yusuf Hass Hajib: Advice to the Qarakhanid Rulers". Islamic Central Asia: An Anthology of Historical Sources. Indiana University Press. pp. 76–81. ISBN 978-0-253-35385-6.  ^ a b Tetley 2009, p. 27. ^ Grousset 2004, p. 145. ^ Ann K. S. Lambton, Continuity and Change in Medieval Persia, (State University of New York, 1988), 263.

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