HOME
The Info List - Kaiserslautern





Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
(German pronunciation: [ˌkaɪzɐsˈlaʊtɐn] ( listen)) is a city in southwest Germany, located in the Bundesland (State) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) at the edge of the Palatinate Forest
Palatinate Forest
(Pfälzerwald). The historic centre dates to the 9th century. It is 459 kilometres (285 miles) from Paris, 117 km (73 miles) from Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main, and 159 km (99 miles) from Luxembourg. Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
is home to 100,569 people (December 2016). Additionally, approximately 45,000 NATO
NATO
military personnel inhabit the city and its surrounding district (Landkreis Kaiserslautern), and contribute approximately US$1 billion annually to the local economy.[2] The city is also home to football club 1. FC Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
that has won the German championship four times.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Medieval
Medieval
period 1.2 Reformation 1.3 Bavarian province 1.4 World War II

2 Climate 3 Attractions

3.1 Culture and sports 3.2 Museums and libraries 3.3 Nature

4 University in Kaiserslautern 5 Research Centre in Kaiserslautern 6 Religion

6.1 Churches 6.2 Mosques 6.3 Synagogue

7 Businesses 8 US Military 9 International relations 10 Notable residents 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit] Prehistoric
Prehistoric
settlement in the area of what is now Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
has been traced to at least 800 BC. Some 2,500-year-old Celtic tombs were uncovered at Miesau, a town about 29 kilometres (18 miles) west of Kaiserslautern. The recovered relics are now in the Museum for Palatinate History at Speyer. Medieval
Medieval
period[edit] Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
received its name from the favorite hunting retreat of Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick Barbarossa who ruled the Holy Roman Empire from 1155 until 1190. The small river Lauter made the old section of Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
an island in medieval times. Ruins of Frederick's original castle, built 1152–1160, can still be seen in front of the Rathaus (city hall). A second castle, Nanstein Castle, was built at Landstuhl
Landstuhl
to guard the western approach to the city. Barbarossa's influence on Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
remains today, both in its nickname as a "Barbarossa city" and the open-mouthed pike on the city's coat of arms, reportedly his favorite dish.[citation needed] The Stiftkirche, Kaiserslautern's oldest church, was constructed in 1250–1350. As the population of Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
grew, King Rudolf von Habsburg chartered the town in 1276. St. Martin's Kirche (church) was built from 1300–1350 for an order of monks. Today a section of the original city wall still stands in the courtyard of the church. In 1375, the city of Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
was pledged to Electoral Palatinate and therefore became subsequently part of the Wittelsbach inheritance. Reformation[edit] In 1519, Franz von Sickingen
Franz von Sickingen
became the owner of Nanstein Castle. He became a Protestant, and in 1522 Nanstein was a stronghold for local nobles favouring the Reformation. Sickingen and the local nobles began their battle against the Archbishop of Trier; but the attack was unsuccessful, and they retreated to Nanstein. Nanstein was then besieged by cannon-armed German Catholic
Catholic
princes. Sickingen died after the castle surrendered, and the Protestant
Protestant
nobility of the Electoral Palatinate were subdued by the Catholic
Catholic
princes. Count
Count
of the Electoral Palatinate
Electoral Palatinate
Johann Casimir, came to Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
during the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
(1618–1648). Spanish occupation in 1621–1632 ended when Protestant
Protestant
Swedish armies liberated the area. In 1635, however, Croatian troops of the Austrian emperor's army entered Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
and killed 3,000 of the 3,200 residents in three days' plundering.[citation needed] Landstuhl
Landstuhl
was saved from a similar fate by surrendering without a fight. It took Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
about 160 years to repopulate itself. Conflict did not end with the Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
in 1648. The Elector of the Pfalz had difficulty with many of his subjects and ordered all castles, including Nanstein, destroyed. The French repeatedly invaded and occupied the area, residing in Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
in 1686–1697. Nevertheless, after the treaty of Utrecht it was restored to be part of the Palatinate. During the unquiet episodes in the 18th century, the Palatinate was the scene of fighting between French and German troops of different states. In 1713, the French destroyed Barbarossa's castle and the city's wall towers. From 1793 until Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo in 1815, the area was under French administration. Bavarian province[edit] As French power declined after 1815, Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
and the Palatinate became a Bavarian province and remained so until 1918. After World War I, French troops again occupied the Palatinate for several years. World War II[edit] In World War II, Allied bombing destroyed more than 60% of Kaiserslautern. The railway and several main roads were primary targets, with the heaviest attacks occurring on 7 January, 11 August, and 28 September 1944. On 20 March 1945, as the last of the 1st Army crossed the Rhine
Rhine
at Remagen, the U.S. 80th Division, 319th Infantry, part of the 3rd US Army, seized Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
without resistance. Little reconstruction took place until the currency reform of 1948. The pace of the economy remained slow until 1952, when construction for newly established garrisons of American troops brought economic growth to the area. Unexploded ordnance from WWII continues to be discovered in and around Kaiserslautern. In May 2012 an unexploded 250-pound Allied bomb was found, buried deeply and reportedly covered by water pipe, during a construction project in the downtown area of the city. On 5 September 2013, another WWII bomb was found during construction near the train station in Enkenbach-Alsenborn.

Largest groups of foreign residents

Nationality Population (2017)

 USA 15,985

 Turkey 3,047

 Portugal 3,034

 Poland 2,005

 Italy 916

 China 701

Climate[edit] Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
has a moderate climate with adequate rainfall year-round. It is classified as a "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate) by the Köppen Climate Classification system.[3]

Climate data for Kaiserslautern

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 4 (39) 5 (41) 10 (50) 13 (55) 19 (66) 22 (72) 25 (77) 25 (77) 20 (68) 15 (59) 9 (48) 5 (41) 14.3 (57.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 1.3 (34.3) 2.1 (35.8) 5.7 (42.3) 9.5 (49.1) 13.9 (57) 15.0 (59) 19.1 (66.4) 18.4 (65.1) 14.3 (57.7) 10.0 (50) 5.2 (41.4) 2.3 (36.1) 9.73 (49.52)

Average low °C (°F) −1 (30) −2 (28) 2 (36) 3 (37) 8 (46) 12 (54) 14 (57) 13 (55) 9 (48) 6 (43) 3 (37) 1 (34) 5.7 (42.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 65 (2.56) 59 (2.32) 65 (2.56) 53 (2.09) 69 (2.72) 64 (2.52) 64 (2.52) 63 (2.48) 59 (2.32) 74 (2.91) 66 (2.6) 81 (3.19) 782 (30.79)

Average precipitation days 18 15 13 15 14 14 15 14 13 14 16 17 178

Average relative humidity (%) 86 83 76 71 70 75 76 79 80 83 88 90 79.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 48 77 118 169 194 207 224 211 154 102 54 38 1,596

Source #1: Deutscher Wetterdienst [4]

Source #2: Wetterkontor [5]

Attractions[edit] Today, Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
is a modern centre of information and communications technology and home to a well-known university, a technical college and many international research institutes located throughout the city. The Palatine Gallery dates from 1874 featuring exhibits of painting and sculpture from the 19th century to the present day.

Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
Town Hall

Hauptbahnhof (Main Railway Station)

Town Hall Kaiserslautern
Town Hall Kaiserslautern
is one of the tallest buildings and is located in the city centre. The bar and coffee shop on the top floor provides a panoramic view of the city and surrounding countryside. The tallest building in the centre of Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
is St. Mary's, a Roman Catholic
Catholic
church, whilst the highest structure in all Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
is the television tower in the suburb of Dansenberg, southwest of the city centre. Kaiserslautern's large botanical gardens feature a Japanese-style garden. Another unusual feature is the Waschmühle (also known as "Wesch"), an enormous 160-metre public swimming pool that is the largest in Europe. There are several pedestrian only shopping zones with numerous and varied restaurants and bars located in the city centre surrounding the old city (Altstadt). In the Altstadt you will find the "Kaiserbrunnen", a large ornamental fountain with symbols of the city's history such as a sewing machine, as produced by the Pfaff company in the city, a football representing the city's football club and various animals that children can climb. Culture and sports[edit]

Fruchthalle

Fritz Walter Stadion, the stadium of 2. Bundesliga
2. Bundesliga
club 1. FC Kaiserslautern

Pfalztheater Kaiserslautern Local theatre Pfalztheater employs more than 300 people and features plays, operas, ballets, concerts, and musicals. The first German performance of West Side Story took place there. As the arts in Germany
Germany
are significantly subsidized by the government, its ticket prices are reasonably low. Pfalztheater Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
hosts the Else-Lasker-Schüler-Preis awards for German literature.

Pfalztheater Kaiserslautern

The Kammgarn The Kammgarn is classified as a historical site. It served as a spinning factory before being transformed into the cultural heart of Kaiserslautern. This renovation has preserved its historical character while incorporating the latest sound and lighting technologies. The Kammgarn stands among the top venues in Germany
Germany
and serves as a first-call club for rising groups and performers as well as established jazz, rock, blues and pop artists in Europe. Performances have included international stars B.B. King, Manfred Mann's Earth Band, Pat Metheny, Uriah Heep and Jan Garbarek. Gartenschau (Garden exhibition) Better known as the 'Dino Park' because of its lifesize dinosaur models, the Gartenschau is open from April through October and is popular with families. Having begun as a series of botanical displays and enjoying success at the first State Garden Exhibition of Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
in Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
in 2000, this 54-acre (220,000 m2) park has been transformed into one of the most multi-dimensional cultural centres in Germany. Fritz-Walter-Stadium The Fritz-Walter-Stadion
Fritz-Walter-Stadion
accommodates 48,500 football fans. In June 2006, after renovation, Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
was one of 12 German cities to host the 2006 FIFA World Cup. During the five matches played, the first goal ever from an Australian team in a Football World Cup match was scored (by Tim Cahill). Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
is also home to the Football team 1. FC Kaiserslautern, which achieved the title "Deutscher Meister" (German champions) four times and the wheelchair basketball team FCK Rolling Devils. Museums and libraries[edit]

Palatinate Gallery of Art Pfalzgalerie (artgallery, mainly pictures and sculptures from the 19th and 20th century) Wadgasserhof/ Theodor-Zink-Museum (local history) Stadtbibliothek (Municipal Library) Universitätsbibliothek (university library of Kaiserslautern) Hochschulbibliothek (Bibliothek of Fachhochschule) Pfalzbibliothek (scientific library with a main focus on the Electorate of the Palatinate
Electorate of the Palatinate
issues)

Nature[edit]

The Japanese Garden in the botanic gardens.

Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
is located in one of the largest contiguous forested areas in Central Europe, the Palatinate Forest, which offers numerous hiking trails and lakes to visitors. Other places of interest in Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
are:

The Humberg Tower, an observation tower on the Humberg hill which was built in 1900 and offers a great view over the Palatinate Forest Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
Zoo at Siegelbach Karlstal
Karlstal
(a whitewater canyon) Kaiserpfalz, the castle of emperor Barbarossa (Redbeard) Nanstein Castle, Landstuhl, a castle in the district Hohenecken Castle, in a suburb/ward of Kaiserslautern Gartenschau, a horticultural show, including the largest dinosaur show in the EU Quaidersberg
Quaidersberg
(394 metres or 1,293 feet), a hill and natural monument 500 metres (1,600 feet) outside the city The Japanischer Garten (Japanese Garden), the largest garden of its kind in Europe.

University in Kaiserslautern[edit]

The University of Kaiserslautern
University of Kaiserslautern
was founded on 13 July 1970. Earlier, it was part of the twin University of Trier/Kaiserslautern. It started with the departments of Mathematics, Physics
Physics
and Technology. Later many more faculties were added. Heinrich-Heine-Gymnasium University of Applied Sciences, Kaiserslautern
University of Applied Sciences, Kaiserslautern
was founded on 1971. The main departments including Applied Logistics & Polymer Sciences, Building and Design, Business Administration, Engineering and Computer Sciences / Microsystems Technology.

Research Centre in Kaiserslautern[edit]

German Research Centre for Artificial Intelligence

Religion[edit] Churches[edit] The largest church is St. Mary's (Marienkirche) - a Roman Catholic church. There is also the historic Protestant
Protestant
Church of the Apostle (Apostelkirche). Right at the heart of the city is the very large and old Stiftskirche (also Protestant). All three have very large pipe organs and occ concerts. The oldest house in town is the Spinnraedel, a guesthouse, only a few steps from the Stiftskirche in the centre of town. Mosques[edit] The city has two mosques. The first was built by the Turkish community living in the city. Another one built more recently is the Islamic Centre (which is an Arabic organization). Synagogue[edit] The city was once the site of the magnificent Moorish Revival Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
synagogue. Built in 1886, the synagogue's great dome could be seen from across the city. It was destroyed on 31 August 1938, a few months before Kristallnacht.[6] Businesses[edit] Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
has a broad-based commercial economy. Among the big companies located in the city are:

Adam Opel AG
Adam Opel AG
(engines and components factory) AMEC
AMEC
Earth & Environmental (Environmental Consulting and Engineering) Avid Technology
Technology
(formerly Blue-Order) Empolis GmbH (Content & Knowledge Management Software) General Dynamics
General Dynamics
European Land Systems- Germany
Germany
(until 2002 Eisenwerke Kaiserslautern; amphibious vehicles, mobile bridges for military use) IKEA John Deere
John Deere
Research and Development branch Johnson Controls, formerly Keiper (carseats) Pfaff
Pfaff
Industrie Maschinen AG (sewing machines) EuroMaint

US Military[edit]

1950 photograph of barracks in Kaiserslautern

Between 1950 and 1955, Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
developed into the largest US military community outside of the United States. For this reason Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
is also referred to as "K-town"; a term coined by the early American military population who had difficulty pronouncing the name. The Kaiserslautern Military Community (KMC) is a combined community consisting of Army and Air Force components. The KMC consists of Army facilities at Kleber, Panzer, and Dänner-Kaserne, Landstuhl, Miesau, Einsiedlerhof, Pirmasens, Sembach, Rhine
Rhine
Ordnance Barracks and Pulaski Barracks along with Air Force facilities located at Ramstein Air Base, Vogelweh, and Kapaun Air Station. International relations[edit] Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
is twinned with:[7]

Davenport, Iowa, United States[8] since 1960 Douzy, France
France
since 1967 Saint-Quentin, Aisne, France
France
since 1967 London Borough of Newham, UK since 1974 Bunkyo-ku, district of Tokyo, Japan
Japan
since 1988 Brandenburg
Brandenburg
an der Havel, Brandenburg, Germany
Germany
since 1988

Pleven, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
since 1999 Columbia, South Carolina, United States
United States
since 2000 Silkeborg, Denmark
Denmark
since 2000 Guimarães, Portugal
Portugal
since 2000 Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
since 2003[9]

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Notable residents[edit]

Ludwig Fischer
Ludwig Fischer
(1905–1947), German Nazi lawyer and government official executed for war crimes

See also[edit]

Betzenberg, a Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
district Betzenberg
Betzenberg
Wildlife Park

References[edit]

^ "Gemeinden in Deutschland mit Bevölkerung am 31. Dezember 2015" (PDF). Statistisches Bundesamt
Statistisches Bundesamt
(in German). 2016.  ^ "IMCOM Region Europe — Fact Sheets". U.S. Army Installation Management Command - Europe Region. Archived from the original on 2008-03-28.  ^ Climate Summary for Kaiserslautern ^ "Mittelwerte 30-jähriger Perioden". Retrieved May 31, 2013.  ^ "Klima Deutschland, Ramstein". Retrieved May 31, 2013.  ^ "synagogue KL". Kaiserslautern: Medienzentrum Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
- Aktuelles. Archived from the original on 2005-11-20.  ^ http://www.kaiserslautern.de/arbeit_bildung_wissenschaft/internationales_kaiserslautern/partnerstaedte/index.html.de ^ City
City
of Davenport, Iowa
Davenport, Iowa
Sister Cities Archived 2008-04-08 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Градови партнери [ City
City
of Banja Luka
Banja Luka
- Partner cities]. Administrative Office of the City
City
of Banja Luka
Banja Luka
(in Serbian). Archived from the original on 2011-09-17. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kaiserslautern.

Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website History of Kaiserslautern Website about some restaurant and festival reviews in and around K-Town

v t e

Important cities and tourist sites in Germany: Greater region of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
/ Rhine-Neckar–Palatinate

Major cities

Heidelberg Kaiserslautern Ludwigshafen Mannheim Neustadt Speyer Worms

Other touristic sites

Bad Dürkheim Bad Rappenau Buchen Eberbach Edenkoben Ladenburg Lorsch Mosbach Neckargemünd Sinsheim Weinheim Walldürn

Landscapes

German Wine Route Kurpfalz Neckar
Neckar
river Odenwald Palatinate Forest Rhine
Rhine
river

Neighboring areas

Germany

Frankfurt Heidelberg Karlsruhe Saarbrücken Stuttgart Trier Würzburg

France

Alsace Lorraine Wissembourg

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the State of Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
in Germany

Urban districts

Frankenthal Kaiserslautern Koblenz Landau Ludwigshafen Mainz Neustadt Pirmasens Speyer Trier Worms Zweibrücken

Rural districts

Ahrweiler Altenkirchen Alzey-Worms Bad Dürkheim Bad Kreuznach Bernkastel-Wittlich Birkenfeld Bitburg-Prüm Cochem-Zell Donnersbergkreis Germersheim Kaiserslautern Kusel Mainz-Bingen Mayen-Koblenz Neuwied Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis Rhein-Lahn-Kreis Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis Südliche Weinstraße Südwestpfalz Trier-Saarburg Vulkaneifel Westerwaldkreis

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 126315894 LCCN: n81108644 GN

.