Kanishka I (Hindi: कनिष्क I) , or
Kanishka the Great
(Hindi:कनिष्क महान) , was the emperor of the
Kushan dynasty in the second century (c. 127–150 CE). He is famous
for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. A descendant
Kushan empire founder Kujula Kadphises,
Kanishka came to rule an
empire in Bactria extending from
Turfan in the
Tarim Basin to
Pataliputra on the Gangetic plain. The main capital of his empire was
located at Puruṣapura in Gandhara, with another major capital at
His conquests and patronage of
Buddhism played an important role in
the development of the Silk Road, and the transmission of Mahayana
Gandhara across the
Karakoram range to China.
Earlier scholars believed that
Kanishka ascended the throne in 78 CE,
and that this date was used as the beginning of the Saka calendar era.
However, this date is now not regarded as the historical date of
Kanishka is estimated to have accessed to the
throne in 127 CE by Falk (2001).
2 Conquests in South and Central Asia
3 Kanishka's coins
3.1 Hellenistic phase
3.2 Iranian/Indic phase
Kanishka and Buddhism
4.1.1 Standing Buddha
4.1.2 "Shakyamuni Buddha"
4.4 Transmission of
Buddhism to China
5 See also
8 External links
Kanishka I, 2nd century,
Kanishka was a
Kushan of probable
Yuezhi ethnicity. His native
language is unknown. The
Rabatak inscription uses a Greek script, to
write a language described as Arya (αρια) – most likely a form
of Bactrian native to
Ariana (an area similar to modern Iran,
Afghanistan, Uzbekistan etc.), which was an Eastern Iranian language
of the Middle Iranian period. However, this was likely adopted by
the Kushans to facilitate communication with local subjects. It is not
certain, what language the
Kushan elite spoke among themselves. If
controversial theories connecting the Kushans and/or
Yuezhi to the
medieval Agni-Kuchi ("Tocharian") peoples of the
Tarim Basin are
Kanishka may have spoken a form of Tocharian – a "centum"
Indo-European language. (Whereas
Iranian languages such as Bactrian
were "satem" languages.)
Vima Kadphises was Kanishka's father. British Museum.
Kanishka was the successor of Vima Kadphises, as demonstrated by an
impressive genealogy of the
Kushan kings, known as the Rabatak
inscription. The connection of
Kanishka with other
is described in the
Rabatak inscription as
Kanishka makes the list of
the kings who ruled up to his time:
Kujula Kadphises as his
Vima Taktu as his grandfather,
Vima Kadphises as
his father, and himself Kanishka: "for King
Kujula Kadphises (his)
great grandfather, and for King
Vima Taktu (his) grandfather, and for
Vima Kadphises (his) father, and *also for himself, King
Conquests in South and Central Asia
Kushan territories (full line) and maximum extent of
Kanishka (dotted line), according to the Rabatak inscription.
Kanishka's empire was certainly vast. It extended from southern
Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, north of the Amu Darya (Oxus) in the north
Pakistan and Northern India, as far as
Mathura in the south
Rabatak inscription even claims he held
Pataliputra and Sri
Champa), and his territory also included Kashmir, where there was a
town Kanishkapur, named after him not far from the
Baramula Pass and
which still contains the base of a large stupa.
Bronze coin of Kanishka, found in Khotan, modern China.
Knowledge of his hold over Central Asia is less well established. The
Book of the Later Han, Hou Hanshu, states that general
Ban Chao fought
Khotan with a
Kushan army of 70,000 men led by an
Kushan viceroy named Xie (Chinese: 謝) in 90 AD.
Ban Chao claimed to be victorious, forcing the Kushans to
retreat by use of a scorched-earth policy, the region fell to Kushan
forces in the early 2nd century. As a result, for a short period
(until the Chinese regained control c. 127 AD) the territory of the
Kushans extended as far as Kashgar,
Khotan and Yarkand, which were
Chinese dependencies in the Tarim Basin, modern Xinjiang. Several
Kanishka have been found in the Tarim Basin.
Controlling both the land (the Silk Road) and sea trade routes between
South Asia and Rome seems to have been one of Kanishka's chief
Gold coin of
Kanishka I with the Hellenistic divinity Helios. (c. 120
Kanishka standing, clad in heavy
Kushan coat and long boots,
flames emanating from shoulders, holding a standard in his left hand,
and making a sacrifice over an altar. Greek legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΚΑΝΗϷΚΟΥ "[coin] of Kanishka, king of kings".
Helios in Hellenistic style, forming a benediction
gesture with the right hand. Legend in Greek script: ΗΛΙΟΣ
Kanishka monogram (tamgha) to the left.
Kanishka's coins portray images of Indian, Greek, Iranian and even
Elamite divinities, demonstrating the religious syncretism in
his beliefs. Kanishka's coins from the beginning of his reign bear
Greek language and script and depict Greek divinities.
Later coins bear legends in Bactrian, the Iranian language that the
Kushans evidently spoke, and Greek divinities were replaced by
corresponding Iranian ones. All of Kanishka's coins – even ones with
a legend in the
Bactrian language – were written in a modified Greek
script that had one additional glyph (Ϸ) to represent /š/ (sh), as
in the word 'Kushan' and 'Kanishka'.
On his coins, the king is typically depicted as a bearded man in a
long coat and trousers gathered at the ankle, with flames emanating
from his shoulders. He wears large rounded boots, and is armed with a
long sword similar to a scimitar as well as a lance. He is frequently
seen to be making a sacrifice on a small altar. The lower half of a
lifesize limestone relief of
Kanishka similarly attired, with a stiff
embroidered surplice beneath his coat and spurs attached to his boots
under the light gathered folds of his trousers, survived in the Kabul
Museum until it was destroyed by the Taliban.
A few coins at the beginning of his reign have a legend in the Greek
language and script: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ
ΚΑΝΗϷΚΟΥ, basileus basileon kaneshkou "[coin] of Kanishka,
king of kings."
Greek deities, with Greek names are represented on these early coins:
ΗΛΙΟΣ (ēlios, Hēlios), ΗΦΑΗΣΤΟΣ (ēphaēstos,
Hephaistos), ΣΑΛΗΝΗ (salēnē, Selene), ΑΝΗΜΟΣ (anēmos,
The inscriptions in Greek are full of spelling and syntactical errors.
Carnelian seal representing the Iranian divinity Adsho
(ΑΘϷΟ legend in Greek letters), with triratana symbol left, and
Kanishka's dynastic mark right. The divinity uses stirrups.
Following the transition to the
Bactrian language on coins, Iranian
and Indic divinities replace the Greek ones:
ΑΡΔΟΧϷΟ (ardoxsho, Ashi Vanghuhi)
ΛΡΟΟΑΣΠΟ (lrooaspo, Drvaspa)
ΑΘϷΟ (adsho, Atar)
ΦΑΡΡΟ (pharro, personified khwarenah)
ΜΑΟ (mao, Mah)
ΜΙΘΡΟ, ΜΙΙΡΟ, ΜΙΟΡΟ, ΜΙΥΡΟ (mithro, miiro, mioro,
miuro, variants of Mithra)
ΜΟΖΔΟΟΑΝΟ (mozdaooano, "Mazda the victorious?")
ΝΑΝΑ, ΝΑΝΑΙΑ, ΝΑΝΑϷΑΟ (variants of pan-Asiatic Nana,
Sogdian nny, in a Zoroastrian context Aredvi Sura Anahita)
Vohu Manah )
ΟΑΔΟ (oado, Vata)
ΟΡΑΛΑΓΝΟ (orlagno, Verethragna)
Only a few
Buddhist divinities were used as well:
ΒΟΔΔΟ (boddo, Buddha),
ϷΑΚΑΜΑΝΟ ΒΟΔΔΟ (shakamano boddho, Shakyamuni Buddha)
ΜΕΤΡΑΓΟ ΒΟΔΔΟ (metrago boddo, the bodhisattava Maitreya)
Only a few
Hindu divinities were used as well:
ΟΗϷΟ (oesho, Shiva). A recent study indicate that oesho may be
Avestan Vayu conflated with Shiva.
Kanishka and Buddhism
Gold coin of
Kanishka I with a representation of the
Kanishka standing.., clad in heavy
Kushan coat and long boots,
flames emanating from shoulders, holding standard in his left hand,
and making a sacrifice over an altar. Kushan-language legend in Greek
script (with the addition of the
Kushan Ϸ "sh" letter):
ϷΑΟΝΑΝΟϷΑΟ ΚΑΝΗϷΚΙ ΚΟϷΑΝΟ ("Shaonanoshao
Kanishki Koshano"): "King of Kings,
Kanishka the Kushan".
Buddha in Hellenistic style, forming the gesture of "no
fear" (abhaya mudra) with his right hand, and holding a pleat of his
robe in his left hand. Legend in Greek script: ΒΟΔΔΟ "Boddo", for
Kanishka monogram (tamgha) to the right.
Kanishka's reputation in
Buddhist tradition regarded with utmost
importance as he not only believed in
Buddhism but also encouraged its
teachings as well, as a proof of it, he administered the 4th Buddhist
Kashmir as the head of the council. It was presided by
Vasumitra and Ashwaghosha. Images of the
Buddha based on 32 physical
signs were made during his time.
Bala Bodhisattva was dedicated Year 3 of Kanihska's rule.
He encouraged both
Gandhara school of Greco-
Buddhist Art and the
Mathura school of
Hindu art (an inescapable religious syncretism
pervades Kushana rule).
Kanishka personally seems to have embraced
Buddhism and the Persian attributes but he favored
as it can be proven by his devotion to the
Buddhist teachings and
prayer styles depicted in various books related to kushan empire.
His greatest contribution to
Buddhist architecture was the Kanishka
stupa at Peshawar, Pakistan. Archaeologists who rediscovered the base
of it in 1908–1909 ascertained that this stupa had a diameter of 286
feet (87 metres). Reports of Chinese pilgrims such as Xuanzang
indicate that its height was 600 to 700 (Chinese) "feet" (= roughly
180–210 metres or 591–689 ft.) and was covered with
jewels. Certainly this immense multi-storied building ranks among
the wonders of the ancient world.
Kanishka is said to have been particularly close to the Buddhist
scholar Ashvaghosha, who became his religious advisor in his later
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Buddhist coins of
Kanishka are comparatively rare (well under one
percent of all known coins of Kanishka). Several show
Kanishka on the
obverse and the
Buddha standing on the reverse, in Hellenistic style.
A few also show the
Shakyamuni Buddha and Maitreya. Like all coins of
Kanishka, the design is rather rough and proportions tend to be
imprecise; the image of the
Buddha is often slightly overdone, with
oversize ears and feet spread apart in the same fashion as the Kushan
king, indicating imitation of Hellenistic types.
Three types of Kanishka's
Buddhist coins are known:
Buddha with features similar to those of Kanishka's
coins. Gandhara, usually dated 3rd–4th century. The Buddha, in
Hellenistic style, holds the left corner of his cloak in his hand, and
forms the abhaya mudra (Musée Guimet).
Depiction of the
Buddha (with legend ΒΟΔΔΟ "Boddo") in Kanishka's
Kushan coins of the
Buddha are known in gold (the sixth one
is the centerpiece of an ancient piece of jewellery, consisting of a
Buddha coin decorated with a ring of heart-shaped ruby
stones). All these coins were minted in gold under
Kanishka I, and are
in two different denominations: a dinar of about 8 gm, roughly similar
to a Roman aureus, and a quarter dinar of about 2 gm. (about the size
of an obol).
Buddha is represented wearing the monastic robe, the antaravasaka,
the uttarasanga, and the overcoat sanghati.
The ears are extremely large and long, a symbolic exaggeration
possibly rendered necessary by the small size of the coins, but
otherwise visible in some later Gandharan statues of the Buddha
typically dated to the 3rd–4th century CE (illustration, left). He
has an abundant topknot covering the usnisha, often highly stylised in
a curly or often globular manner, also visible on later
In general, the representation of the
Buddha on these coins is already
highly symbolic, and quite distinct from the more naturalistic and
Hellenistic images seen in early
Gandhara sculptures. On several
designs a mustache is apparent. The palm of his right hand bears the
Chakra mark, and his brow bear the urna. An aureola, formed by one,
two or three lines, surrounds him.
The full gown worn by the
Buddha on the coins, covering both
shoulders, suggests a Gandharan model rather than a Mathuran one.
Depictions of the "Shakyamuni Buddha" (with legend ϷΑΚΑΜΑΝΟ
ΒΟΔΔΟ "Shakamano Boddo") in Kanishka's coinage.
Shakyamuni Buddha (with the legend "Sakamano Boudo", i.e.
Shakamuni Buddha, another name for the historic
Gautama), standing to front, with left hand on hip and forming the
abhaya mudra with the right hand. All these coins are in copper only,
and usually rather worn.
The gown of the
Shakyamuni Buddha is quite light compared to that on
the coins in the name of Buddha, clearly showing the outline of the
body, in a nearly transparent way. These are probably the first two
layers of monastic clothing the antaravasaka and the uttarasanga.
Also, his gown is folded over the left arm (rather than being held in
the left hand as above), a feature only otherwise known in the Bimaran
casket and suggestive of a scarf-like uttariya. He has an abundant
topknot covering the ushnisha, and a simple or double halo, sometimes
radiating, surrounds his head.
Depictions of "Maitreya" (with legend ΜΕΤΡΑΓΟ ΒΟΔΔΟ
"Metrago Boddo") in Kanishka's coinage.
Maitreya (with the legend "Metrago Boudo")
cross-legged on a throne, holding a water pot, and also forming the
Abhaya mudra. These coins are only known in copper and are quite worn
out . On the clearest coins,
Maitreya seems to be wearing the armbands
of an Indian prince, a feature often seen on the statuary of Maitreya.
The throne is decorated with small columns, suggesting that the coin
Maitreya was directly copied from pre-existing
statuary with such well-known features.
The qualification of "Buddha" for
Maitreya is inaccurate, as he is
Bodhisattva (he is the
Buddha of the future).
The iconography of these three types is very different from that of
the other deities depicted in Kanishka's coinage. Whether Kanishka's
deities are all shown from the side, the Buddhas only are shown
frontally, indicating that they were copied from contemporary frontal
representations of the standing and seated Buddhas in statuary.
Both representations of the
Buddha and Shakyamuni have both shoulders
covered by their monastic gown, indicating that the statues used as
models were from the
Gandhara school of art, rather than Mathura.
Kanishka stupa and
Kanishka casket", dated to 127 CE, with the
Buddha surrounded by
Brahma and Indra, and
Kanishka standing at the center of the lower
part, British Museum.
Remnants of the
Detail of Kanishka, surrounded by the Iranian Sun-God and Moon-God, on
Kanishka casket. British Museum.
Buddha relics from Kanishka's stupa in Peshawar, Pakistan, sent by the
British to Mandalay, Burma in 1910.
Kanishka casket" or "
Kanishka reliquary", dated to the first year
of Kanishka's reign in 127 CE, was discovered in a deposit chamber
Kanishka stupa, during the archaeological excavations in
1908–1909 in Shah-Ji-Ki-Dheri, just outside the present-day Ganj
Gate of the old city of Peshawar. It is today at the Peshawar
Museum, and a copy is in the British Museum. It is said to have
contained three bone fragments of the Buddha, which are now housed in
The casket is dedicated in Kharoshthi. The inscription reads:
"(*mahara)jasa kanishkasa kanishka-pure nagare aya gadha-karae
deya-dharme sarva-satvana hita-suhartha bhavatu mahasenasa sagharaki
dasa agisala nava-karmi ana*kanishkasa vihare mahasenasa sangharame"
The text is signed by the maker, a Greek artist named Agesilas, who
oversaw work at Kanishka's stupas (caitya), confirming the direct
involvement of Greeks with
Buddhist realisations at such a late date:
"The servant Agisalaos, the superintendent of works at the vihara of
Kanishka in the monastery of Mahasena" ("dasa agisala nava-karmi
ana*kaniskasa vihara mahasenasa sangharame").
The lid of the casket shows the
Buddha on a lotus pedestal, and
Brahma and Indra. The edge of the lid is decorated by a
frieze of flying geese. The body of the casket represents a Kushan
Kanishka in person, with the Iranian sun and moon
gods on his side. On the sides are two images of a seated Buddha,
worshiped by royal figures, can be assumed as Kanishka. A garland,
supported by cherubs goes around the scene in typical Hellenistic
The attribution of the casket to
Kanishka has been recently disputed,
essentially on stylistic ground (for example the ruler shown on the
casket is not bearded, to the contrary of Kanishka). Instead, the
casket is often attributed to Kanishka's successor Huvishka.
Kanishka inaugurates Mahyana Buddhism
Kanishka is often described as an aggressive,
hot tempered, rigid, strict, and a bit harsh kind of King before he
got converted to
Buddhism of which he was very fond, and after his
conversion to Buddhism, he became an openhearted, benevolent, and
faithful ruler. As in the Sri-dharma-pitaka-nidana sutra:
"At this time the King of Ngan-si (Pahlava) was very aggressive and of
a violent nature….There was a bhikshu (monk) arhat who seeing the
harsh deeds done by the king wished to make him repent. So by his
supernatural force he caused the king to see the torments of hell. The
king was terrified and repented and cried terribly and hence dissolved
all his negatives within him and got self realised for the first time
in life ." Śri-dharma-piṭaka-nidāna sūtra
Additionally, the arrival of
Kanishka was reportedly foretold or was
predicted by the Buddha, as well as the construction of his stupa:
". . . the Buddha, pointing to a small boy making a mud tope….[said]
that on that spot Kaṇiṣka would erect a tope by his name." Vinaya
Kanishka with the
Maitreya "Metrago Boudo".
The same story is repeated in a Khotanese scroll found at Dunhuang,
which first described how
Kanishka would arrive 400 years after the
death of the Buddha. The account also describes how
Kanishka came to
raise his stupa:
"A desire thus arose in [
Kanishka to build a vast stupa]….at that
time the four world-regents learnt the mind of the king. So for his
sake they took the form of young boys….[and] began a stūpa of
mud....the boys said to [Kanishka] ‘We are making the
Kaṇiṣka-stūpa.’….At that time the boys changed their
form....[and] said to him, ‘Great king, by you according to the
Buddha's prophecy is a Saṅghārāma to be built wholly (?) with a
large stūpa and hither relics must be invited which the meritorious
good beings...will bring."
Chinese pilgrims to India, such as Xuanzang, who travelled there
around 630 CE also relays the story:
"Kaṇiṣka became sovereign of all Jambudvīpa (Indian subcontinent)
but he did not believe in Karma, but he treated
Buddhism with honor
and respect as he himself converted to
Buddhism intrigued by the
teachings and scriptures of it. When he was hunting in the wild
country a white hare appeared; the king gave a chase and the hare
suddenly disappeared at [the site of the future stupa]….[when the
construction of the stūpa was not going as planned] the king lost his
patience and took the matter in his own hands and started resurrecting
the plans precisely, thus completing the stupas with utmost perfection
and perseverance. These two stupas are still in existence and were
resorted to for cures by people afflicted with diseases."
Kanishka because of his deeds was highly respected, regarded,
honored by all the people he ruled and governed and was regarded the
greatest king who ever lived because of his kindness, humbleness and
sense of equality and self-righteousness among all aspects. Thus such
great deeds and character of the king
Kanishka made his name immortal
and thus he was regarded "THE KING OF KINGS"
Buddhism to China
Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Kanishka's expansion into the
Tarim Basin probably initiated the
Buddhism to China.
Buddhist monks from the region of
Gandhara played a key role in the
development and the transmission of
Buddhist ideas in the direction of
northern Asia from the middle of the 2nd century CE. The
Lokaksema (c. 178 CE), became the first translator of Mahayana
Buddhist scriptures into Chinese and established a translation bureau
at the Chinese capital Loyang. Central Asian and East Asian Buddhist
monks appear to have maintained strong exchanges for the following
Kanishka was probably succeeded by Huvishka. How and when this came
about is still uncertain.It is a fact that there was only one king
Kanishka in the whole
Kushan legacy. The inscription on The
Sacred Rock of Hunza
Sacred Rock of Hunza also shows the signs of Kanishka.
Kanishka with the divinity Mozdoano.
Coin of Kanishka.
Kanishka found at Ahin Posh.
Kanishka bronze coin.
^ Falk (2001), pp. 121–136. Falk (2004), pp. 167–176.
^ Gnoli (2002), pp. 84–90.
Sims-Williams and Cribb (1995/6), pp.75–142.
Sims-Williams (1998), pp. 79–83.
Sims-Williams and Cribb (1995/6), p. 80.
Rabatak inscription claims that in the year 1
authority was proclaimed in India, in all the satrapies and in
different cities like Koonadeano (Kundina), Ozeno (Ujjain), Kozambo
(Kausambi), Zagedo (Saketa), Palabotro (Pataliputra) and Ziri-Tambo
(Janjgir-Champa). These cities lay to the east and south of Mathura,
up to which locality Wima had already carried his victorious arm.
Therefore they must have been captured or subdued by
himself." Ancient Indian Inscriptions, S. R. Goyal, p. 93. See also
the analysis of
Sims-Williams and J. Cribb, who had a central role in
the decipherment: "A new Bactrian inscription of
Kanishka the Great",
Silk Road Art and Archaeology No. 4, 1995–1996. Also see,
Mukherjee, B. N. "The Great Kushanan Testament", Indian Museum
^ Chavannes, (1906), p. 232 and note 3.
^ Hill (2009), p. 11.
^ Wood (2002), illus. p. 39.
Sims-Williams (online) Encyclopedia Iranica.
^ H. Humbach, 1975, p.402-408. K. Tanabe, 1997, p.277, M. Carter,
1995, p. 152. J. Cribb, 1997, p. 40. References cited in De l'Indus à
^ Dobbins (1971).
^ The Crossroads of Asia, p. 201. (Full here.)
^ Hargreaves (1910–11), pp. 25–32.
^ Spooner, (1908–9), pp. 38–59.
^ Kumar (1973), p. 95.
^ Kumar (1973), p. 91.
^ Kumar (1973). p. 89.
^ Xuanzang, quoted in: Kumar (1973), p. 93.
Bopearachchi, Osmund (2003). De l'Indus à l'Oxus, Archéologie de
l'Asie Centrale (in French). Lattes: Association imago-musée de
Lattes. ISBN 2-9516679-2-2.
Chavannes, Édouard. (1906) "Trois Généraux Chinois de la dynastie
des Han Orientaux. Pan Tch’ao (32–102 p. C.); – son fils Pan
Yong; – Leang K’in (112 p. C.). Chapitre LXXVII du Heou Han chou."
T’oung pao 7, (1906) p. 232 and note 3.
Dobbins, K. Walton. (1971). The Stūpa and Vihāra of
Kanishka I. The
Asiatic Society of Bengal Monograph Series, Vol. XVIII. Calcutta.
Falk, Harry (2001): "The yuga of Sphujiddhvaja and the era of the
Silk Road Art and Archaeology VII,
Falk, Harry (2004): "The Kaniṣka era in Gupta records." In: Silk
Road Art and Archaeology X (2004), pp. 167–176.
Foucher, M. A. 1901. "Notes sur la geographie ancienne du Gandhâra
(commentaire à un chapitre de Hiuen-Tsang)." BEFEO No. 4, Oct. 1901,
Gnoli, Gherardo (2002). "The "Aryan" Language." JSAI 26 (2002).
Hargreaves, H. (1910–11): "Excavations at Shāh-jī-kī Dhērī";
Archaeological Survey of India, 1910–11.
Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the
Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd centuries CE.
BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1.
Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (1998). A history of India.
London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-15481-2.
Kumar, Baldev. 1973. The Early Kuṣāṇas. New Delhi, Sterling
Sims-Williams, Nicholas and Joe Cribb (1995/6): "A New Bactrian
Kanishka the Great."
Silk Road Art and Archaeology 4
(1996), pp. 75–142.
Sims-Williams, Nicholas (1998): "Further notes on the Bactrian
inscription of Rabatak, with an Appendix on the names of Kujula
Vima Taktu in Chinese." Proceedings of the Third
European Conference of Iranian Studies Part 1: Old and Middle Iranian
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(ruled c.0-20 CE)
Indo-Scythian dynasty of the
Great Satrap Kharapallana
and Satrap Vanaspara
Vāsishka (c. 140 – c. 160)
Huvishka (c. 160 – c. 190)
Vasudeva I (c. 190 – to at least 230)
Ardashir I, Sassanid king and "Kushanshah" (c. 230 – 250)
Peroz I, "Kushanshah" (c. 250 – 265)
Hormizd I, "Kushanshah" (c. 265 – 295)
Kanishka II (c. 230 – 240)
Vashishka (c. 240 – 250)
Kanishka III (c. 250 – 275)
Hormizd II, "Kushanshah" (c. 295 – 300)
Vasudeva II (c. 275 – 310)
Peroz II, "Kushanshah" (c. 300 – 325)
Chhu (c. 310? – 325)
Shapur II Sassanid king and "Kushanshah" (c. 325)
Varhran I, Varhran II,
Varhran III "Kushanshahs" (c. 325 – 350)
Peroz III "Kushanshah" (c. 350 –360)
HEPHTHALITE/ HUNAS invasions
Shaka I (c. 325 – 345)
Kipunada (c. 345 – 375)
Chandragupta I Samudragupta
Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
Iconography in Laos and Thailand
Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother)
Places where the
Buddha in world religions
Three marks of existence
Two truths doctrine
Ten spiritual realms
Hungry Ghost realm
Three planes of existence
Vipassanā (Vipassana movement)
Seven Factors of Enlightenment
Four Right Exertions
Four stages of enlightenment
Upāsaka and Upāsikā
The ten principal disciples
Emperor Wen of Sui
Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna
Buddhism in India
Buddhism in India
Buddhism and the Roman world
Buddhism in the West
Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Persecution of Buddhists
Buddhist monks from Nepal
Women in Buddhism
The unanswered questions
Thai temple art and architecture
Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi
Om mani padme hum
Maya Devi Temple
Temple of the Tooth
East Asian religions
^ From the dated inscription on the Rukhana reliquary
^ An Inscribed Silver
Buddhist Reliquary of the Time of King Kharaosta
and Prince Indravarman, Richard Salomon, Journal of the American
Oriental Society, Vol. 116, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1996), pp. 442 
^ A Kharosthī Reliquary Inscription of the Time of the Apraca Prince
Visnuvarma, by Richard Salomon, South Asian Studies 11 1995, Pages
27-32, Published online: 09