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Kanishka
Kanishka
I (Hindi: कनिष्क I) , or Kanishka
Kanishka
the Great (Hindi:कनिष्क महान) , was the emperor of the Kushan
Kushan
dynasty in the second century (c. 127–150 CE). He is famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. A descendant of Kushan
Kushan
empire founder Kujula Kadphises, Kanishka
Kanishka
came to rule an empire in Bactria extending from Turfan
Turfan
in the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
to Pataliputra
Pataliputra
on the Gangetic plain. The main capital of his empire was located at Puruṣapura in Gandhara, with another major capital at Kapisa. His conquests and patronage of Buddhism
Buddhism
played an important role in the development of the Silk Road, and the transmission of Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
from Gandhara
Gandhara
across the Karakoram
Karakoram
range to China. Earlier scholars believed that Kanishka
Kanishka
ascended the throne in 78 CE, and that this date was used as the beginning of the Saka calendar era. However, this date is now not regarded as the historical date of Kanishka's accession. Kanishka
Kanishka
is estimated to have accessed to the throne in 127 CE by Falk (2001).[1]

Contents

1 Genealogy 2 Conquests in South and Central Asia 3 Kanishka's coins

3.1 Hellenistic phase 3.2 Iranian/Indic phase

4 Kanishka
Kanishka
and Buddhism

4.1 Buddhist
Buddhist
coinage

4.1.1 Standing Buddha 4.1.2 "Shakyamuni Buddha" 4.1.3 " Maitreya
Maitreya
Buddha"

4.2 Kanishka
Kanishka
stupa 4.3 Kanishka
Kanishka
in Buddhist
Buddhist
tradition 4.4 Transmission of Buddhism
Buddhism
to China

5 See also 6 Footnotes 7 References 8 External links

Genealogy[edit]

Statue of Kanishka
Kanishka
I, 2nd century, Mathura
Mathura
Museum.

Kanishka
Kanishka
was a Kushan
Kushan
of probable Yuezhi
Yuezhi
ethnicity. His native language is unknown. The Rabatak inscription
Rabatak inscription
uses a Greek script, to write a language described as Arya (αρια) – most likely a form of Bactrian native to Ariana
Ariana
(an area similar to modern Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan etc.), which was an Eastern Iranian language of the Middle Iranian period.[2] However, this was likely adopted by the Kushans to facilitate communication with local subjects. It is not certain, what language the Kushan
Kushan
elite spoke among themselves. If controversial theories connecting the Kushans and/or Yuezhi
Yuezhi
to the medieval Agni-Kuchi ("Tocharian") peoples of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
are correct, Kanishka
Kanishka
may have spoken a form of Tocharian – a "centum" Indo-European language. (Whereas Iranian languages
Iranian languages
such as Bactrian were "satem" languages.)

Vima Kadphises
Vima Kadphises
was Kanishka's father. British Museum.

Kanishka
Kanishka
was the successor of Vima Kadphises, as demonstrated by an impressive genealogy of the Kushan
Kushan
kings, known as the Rabatak inscription.[3][4] The connection of Kanishka
Kanishka
with other Kushan
Kushan
rulers is described in the Rabatak inscription
Rabatak inscription
as Kanishka
Kanishka
makes the list of the kings who ruled up to his time: Kujula Kadphises
Kujula Kadphises
as his great-grandfather, Vima Taktu
Vima Taktu
as his grandfather, Vima Kadphises
Vima Kadphises
as his father, and himself Kanishka: "for King Kujula Kadphises
Kujula Kadphises
(his) great grandfather, and for King Vima Taktu
Vima Taktu
(his) grandfather, and for King Vima Kadphises
Vima Kadphises
(his) father, and *also for himself, King Kanishka".[5] Conquests in South and Central Asia[edit]

Kushan
Kushan
territories (full line) and maximum extent of Kushan
Kushan
dominions under Kanishka
Kanishka
(dotted line), according to the Rabatak inscription.[6]

Kanishka's empire was certainly vast. It extended from southern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, north of the Amu Darya (Oxus) in the north west to Pakistan
Pakistan
and Northern India, as far as Mathura
Mathura
in the south east (the Rabatak inscription
Rabatak inscription
even claims he held Pataliputra
Pataliputra
and Sri Champa), and his territory also included Kashmir, where there was a town Kanishkapur, named after him not far from the Baramula
Baramula
Pass and which still contains the base of a large stupa.

Bronze coin of Kanishka, found in Khotan, modern China.

Knowledge of his hold over Central Asia is less well established. The Book of the Later Han, Hou Hanshu, states that general Ban Chao
Ban Chao
fought battles near Khotan
Khotan
with a Kushan
Kushan
army of 70,000 men led by an otherwise unknown Kushan
Kushan
viceroy named Xie (Chinese: 謝) in 90 AD. Though Ban Chao
Ban Chao
claimed to be victorious, forcing the Kushans to retreat by use of a scorched-earth policy, the region fell to Kushan forces in the early 2nd century.[7] As a result, for a short period (until the Chinese regained control c. 127 AD)[8] the territory of the Kushans extended as far as Kashgar, Khotan
Khotan
and Yarkand, which were Chinese dependencies in the Tarim Basin, modern Xinjiang. Several coins of Kanishka
Kanishka
have been found in the Tarim Basin. Controlling both the land (the Silk Road) and sea trade routes between South Asia and Rome seems to have been one of Kanishka's chief imperial goals. Kanishka's coins[edit]

Gold coin
Gold coin
of Kanishka
Kanishka
I with the Hellenistic divinity Helios. (c. 120 AD). Obverse: Kanishka
Kanishka
standing, clad in heavy Kushan
Kushan
coat and long boots, flames emanating from shoulders, holding a standard in his left hand, and making a sacrifice over an altar. Greek legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΚΑΝΗϷΚΟΥ "[coin] of Kanishka, king of kings". Reverse: Standing Helios
Helios
in Hellenistic style, forming a benediction gesture with the right hand. Legend in Greek script: ΗΛΙΟΣ Helios. Kanishka
Kanishka
monogram (tamgha) to the left.

Kanishka's coins portray images of Indian, Greek, Iranian and even Sumero- Elamite
Elamite
divinities, demonstrating the religious syncretism in his beliefs. Kanishka's coins from the beginning of his reign bear legends in Greek language
Greek language
and script and depict Greek divinities. Later coins bear legends in Bactrian, the Iranian language that the Kushans evidently spoke, and Greek divinities were replaced by corresponding Iranian ones. All of Kanishka's coins – even ones with a legend in the Bactrian language
Bactrian language
– were written in a modified Greek script that had one additional glyph (Ϸ) to represent /š/ (sh), as in the word 'Kushan' and 'Kanishka'. On his coins, the king is typically depicted as a bearded man in a long coat and trousers gathered at the ankle, with flames emanating from his shoulders. He wears large rounded boots, and is armed with a long sword similar to a scimitar as well as a lance. He is frequently seen to be making a sacrifice on a small altar. The lower half of a lifesize limestone relief of Kanishka
Kanishka
similarly attired, with a stiff embroidered surplice beneath his coat and spurs attached to his boots under the light gathered folds of his trousers, survived in the Kabul Museum until it was destroyed by the Taliban.[9] Hellenistic phase[edit] A few coins at the beginning of his reign have a legend in the Greek language and script: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΚΑΝΗϷΚΟΥ, basileus basileon kaneshkou "[coin] of Kanishka, king of kings." Greek deities, with Greek names are represented on these early coins:

ΗΛΙΟΣ (ēlios, Hēlios), ΗΦΑΗΣΤΟΣ (ēphaēstos, Hephaistos), ΣΑΛΗΝΗ (salēnē, Selene), ΑΝΗΜΟΣ (anēmos, Anemos)

The inscriptions in Greek are full of spelling and syntactical errors. Iranian/Indic phase[edit]

Kushan
Kushan
Carnelian
Carnelian
seal representing the Iranian divinity Adsho (ΑΘϷΟ legend in Greek letters), with triratana symbol left, and Kanishka's dynastic mark right. The divinity uses stirrups.

Following the transition to the Bactrian language
Bactrian language
on coins, Iranian and Indic divinities replace the Greek ones:

ΑΡΔΟΧϷΟ (ardoxsho, Ashi Vanghuhi) ΛΡΟΟΑΣΠΟ (lrooaspo, Drvaspa) ΑΘϷΟ (adsho, Atar) ΦΑΡΡΟ (pharro, personified khwarenah) ΜΑΟ (mao, Mah) ΜΙΘΡΟ, ΜΙΙΡΟ, ΜΙΟΡΟ, ΜΙΥΡΟ (mithro, miiro, mioro, miuro, variants of Mithra) ΜΟΖΔΟΟΑΝΟ (mozdaooano, "Mazda the victorious?") ΝΑΝΑ, ΝΑΝΑΙΑ, ΝΑΝΑϷΑΟ (variants of pan-Asiatic Nana, Sogdian nny, in a Zoroastrian context Aredvi Sura Anahita) ΜΑΝΑΟΒΑΓΟ (manaobago, Vohu Manah ) ΟΑΔΟ (oado, Vata) ΟΡΑΛΑΓΝΟ (orlagno, Verethragna)

Only a few Buddhist
Buddhist
divinities were used as well:

ΒΟΔΔΟ (boddo, Buddha), ϷΑΚΑΜΑΝΟ ΒΟΔΔΟ (shakamano boddho, Shakyamuni Buddha) ΜΕΤΡΑΓΟ ΒΟΔΔΟ (metrago boddo, the bodhisattava Maitreya)

Only a few Hindu
Hindu
divinities were used as well:

ΟΗϷΟ (oesho, Shiva). A recent study indicate that oesho may be Avestan
Avestan
Vayu conflated with Shiva.[10][11]

Kanishka
Kanishka
and Buddhism[edit]

Gold coin
Gold coin
of Kanishka
Kanishka
I with a representation of the Buddha
Buddha
(c.120 AD). Obv: Kanishka
Kanishka
standing.., clad in heavy Kushan
Kushan
coat and long boots, flames emanating from shoulders, holding standard in his left hand, and making a sacrifice over an altar. Kushan-language legend in Greek script (with the addition of the Kushan
Kushan
Ϸ "sh" letter): ϷΑΟΝΑΝΟϷΑΟ ΚΑΝΗϷΚΙ ΚΟϷΑΝΟ ("Shaonanoshao Kanishki Koshano"): "King of Kings, Kanishka
Kanishka
the Kushan". Rev: Standing Buddha
Buddha
in Hellenistic style, forming the gesture of "no fear" (abhaya mudra) with his right hand, and holding a pleat of his robe in his left hand. Legend in Greek script: ΒΟΔΔΟ "Boddo", for the Buddha. Kanishka
Kanishka
monogram (tamgha) to the right.

Kanishka's reputation in Buddhist
Buddhist
tradition regarded with utmost importance as he not only believed in Buddhism
Buddhism
but also encouraged its teachings as well, as a proof of it, he administered the 4th Buddhist Council in Kashmir
Kashmir
as the head of the council. It was presided by Vasumitra and Ashwaghosha. Images of the Buddha
Buddha
based on 32 physical signs were made during his time.

The Bala Bodhisattva
Bala Bodhisattva
was dedicated Year 3 of Kanihska's rule.

He encouraged both Gandhara
Gandhara
school of Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist
Art and the Mathura
Mathura
school of Hindu
Hindu
art (an inescapable religious syncretism pervades Kushana rule). Kanishka
Kanishka
personally seems to have embraced both Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Persian attributes but he favored Buddhism
Buddhism
more as it can be proven by his devotion to the Buddhist
Buddhist
teachings and prayer styles depicted in various books related to kushan empire. His greatest contribution to Buddhist
Buddhist
architecture was the Kanishka stupa at Peshawar, Pakistan. Archaeologists who rediscovered the base of it in 1908–1909 ascertained that this stupa had a diameter of 286 feet (87 metres). Reports of Chinese pilgrims such as Xuanzang indicate that its height was 600 to 700 (Chinese) "feet" (= roughly 180–210 metres or 591–689 ft.) and was covered with jewels.[12] Certainly this immense multi-storied building ranks among the wonders of the ancient world. Kanishka
Kanishka
is said to have been particularly close to the Buddhist scholar Ashvaghosha, who became his religious advisor in his later years. Buddhist
Buddhist
coinage[edit]

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The Buddhist
Buddhist
coins of Kanishka
Kanishka
are comparatively rare (well under one percent of all known coins of Kanishka). Several show Kanishka
Kanishka
on the obverse and the Buddha
Buddha
standing on the reverse, in Hellenistic style. A few also show the Shakyamuni Buddha
Shakyamuni Buddha
and Maitreya. Like all coins of Kanishka, the design is rather rough and proportions tend to be imprecise; the image of the Buddha
Buddha
is often slightly overdone, with oversize ears and feet spread apart in the same fashion as the Kushan king, indicating imitation of Hellenistic types. Three types of Kanishka's Buddhist
Buddhist
coins are known: Standing Buddha[edit]

Bronze standing Buddha
Buddha
with features similar to those of Kanishka's coins. Gandhara, usually dated 3rd–4th century. The Buddha, in Hellenistic style, holds the left corner of his cloak in his hand, and forms the abhaya mudra (Musée Guimet).

Depiction of the Buddha
Buddha
(with legend ΒΟΔΔΟ "Boddo") in Kanishka's coinage.

Only six Kushan
Kushan
coins of the Buddha
Buddha
are known in gold (the sixth one is the centerpiece of an ancient piece of jewellery, consisting of a Kanishka
Kanishka
Buddha
Buddha
coin decorated with a ring of heart-shaped ruby stones). All these coins were minted in gold under Kanishka
Kanishka
I, and are in two different denominations: a dinar of about 8 gm, roughly similar to a Roman aureus, and a quarter dinar of about 2 gm. (about the size of an obol). The Buddha
Buddha
is represented wearing the monastic robe, the antaravasaka, the uttarasanga, and the overcoat sanghati. The ears are extremely large and long, a symbolic exaggeration possibly rendered necessary by the small size of the coins, but otherwise visible in some later Gandharan statues of the Buddha typically dated to the 3rd–4th century CE (illustration, left). He has an abundant topknot covering the usnisha, often highly stylised in a curly or often globular manner, also visible on later Buddha
Buddha
statues of Gandhara. In general, the representation of the Buddha
Buddha
on these coins is already highly symbolic, and quite distinct from the more naturalistic and Hellenistic images seen in early Gandhara
Gandhara
sculptures. On several designs a mustache is apparent. The palm of his right hand bears the Chakra
Chakra
mark, and his brow bear the urna. An aureola, formed by one, two or three lines, surrounds him. The full gown worn by the Buddha
Buddha
on the coins, covering both shoulders, suggests a Gandharan model rather than a Mathuran one. "Shakyamuni Buddha"[edit]

Depictions of the "Shakyamuni Buddha" (with legend ϷΑΚΑΜΑΝΟ ΒΟΔΔΟ "Shakamano Boddo") in Kanishka's coinage.

The Shakyamuni Buddha
Shakyamuni Buddha
(with the legend "Sakamano Boudo", i.e. Shakamuni Buddha, another name for the historic Buddha
Buddha
Siddharta Gautama), standing to front, with left hand on hip and forming the abhaya mudra with the right hand. All these coins are in copper only, and usually rather worn. The gown of the Shakyamuni Buddha
Shakyamuni Buddha
is quite light compared to that on the coins in the name of Buddha, clearly showing the outline of the body, in a nearly transparent way. These are probably the first two layers of monastic clothing the antaravasaka and the uttarasanga. Also, his gown is folded over the left arm (rather than being held in the left hand as above), a feature only otherwise known in the Bimaran casket and suggestive of a scarf-like uttariya. He has an abundant topknot covering the ushnisha, and a simple or double halo, sometimes radiating, surrounds his head. " Maitreya
Maitreya
Buddha"[edit]

Depictions of "Maitreya" (with legend ΜΕΤΡΑΓΟ ΒΟΔΔΟ "Metrago Boddo") in Kanishka's coinage.

The Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Maitreya
Maitreya
(with the legend "Metrago Boudo") cross-legged on a throne, holding a water pot, and also forming the Abhaya mudra. These coins are only known in copper and are quite worn out . On the clearest coins, Maitreya
Maitreya
seems to be wearing the armbands of an Indian prince, a feature often seen on the statuary of Maitreya. The throne is decorated with small columns, suggesting that the coin representation of Maitreya
Maitreya
was directly copied from pre-existing statuary with such well-known features. The qualification of "Buddha" for Maitreya
Maitreya
is inaccurate, as he is instead a Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
(he is the Buddha
Buddha
of the future). The iconography of these three types is very different from that of the other deities depicted in Kanishka's coinage. Whether Kanishka's deities are all shown from the side, the Buddhas only are shown frontally, indicating that they were copied from contemporary frontal representations of the standing and seated Buddhas in statuary.[13] Both representations of the Buddha
Buddha
and Shakyamuni have both shoulders covered by their monastic gown, indicating that the statues used as models were from the Gandhara
Gandhara
school of art, rather than Mathura. Kanishka
Kanishka
stupa[edit] Main articles: Kanishka stupa
Kanishka stupa
and Kanishka
Kanishka
casket

Kanishka
Kanishka
casket

The " Kanishka
Kanishka
casket", dated to 127 CE, with the Buddha
Buddha
surrounded by Brahma
Brahma
and Indra, and Kanishka
Kanishka
standing at the center of the lower part, British Museum.

Remnants of the Kanishka
Kanishka
stupa.

Detail of Kanishka, surrounded by the Iranian Sun-God and Moon-God, on the Kanishka
Kanishka
casket. British Museum.

Buddha
Buddha
relics from Kanishka's stupa in Peshawar, Pakistan, sent by the British to Mandalay, Burma in 1910.

The " Kanishka
Kanishka
casket" or " Kanishka
Kanishka
reliquary", dated to the first year of Kanishka's reign in 127 CE, was discovered in a deposit chamber under Kanishka
Kanishka
stupa, during the archaeological excavations in 1908–1909 in Shah-Ji-Ki-Dheri, just outside the present-day Ganj Gate of the old city of Peshawar.[14][15] It is today at the Peshawar Museum, and a copy is in the British Museum. It is said to have contained three bone fragments of the Buddha, which are now housed in Mandalay, Burma. The casket is dedicated in Kharoshthi. The inscription reads:

"(*mahara)jasa kanishkasa kanishka-pure nagare aya gadha-karae deya-dharme sarva-satvana hita-suhartha bhavatu mahasenasa sagharaki dasa agisala nava-karmi ana*kanishkasa vihare mahasenasa sangharame"

The text is signed by the maker, a Greek artist named Agesilas, who oversaw work at Kanishka's stupas (caitya), confirming the direct involvement of Greeks with Buddhist
Buddhist
realisations at such a late date: "The servant Agisalaos, the superintendent of works at the vihara of Kanishka
Kanishka
in the monastery of Mahasena" ("dasa agisala nava-karmi ana*kaniskasa vihara mahasenasa sangharame"). The lid of the casket shows the Buddha
Buddha
on a lotus pedestal, and worshipped by Brahma
Brahma
and Indra. The edge of the lid is decorated by a frieze of flying geese. The body of the casket represents a Kushan monarch, probably Kanishka
Kanishka
in person, with the Iranian sun and moon gods on his side. On the sides are two images of a seated Buddha, worshiped by royal figures, can be assumed as Kanishka. A garland, supported by cherubs goes around the scene in typical Hellenistic style. The attribution of the casket to Kanishka
Kanishka
has been recently disputed, essentially on stylistic ground (for example the ruler shown on the casket is not bearded, to the contrary of Kanishka). Instead, the casket is often attributed to Kanishka's successor Huvishka. Kanishka
Kanishka
in Buddhist
Buddhist
tradition[edit]

Kanishka
Kanishka
inaugurates Mahyana Buddhism

In Buddhist
Buddhist
tradition, Kanishka
Kanishka
is often described as an aggressive, hot tempered, rigid, strict, and a bit harsh kind of King before he got converted to Buddhism
Buddhism
of which he was very fond, and after his conversion to Buddhism, he became an openhearted, benevolent, and faithful ruler. As in the Sri-dharma-pitaka-nidana sutra:

"At this time the King of Ngan-si (Pahlava) was very aggressive and of a violent nature….There was a bhikshu (monk) arhat who seeing the harsh deeds done by the king wished to make him repent. So by his supernatural force he caused the king to see the torments of hell. The king was terrified and repented and cried terribly and hence dissolved all his negatives within him and got self realised for the first time in life ." Śri-dharma-piṭaka-nidāna sūtra[16]

Additionally, the arrival of Kanishka
Kanishka
was reportedly foretold or was predicted by the Buddha, as well as the construction of his stupa:

". . . the Buddha, pointing to a small boy making a mud tope….[said] that on that spot Kaṇiṣka would erect a tope by his name." Vinaya sutra[17]

Coin of Kanishka
Kanishka
with the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Maitreya
Maitreya
"Metrago Boudo".

The same story is repeated in a Khotanese scroll found at Dunhuang, which first described how Kanishka
Kanishka
would arrive 400 years after the death of the Buddha. The account also describes how Kanishka
Kanishka
came to raise his stupa:

"A desire thus arose in [ Kanishka
Kanishka
to build a vast stupa]….at that time the four world-regents learnt the mind of the king. So for his sake they took the form of young boys….[and] began a stūpa of mud....the boys said to [Kanishka] ‘We are making the Kaṇiṣka-stūpa.’….At that time the boys changed their form....[and] said to him, ‘Great king, by you according to the Buddha's prophecy is a Saṅghārāma to be built wholly (?) with a large stūpa and hither relics must be invited which the meritorious good beings...will bring."[18]

Chinese pilgrims to India, such as Xuanzang, who travelled there around 630 CE also relays the story:

"Kaṇiṣka became sovereign of all Jambudvīpa (Indian subcontinent) but he did not believe in Karma, but he treated Buddhism
Buddhism
with honor and respect as he himself converted to Buddhism
Buddhism
intrigued by the teachings and scriptures of it. When he was hunting in the wild country a white hare appeared; the king gave a chase and the hare suddenly disappeared at [the site of the future stupa]….[when the construction of the stūpa was not going as planned] the king lost his patience and took the matter in his own hands and started resurrecting the plans precisely, thus completing the stupas with utmost perfection and perseverance. These two stupas are still in existence and were resorted to for cures by people afflicted with diseases."

King Kanishka
Kanishka
because of his deeds was highly respected, regarded, honored by all the people he ruled and governed and was regarded the greatest king who ever lived because of his kindness, humbleness and sense of equality and self-righteousness among all aspects. Thus such great deeds and character of the king Kanishka
Kanishka
made his name immortal and thus he was regarded "THE KING OF KINGS"[19] Transmission of Buddhism
Buddhism
to China[edit] Main article: Silk Road
Silk Road
transmission of Buddhism Kanishka's expansion into the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
probably initiated the transmission of Buddhism
Buddhism
to China. Buddhist
Buddhist
monks from the region of Gandhara
Gandhara
played a key role in the development and the transmission of Buddhist
Buddhist
ideas in the direction of northern Asia from the middle of the 2nd century CE. The Kushan
Kushan
monk, Lokaksema (c. 178 CE), became the first translator of Mahayana Buddhist
Buddhist
scriptures into Chinese and established a translation bureau at the Chinese capital Loyang. Central Asian and East Asian Buddhist monks appear to have maintained strong exchanges for the following centuries. Kanishka
Kanishka
was probably succeeded by Huvishka. How and when this came about is still uncertain.It is a fact that there was only one king named Kanishka
Kanishka
in the whole Kushan
Kushan
legacy. The inscription on The Sacred Rock of Hunza
Sacred Rock of Hunza
also shows the signs of Kanishka.

Kanishka
Kanishka
with the divinity Mozdoano.

Coin of Kanishka.

Coin of Kanishka
Kanishka
found at Ahin Posh.

Coin.

Kanishka
Kanishka
bronze coin.

See also[edit]

Menander I Greco-Buddhism

Footnotes[edit]

^ Falk (2001), pp. 121–136. Falk (2004), pp. 167–176. ^ Gnoli (2002), pp. 84–90. ^ Sims-Williams
Sims-Williams
and Cribb (1995/6), pp.75–142. ^ Sims-Williams
Sims-Williams
(1998), pp. 79–83. ^ Sims-Williams
Sims-Williams
and Cribb (1995/6), p. 80. ^ "The Rabatak inscription
Rabatak inscription
claims that in the year 1 Kanishka
Kanishka
I's authority was proclaimed in India, in all the satrapies and in different cities like Koonadeano (Kundina), Ozeno (Ujjain), Kozambo (Kausambi), Zagedo (Saketa), Palabotro (Pataliputra) and Ziri-Tambo (Janjgir-Champa). These cities lay to the east and south of Mathura, up to which locality Wima had already carried his victorious arm. Therefore they must have been captured or subdued by Kanishka
Kanishka
I himself." Ancient Indian Inscriptions, S. R. Goyal, p. 93. See also the analysis of Sims-Williams
Sims-Williams
and J. Cribb, who had a central role in the decipherment: "A new Bactrian inscription of Kanishka
Kanishka
the Great", in Silk Road
Silk Road
Art and Archaeology No. 4, 1995–1996. Also see, Mukherjee, B. N. "The Great Kushanan Testament", Indian Museum Bulletin. ^ Chavannes, (1906), p. 232 and note 3. ^ Hill (2009), p. 11. ^ Wood (2002), illus. p. 39. ^ Sims-Williams
Sims-Williams
(online) Encyclopedia Iranica. ^ H. Humbach, 1975, p.402-408. K. Tanabe, 1997, p.277, M. Carter, 1995, p. 152. J. Cribb, 1997, p. 40. References cited in De l'Indus à l'Oxus. ^ Dobbins (1971). ^ The Crossroads of Asia, p. 201. (Full[citation needed] here.) ^ Hargreaves (1910–11), pp. 25–32. ^ Spooner, (1908–9), pp. 38–59. ^ Kumar (1973), p. 95. ^ Kumar (1973), p. 91. ^ Kumar (1973). p. 89. ^ Xuanzang, quoted in: Kumar (1973), p. 93.

References[edit]

Bopearachchi, Osmund (2003). De l'Indus à l'Oxus, Archéologie de l'Asie Centrale (in French). Lattes: Association imago-musée de Lattes. ISBN 2-9516679-2-2.  Chavannes, Édouard. (1906) "Trois Généraux Chinois de la dynastie des Han Orientaux. Pan Tch’ao (32–102 p. C.); – son fils Pan Yong; – Leang K’in (112 p. C.). Chapitre LXXVII du Heou Han chou." T’oung pao 7, (1906) p. 232 and note 3. Dobbins, K. Walton. (1971). The Stūpa and Vihāra of Kanishka
Kanishka
I. The Asiatic Society of Bengal Monograph Series, Vol. XVIII. Calcutta. Falk, Harry (2001): "The yuga of Sphujiddhvaja and the era of the Kuṣâṇas." In: Silk Road
Silk Road
Art and Archaeology VII, pp. 121–136. Falk, Harry (2004): "The Kaniṣka era in Gupta records." In: Silk Road Art and Archaeology X (2004), pp. 167–176. Foucher, M. A. 1901. "Notes sur la geographie ancienne du Gandhâra (commentaire à un chapitre de Hiuen-Tsang)." BEFEO No. 4, Oct. 1901, pp. 322–369. Gnoli, Gherardo (2002). "The "Aryan" Language." JSAI 26 (2002). Hargreaves, H. (1910–11): "Excavations at Shāh-jī-kī Dhērī"; Archaeological Survey of India, 1910–11. Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd centuries CE. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1. Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (1998). A history of India. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-15481-2. ISBN 0-415-15482-0.  Kumar, Baldev. 1973. The Early Kuṣāṇas. New Delhi, Sterling Publishers. Sims-Williams, Nicholas and Joe Cribb (1995/6): "A New Bactrian Inscription of Kanishka
Kanishka
the Great." Silk Road
Silk Road
Art and Archaeology 4 (1996), pp. 75–142. Sims-Williams, Nicholas (1998): "Further notes on the Bactrian inscription of Rabatak, with an Appendix on the names of Kujula Kadphises and Vima Taktu
Vima Taktu
in Chinese." Proceedings of the Third European Conference of Iranian Studies Part 1: Old and Middle Iranian Studies. Edited by Nicholas Sims-Williams. Wiesbaden. 1998, pp. 79–93. Sims-Williams, Nicholas. Sims-Williams, Nicolas. "Bactrian Language". Encyclopaedia Iranica. 3. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.  Accessed: 20/12/2010 Spooner, D. B. (1908–9): "Excavations at Shāh-jī-kī Dhērī."; Archaeological Survey of India, 1908-9. Wood, Frances (2003). The Silk Road: Two Thousand Years in the Heart of Asia. University of California Press. Hbk (2003), ISBN 978-0-520-23786-5; pbk. (2004) ISBN 978-0-520-24340-8

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A rough guide to Kushana history. Online Catalogue of Kanishka's Coins Coins of Kanishka Controversy regarding the beginning of the Kanishka
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INDO-SCYTHIAN KINGDOM INDO-GREEK KINGDOM Indo-Scythian Northern Satraps

25 BCE – 10 CE

Indo-Scythian dynasty of the APRACHARAJAS Vijayamitra (ruled 12 BCE - 15 CE)[1] Liaka Kusulaka Patika Kusulaka Zeionises Kharahostes (ruled 10 BCE– 10 CE)[2] Mujatria Strato II
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INDO-PARTHIAN KINGDOM Gondophares Indravasu INDO-PARTHIAN KINGDOM Gondophares Rajuvula

20-30 CE

Ubouzanes Pakores Vispavarma (ruled c.0-20 CE)[3] Sarpedones Bhadayasa Sodasa

30-40 CE

KUSHAN EMPIRE Kujula Kadphises Indravarma Abdagases ... ...

40-45 CE

Aspavarma Gadana ... ...

45-50 CE

Sasan Sases ... ...

50-75 CE

... ...

75-100 CE Indo-Scythian dynasty of the WESTERN SATRAPS Chastana

Vima Takto ... ...

100-120 CE Abhiraka

Vima Kadphises ... ...

120 CE Bhumaka Nahapana PARATARAJAS Yolamira Kanishka
Kanishka
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130-230 CE

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230-280 CE

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INDO-SASANIANS Ardashir I, Sassanid king and "Kushanshah" (c. 230 – 250) Peroz I, "Kushanshah" (c. 250 – 265) Hormizd I, "Kushanshah" (c. 265 – 295)

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^ From the dated inscription on the Rukhana reliquary ^ An Inscribed Silver Buddhist
Buddhist
Reliquary of the Time of King Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman, Richard Salomon, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 116, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1996), pp. 442 [1] ^ A Kharosthī Reliquary Inscription of the Time of the Apraca Prince Visnuvarma, by Richard Salomon, South Asian Studies 11 1995, Pages 27-32, Published online: 09

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