KAILIS FORCED LABOR CAMP (kailis is Lithuanian for fur) was a Nazi
labor camp for Jews in
Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic ,
Lithuanian SSR ) during
World War II
World War II . It was based on a
pre-war fur and leather factory and mostly produced winter clothing
for the German military. At its peak, after the liquidation of the
Vilna Ghetto in September 1943, the camp housed about 1,500 Jews. The
camp was liquidated and its workers executed at Ponary on 3 July 1944,
just ten days before
Red Army captured the city .
* 1 Establishment
* 2 The "quiet period"
* 3 Liquidation
* 4 Notes
* 5 References
There were several fur and leather workshops and factories in
Vilnius, most of them owned by Jews. After the Soviet occupation in
June 1940, private enterprises were nationalized . The three fur
factories Furs, Nutria, and Ursus were consolidated and merged into
one fur factory. One factory was located behind the
Vilnius Town Hall
. Almost immediately after the German invasion of Russia in June
1941, the factory was given orders to produce winter clothing for the
Wehrmacht . Its director took measures to protect factory workers who
were mostly Jewish from the atrocities committed in the Vilna Ghetto
Ponary massacre . For example, on 9 September, the director
successfully petitioned the German administration to dedicate four
houses within the ghetto to workers of Kailis.
On 5 October 1941, the factory was moved to the larger premises of
the evacuated radio receiver factory
Elektrit . The move was arranged
by Oscar Glik, an Austrian Jew who managed to obtain Volksdeutsche
papers and later, in effect, became director of the factory. At the
time, the factory had 448 workers. Together with family members (a
total of about 800–1,000 people), they lived in two large buildings
at the factory site. It was a relatively safe place; the workers
were one of the first to receive work permits (known as yellow Schein)
that protected them from Aktions – round ups for executions at
Ponary . Ghetto inhabitants considered Kailis workers as "privileged"
and resented them.
THE "QUIET PERIOD"
A sample miniature fur jacket produced at Kailis
On 18 January 1942, the factory suffered a major fire. The cause is
not entirely clear. According to
Abraham Sutzkever , it was a sabotage
Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje (FPO), but Isaak Kowalski
stated that it was an accident. During the investigation, Germans
discovered that Glik was a Jew and executed him and his wife.
In May 1942, Germans conducted a census in the Generalbezirk Litauen
Reichskommissariat Ostland . The census counted 1,016 people
from 348 families at Kailis. 1942 was the "quiet period" which
provided an opportunity to establish some cultural life at the camp.
The Jews established a school for children, a small library, sports
competitions. The camp had its own Jewish police and clinic.
In August–September 1943,
Vilna Ghetto was liquidated and only the
Kailis and HKP 562 forced labor camps and two other small groups
remained in the city. The population of Kailis swelled up. Many Jews
used the camp as a temporary refuge before finding a better hideout or
Jewish partisans in the forests. According to Yitzhak Arad
, about 600 Jews passed through the camp. On 15 October, Bruno Kittel
conducted a thorough inspection of the camp and executed about 30 Jews
who could not account for their presence at the camp. The inspections
were carried out a few more times. In November, Kailis received a new
commander, SS-man Richter. He instituted a greater control of the camp
and compiled a list of its residents. The list contained about 1,350
names, though another 100 or so were too afraid to register.
On 27 March 1944, the camp's children under age 16 were rounded up in
an operation commanded by Martin Weiss . They were taken to the train
station; their further fate is not known. Without a concrete evidence
of their fate, various rumors spread. The Black Book published a
testimony that the children were taken to
Kraków where they were used
as blood and skin donors for injured German soldiers. On 20 April, 80
workers from Kailis were taken to Ponary to exhume and burn corpses
according to the
Sonderaktion 1005 . On 3 July 1944, remaining workers
of Kailis were rounded up, transported to Ponary, and executed. In
total, about 2,000–2,500 Jews from various camps were executed in
Ponary that day.
* ^ Nutria was located in Paupys district (present-day Paupio
* ^ The building is located on the corner of Didžioji st. and
Etmonų st. Before 2011, it had a dual address of Didžioji st. 29 and
Etmonų st. 1. In Polish, the street was known as ulica Hetmańska.
Elektrit was located at present-day Ševčenkos street. In
1941, it was Mortos Mindaugienės street. Before that it was named
Stanisław Szeptycki (ulica Generała Szeptyckiego).
* ^ The two blocks were at M. Mindaugienės st. 7/8 and M.
Mindaugienės st. 15.
* ^ The first was about 70 Jewish working at a military hospital in
Antakalnis and the second was about 60 Jews working for the Gestapo.
* ^ "Istorija" (in Lithuanian). AB "Vilniaus kailiai". 2010.
Archived from the original on 3 February 2003.
* ^ Žiugžda, Juozas (1972). Vilniaus miesto istorija nuo Spalio
revoliucijos iki dabartinių dienų (in Lithuanian). Mintis. p. 130.
OCLC 551459086 .
* ^ "Dėl adresų (Panevėžio g. 14/a. Jaroševičiaus g. 22 ir
kt.) keitimo Vilniaus miesto savivaldybėje, Naujininkų seniūnijoje.
Įsakymas Nr. A30-120" (in Lithuanian).
Vilnius City Municipality. 25
January 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
* ^ Shevelev, Igor (2007). Улицы Вильнюса. О
Вильнюсе (IN RUSSIAN). RETRIEVED 1 JULY 2017.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K Guzenberg, Irina (2 July 2008). "Vilniaus
geto darbo stovyklos ir 1942 m. gyventojų surašymas" (in
Lithuanian). The Vilna Gaon Jewish State Museum. Retrieved 1 July
* ^ Regelskis, Dalius (3 March 2015). "Slaptos T. Ševčenkos
loftų istorijos" (in Lithuanian). Mano namai. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
* ^ A B C D E F G Bubnys, Arūnas (2011). "Vilniaus žydų
žudynės ir Vilniaus getas". Holokaustas Lietuvoje 1941-1944 m. (in
Lithuanian). Lietuvos gyventojų genocido ir rezistencijos tyrimų
centras. pp. 41–42. ISBN 978-609-8037-13-5 .
* ^ A B Arad, Yitshak (1980). Ghetto in Flames: The Struggle and
Destruction of the Jews in Vilna in the Holocaust. Jerusalem: Yad
Vashem Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority. pp. 158, 443. OCLC
* ^ Ehrenburg, Ilya; Grossman, Vasily (2009). Patterson, David, ed.
The Complete Black Book of Russian Jewry (4th ed.). Transaction
Publishers. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-7658-0543-0 .
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* See also: Songs of the
* See also:
List of Lithuanian Righteous Among the Nations
* Police Battalions
Lithuanian Security Police
Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje
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* Kaunas 29 October 1941
Ninth Fort November 1941
HKP 562 forced labor camp
HKP 562 forced labor camp
* Kailis forced labor camp
* Occupation of
Lithuania by Nazi Germany
* History of the Jews in